Results for 'National Institutes of Health (US)'

27 found
Order:
  1.  5
    Stowaways in the History of Science: The Case of Simian Virus 40 and Clinical Research on Federal Prisoners at the US National Institutes of Health, 1960.Laura Stark & Nancy D. Campbell - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:218-230.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  75
    The Dedisciplining of Peer Review.Robert Frodeman & Adam Briggle - 2012 - Minerva 50 (1):3-19.
    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Weaving historical and conceptual narratives with analytical accounts, we describe the ways in which these two agencies (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  3.  22
    How IRBs View and Make Decisions About Coercion and Undue Influence.R. Klitzman - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):224.
    Introduction Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. Methods I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. Results IRBs wrestled with (...)
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  4.  3
    The Temporal Stage Fallacy: A Novel Statistical Fallacy in the Medical Literature. [REVIEW]David Shier & J. Lee Tilson - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (2):243-247.
    Celebrated for disproving the traditional view that lack of oxygen at birth (perinatal asphyxia) contributes significantly to cerebral palsy, a 1986 New England Journal of Medicine article by Karin Nelson and Jonas Ellenberg engineered a new consensus in the medical community: that lack of oxygen at birth rarely causes cerebral palsy. We demonstrate that the article's central argument relies on straightforwardly fallacious statistical reasoning, and we discuss significant implications -- e.g. how carefully fetuses are monitored during labor and delivery, expert (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  19
    Beyond the Line: Violence and the Objectification of the Karitiana Indigenous People as Extreme Other in Forensic Genetics.Mark Munsterhjelm - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (2):289-316.
    Utilizing social semiotic approaches, this article addresses how genetic researchers’ organizing narratives have involved extensive ontological and epistemological violence in their objectification Karitiana Indigenous people of Western Brazil. The paper analyses how genetic researchers have represented the Karitiana in the US and Canadian courts, post-9/11 forensic identification technology development, and patents. It also considers disputes over the sale of Karitiana cell lines by the US National Institutes of Health-funded Coriell Cell Repositories. These case studies reveal how the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  10
    Patterns of Infection and Patterns of Evolution: How a Malaria Parasite Brought “Monkeys and Man” Closer Together in the 1960s.Rachel Mason Dentinger - 2016 - Journal of the History of Biology 49 (2):359-395.
    In 1960, American parasitologist Don Eyles was unexpectedly infected with a malariaparasite isolated from a macaque. He and his supervisor, G. Robert Coatney of the National Institutes of Health, had started this series of experiments with the assumption that humans were not susceptible to “monkey malaria.” The revelation that a mosquito carrying a macaque parasite could infect a human raised a whole range of public health and biological questions. This paper follows Coatney’s team of parasitologists and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  7.  21
    Impact of Donor-Imposed Requirements and Restrictions on Standards of Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment in HIV Prevention Trials.S. Philpott, K. West Slevin, K. Shapiro & L. Heise - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (3):220-228.
    The number of women living with HIV/AIDS is increasing worldwide, and there is an urgent public health need to develop new user-initiated HIV prevention methods, including microbicides. Although funding for microbicide development has increased since 2000, financial support is provided predominantly by governmental agencies and private foundations. Many donors, including the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), have policies that restrict how research funds may be used. Among these (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  8.  5
    The Bermuda Triangle: The Pragmatics, Policies, and Principles for Data Sharing in the History of the Human Genome Project.Robert Cook-Deegan, Rachel Ankeny & Kathryn Maxson Jones - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (4):693-805.
    The Bermuda Principles for DNA sequence data sharing are an enduring legacy of the Human Genome Project. They were adopted by the HGP at a strategy meeting in Bermuda in February of 1996 and implemented in formal policies by early 1998, mandating daily release of HGP-funded DNA sequences into the public domain. The idea of daily sharing, we argue, emanated directly from strategies for large, goal-directed molecular biology projects first tested within the “community” of C. elegans researchers, and were introduced (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  37
    Arguing Along the Slippery Slope of Human Embryo Research.Jeanne Salmon Freeman - 1996 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (1):61-81.
    One frequent argument in the debate over federal funding of human embryo research is the slippery slope argument. Slope arguments can be of several types: either logical, empirical, or full (a combination of logical and empirical slope arguments, with an additional psychological premise). A full slope argument against human embryo research suggests that funding embryo reseach could undermine current protections for human subjects research, erode respect for persons with disabilities, and encourage eugenics practices. While the Panel commissioned by the (...) Institutes of Health to issue funding guidelines regarding human embryo research acknowledges some slippery slope concerns, the Panel's final report fails to address such concerns in any depth. Given this failure seriously to address these valid concerns, federal funding of embryo research should not proceed at this time. Keywords: embryo, human, slippery slope CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  13
    Selecting Subjects for Participation in Clinical Research: One Sphere of Justice.Charles Weijer - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (1):31-36.
    Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  3
    The Bermuda Triangle: The Pragmatics, Policies, and Principles for Data Sharing in the History of the Human Genome Project.Kathryn Maxson Jones, Rachel A. Ankeny & Robert Cook-Deegan - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (4):693-805.
    The Bermuda Principles for DNA sequence data sharing are an enduring legacy of the Human Genome Project. They were adopted by the HGP at a strategy meeting in Bermuda in February of 1996 and implemented in formal policies by early 1998, mandating daily release of HGP-funded DNA sequences into the public domain. The idea of daily sharing, we argue, emanated directly from strategies for large, goal-directed molecular biology projects first tested within the “community” of C. elegans researchers, and were introduced (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  28
    The Analysis and Interpretation of Experiments: Some Philosophical Issues.Edmond A. Murphy - 1982 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (4):307-326.
    The epistemology and ontology of experimentation are discussed in depth with special reference to biology and medicine. Two types of experiments are distinguished: exploratory (or "blazing") and consolidating. They Have objectives and canons that are strikingly different. A contrast is drawn between the literalism of the most pragmatic scientists and the formalism of most statisticians. The terms and notions of the one may have imperfect correspondence with those of the other, or perhaps none at all. The dangers are pointed out (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  15
    Impact of Donor-Imposed Requirements and Restrictions on Standards of Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment in HIV Prevention Trials.Sean Philpott, Katherine West Slevin, Katharine Shapiro & Lori Heise - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (3):220-228.
    The number of women living with HIV/AIDS is increasing worldwide, and there is an urgent public health need to develop new user-initiated HIV prevention methods, including microbicides. Although funding for microbicide development has increased since 2000, financial support is provided predominantly by governmental agencies and private foundations. Many donors, including the US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health, have policies that restrict how research funds may be used. Among these are the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  22
    Us Irbs Confronting Research in the Developing World.Robert L. Klitzman - 2012 - Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):63-73.
    Increasingly, US-sponsored research is carried out in developing countries, but how US Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) approach the challenges they then face is unclear.METHODS: I conducted in-depth interviews of about 2 hours each, with 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators and members. I contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs in the United States (US) (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 (55%).RESULTS: (...)
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  15.  20
    Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis.Michael J. Selgelid - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):923-964.
    Gain-of-function research involves experimentation that aims or is expected to increase the transmissibility and/or virulence of pathogens. Such research, when conducted by responsible scientists, usually aims to improve understanding of disease causing agents, their interaction with human hosts, and/or their potential to cause pandemics. The ultimate objective of such research is to better inform public health and preparedness efforts and/or development of medical countermeasures. Despite these important potential benefits, GOF research can pose risks regarding biosecurity and biosafety. In 2014 (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  16.  13
    The Role of Culture and Acculturation in Researchers’ Perceptions of Rules in Science.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):361-391.
    Successfully navigating the norms of a society is a complex task that involves recognizing diverse kinds of rules as well as the relative weight attached to them. In the United States, different kinds of rules—federal statutes and regulations, scientific norms, and professional ideals—guide the work of researchers. Penalties for violating these different kinds of rules and norms can range from the displeasure of peers to criminal sanctions. We proposed that it would be more difficult for researchers working in the U.S. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  17.  14
    Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall & John Gibbs - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):965-988.
    In the world of research, compliance with research regulations is not the same as ethics, but it is closely related. One could say that compliance is how most societies with advanced research programs operationalize many ethical obligations. This paper reports on the development of the How I Think about Research questionnaire, which is an adaptation of the How I Think questionnaire that examines the use of cognitive distortions to justify antisocial behaviors. Such an adaptation was justified based on a review (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  18.  34
    The Beginning of the End for Chimpanzee Experiments?Andrew Knight - 2008 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3:16-.
    The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  19.  29
    A Tale of Two Perspectives: Regulation Versus Self-Regulation. A Financial Reporting Approach (From Sarbanes–Oxley) for Research Ethics.Vincent Richman & Alex Richman - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):241-246.
    Reports of research fraud have raised concerns about research integrity similar to concerns raised about financial accounting fraud. We propose a departure from self-regulation in that researchers adopt the financial accounting approach in establishing trust through an external validation process, in addition to the reporting entities and the regulatory agencies. The general conceptual framework for reviewing financial reports, utilizes external auditors who are certified and objective in using established standards to provide an opinion on the financial reports. These standards have (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20.  24
    The Role of Humanities Policy in Public Science.Robert Frodeman - 2005 - Environmental Philosophy 2 (1):5-13.
    The relationship between philosophy and the community has become relevant again. It has been the government itself, in the form of public science agencies, which has turned to philosophy and the humanities for help, rather than vice versa. Since 1990, US federal science agencies * agencies such as the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation * have steadily increased their support of social science and humanities research. This support is all the more striking (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21.  9
    Responsible Conduct of Human Subjects Research in Islamic Communities.Aceil Al-Khatib & Michael Kalichman - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):463-476.
    In order to increase understanding of the ethical implications of biomedical, behavioral and clinical research, the Fogarty International Center, part of the United States National Institutes of Health, established an International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award to support programs in low- and middle-income countries. To develop research ethics expertise in Jordan, the University of California San Diego fellowship program in collaboration with Jordan University of Science and Technology provides courses that enable participants to develop skills (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  16
    Biodefence and the Production of Knowledge: Rethinking the Problem.A. Buchanan & M. C. Kelley - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):195-204.
    Next SectionBiodefence, broadly understood as efforts to prevent or mitigate the damage of a bioterrorist attack, raises a number of ethical issues, from the allocation of scarce biomedical research and public health funds, to the use of coercion in quarantine and other containment measures in the event of an outbreak. In response to the US bioterrorist attacks following September 11, significant US policy decisions were made to spur scientific enquiry in the name of biodefence. These decisions led to a (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  23.  26
    Women in Clinical Studies: A Feminist View.Susan Sherwin - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (4):533.
    There is significant evidence that the health needs of women and minorities have been neglected by a medical research community whose agendas and protocols tend to focus on more advantaged segments of society. In response, the National Institutes of Health and Food and Drug Administration in the United States have recently issued new policies aimed at increasing the utilization of women in clinical studies. As well, the U.S. Congress passed the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993, which (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  35
    Economic Perspectives on Bioethics.John A. Baden - 1993 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (4):389-397.
    Wendell Stephenson argues in this issue of The journal that the National Institutes of Health's standards for the treatment of laboratory animals fail to give any guidance concerning human well-being nor do they balance human well-being and animal well-being. Stephenson fails, however, to demonstrate how such a balance is to be known. In arguing for reform he implies greater state control without showing that such control would improve the situation. Indeed there are good reasons to think that (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  31
    The Need for New Ontologies in Psychiatry.Robyn Bluhm - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (2):146-159.
    Although researchers in psychiatry have been trying for decades to elucidate the pathophysiology underlying mental disorders, relatively little progress has been made. One explanation for this failure is that diagnostic categories in psychiatry are unlikely to track underlying neurological mechanisms. Because of this, the US National Institutes of Mental Health has recently developed a novel ontology to guide research in biological psychiatry: the Research Domain Criteria. In this paper, I argue that while RDoC may lead to better (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  26.  60
    “You Are Our Only Hope”: Trading Metaphorical “Magic Bullets” for Stem Cell “Superheroes”.Lawrence Burns - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (6):427-442.
    In the wake of two recent developments in stem cell research, it is a fitting time to reassess the claim that stem cells will radically transform the concept and function of medicine. The first is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s decision in January 2009 to approve Geron Corporation’s Phase I clinical trial using human embryonic stem cells for patients with spinal cord injuries. The second is the National Institutes of Health’s decision to permit federal funding of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  3
    What Is Bioethics Worth?Mildred Z. Solomon - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (5):44-46.
    What is bioethics to do when it strives to assess the quality of its research and scholarship and when it needs to justify its work to prospective funders, especially a funder like the National Institutes of Health that privileges empirical discovery? In “A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship,” Debra Mathews and colleagues take an important first step at advancing an answer. The authors describe what they call a translational process, whereby bioethics “outputs” (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark