Results for 'Natural rights'

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  1.  18
    Are There Natural Rights?--Hegel's Break with Kant.Mark Tunick - 1994 - In Ardis Collins (ed.), Hegel on the Modern World. SUNY Press.
    Hegel criticizes Kant's categorical imperative and what he takes to be Kant's social contract theory of political obligation, but these criticisms miss the mark, for Kant is not really a consent theorist, nor is his categorical imperative empty. The most distinct break Hegel makes with Kant's philosophy of right is rather his rejection of a theory of natural rights, a theory central to Kant's Metaphysics of Morals. While Hegel offers a theory of natural right in some sense, (...)
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  2.  33
    Natural Rights and Roman Law in Hugo Grotius's Theses LVI, De Iure Praedae and Defensio Capitis Quinti Maris Liberi.Benjamin Straumann - 2007 - Grotiana 26 (1):341-365.
    Roman property law and Roman contract law as well as the property centered Roman ethics put forth by Cicero in several of his works were the traditions Grotius drew upon in developing his natural rights system. While both the medieval just war tradition and Grotius's immediate political context deserve scholarly attention and constitute important influences on Grotius's natural law tenets, it is a Roman tradition of subjective legal remedies and of just war which lays claim to a (...)
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  3.  8
    Are There Natural Rights?Mark Tunick - 1995 - Proceedings of the Hegel Society of America 12:219-235.
    Hegel criticizes Kant's categorical imperative and what he takes to be Kant's social contract theory of political obligation, but these criticisms miss the mark, for Kant is not really a consent theorist, nor is his categorical imperative empty. The most distinct break Hegel makes with Kant's philosophy of right is rather his rejection of a theory of natural rights, a theory central to Kant's Metaphysics of Morals. While Hegel offers a theory of natural right in some sense, (...)
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  4.  51
    Natural Rights Liberalism From Locke to Nozick.Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred Dycus Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.) - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays is dedicated to the memory of the late Harvard philosopher Robert Nozick, who died in 2002. The publication of Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974 revived serious interest in natural rights liberalism, which, beginning in the latter half of the eighteenth century, had been eclipsed by a succession of antithetical political theories including utilitarianism, progressivism, and various egalitarian and collectivist ideologies. Some of our contributors critique Nozick's political philosophy. Other contributors examine earlier figures (...)
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  5.  43
    Natural Intellectual Property Rights and the Public Domain.Hugh Breakey - 2010 - Modern Law Review 73 (2):208-239.
    No natural rights theory justifies strong intellectual property rights. More specifically, no theory within the entire domain of natural rights thinking – encompassing classical liberalism, libertarianism and left-libertarianism, in all their innumerable variants – coherently supports strengthening current intellectual property rights. Despite their many important differences, all these natural rights theories endorse some set of members of a common family of basic ethical precepts. These commitments include non-interference, fairness, non-worsening, consistency, universalisability, prior (...)
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  6.  32
    The Natural Rights Basis of Aristotelian Education.Christopher Vasillopulos - 2011 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (1):19-36.
  7.  94
    Does He Pull It Off? A Theistic Grounding of Natural Inherent Human Rights?Richard J. Bernstein - 2009 - Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (2):221-241.
    This paper focuses on two key issues in Nicholas Wolterstorff's Justice: Rights and Wrongs . It argues that Wolterstorff's theistic grounding of inherent rights is not successful. It also argues that Wolterstorff does not provide adequate criteria for determining what exactly these natural inherent rights are or criteria that can help us to evaluate competing and contradictory claims about these rights. However, most of Wolterstorff's book is not concerned with the theistic grounding of inherent (...). Instead, it is devoted to a detailed and rigorous articulation of the meaning and defense of a theory of justice as consisting of inherent rights and with showing why this theory of justice is superior to the alternative right order theories that Wolterstorff criticizes. The paper concludes that these accomplishments are not diminished even if Wolterstorff has failed to provide us with a satisfactory theistic grounding of his theory. (shrink)
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  8.  62
    Natural Law and Natural Rights.John Finnis - 1980 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Natural Law and Natural Rights is widely recognised as a seminal contribution to the philosophy of law, and an essential reference point for all students of the subject. This new edition includes a substantial postscript by the author responding to thirty years of comment, criticism, and further work in the field.
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  9. Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development.Richard Tuck - 1979 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book shows how political argument in terms of rights and natural rights began in medieval Europe, and how the theory of natural rights was developed in the seventeenth century after a period of neglect in the Renaissance. Dr Tuck provides a new understanding of the importance of Jean Gerson in the formation of the theories, and of Hugo Grotius in their development; he also restores the Englishman John Selden's ideas to the prominence they once (...)
  10. Property Rights, Future Generations and the Destruction and Degradation of Natural Resources.Dan Dennis - 2015 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 2 (1):107-139.
    The paper argues that members of future generations have an entitlement to natural resources equal to ours. Therefore, if a currently living individual destroys or degrades natural resources then he must pay compensation to members of future generations. This compensation takes the form of “primary goods” which will be valued by members of future generations as equally useful for promoting the good life as the natural resources they have been deprived of. As a result of this policy, (...)
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  11.  53
    Natural Law, Laws of Nature, Natural Rights: Continuity and Discontinuity in the History of Ideas.Francis Oakley - 2005 - Continuum.
    Metaphysical schemata and intellectual traditions -- Laws of nature : the scientific concept -- Natural law : disputed moments of transition -- Natural rights : origins and grounding.
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  12.  13
    Natural Rights and the New Republicanism.Michael P. Zuckert - 1998 - Princeton University Press.
    In Natural Rights and the New Republicanism, Michael Zuckert proposes a new view of the political philosophy that lay behind the founding of the United States.
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  13. Natural Law, Religion, and Rights: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Natural Law and Natural Rights, with Special Emphasis on the Teachings of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.Henrik Syse - 2007 - St. Augustine's Press.
    The Euthyphro problem and the natural law : an investigation of some aspects of the medieval debate on natural law -- Aristotle : natural law and man in the "metaxy" -- St. Thomas Aquinas : the "lex naturalis" -- Thomas Hobbes : The state of nature and natural rights -- John Locke : natural law, natural rights and God -- Concluding remarks and a heavenly dialogue.
     
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  14. Human Rights, Natural Rights, And Europe’s Imperial Legacy.Anthony Pagden - 2003 - Philosophy Today 31 (2):171-199.
    The author argues the concept of human rights is a development of the older notion of natural rights and that the modern understanding of natural rights evolved in the context of the European struggle to legitimate its overseas empires. The French Revolution changed this by, in effect, linking human rights to the idea of citizenship. Human rights were thus tied not only to a specific ethical-legal code but also implicitly to a particular kind (...)
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  15.  9
    Ironic Animals: Bestiaries, Moral Harmonies, and the ‘Ridiculous’ Source of Natural Rights.Mario Ricca - 2018 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 31 (3):595-620.
    The Bible recounts that in Eden, Adam gives names to all the animals. But those names are not only representations of the animals’ nature, rather they shape and constitute it. The naming by Adam contains in itself the divide between the human and non-human. Then, there is the Fall: Adam falls and forgets Being. Though he may still remember the names he gave to the animals in Eden, he is no longer sure about their meaning. Adam will have to try (...)
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  16. Religion, Sovereignty, Natural Rights, and the Constituent Elements of Experience.Jordan B. Peterson - 2006 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie 28 (1):135-180.
    It is commonly held that the idea of natural rights originated with the ancient Greeks, and was given full form by more modern philosophers such as John Locke, who believed that natural rights were apprehensible primarily to reason. The problem with this broad position is three-fold: first, it is predicated on the presumption that the idea of rights is modern, biologically speaking ; second, it makes it appear that reason and rights are integrally, even (...)
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  17. Toward a Theory of Empirical Natural Rights.John Hasnas - 2005 - Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):111-147.
    Natural rights theorists such as John Locke and Robert Nozick provide arguments for limited government that are grounded on the individual's possession of natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Resting on natural rights, such arguments can be no more persuasive than the underlying arguments for the existence of such rights, which are notoriously weak. In this article, John Hasnas offers an alternative conception of natural rights, “empirical natural rights,” (...)
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  18.  47
    Are There Natural Rights in Aristotle?Richard Kraut - 1996 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (4):755 - 774.
    Before going any further, something should be said about the word "natural" that appears in my title. Miller distinguishes two ways in which rights can be called natural, and holds that Aristotle recognizes natural rights in one sense but not the other. First, "natural" can be contrasted with "conventional," "legal," and "customary." This is the familiar distinction the Greeks made between physis and nomos. Aristotle makes use of the distinction when he contrasts natural (...)
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  19.  66
    The Influence of Utilitarianism on Natural Rights Doctrines: Gregory I. Molivas.Gregory I. Molivas - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (2):183-202.
    This paper shows that the perceived difference between utilitarianism and natural rights theories in the eighteenth century was much less sharp than that in the twentieth century. This is demonstrated by exploring Josiah Tucker's critique of Locke and his disciples and the way in which the latter responded to it. Tucker's critique of Locke was based on a sharp distinction between a conception of natural rights as individual entitlements and the conception of the public good. The (...)
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  20. Natural Rights to Welfare.Siegfried Van Duffel - 2013 - European Journal of Philosophy 21 (4):641-664.
    : Many people have lamented the proliferation of human rights claims. The cure for this problem, it may be thought, would be to develop a theory that can distinguish ‘real’ from ‘supposed’ human rights. I argue, however, that the proliferation of human rights mirrors a deep problem in human rights theory itself. Contemporary theories of natural rights to welfare are historical descendants from a theory of rights to subsistence which was developed in twelfth-century (...)
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  21.  40
    The Conventionalist Challenge to Natural Rights Theory.Ben Bryan - 2017 - Social Theory and Practice 43 (3):569-587.
    Call the conventionalist challenge to natural rights theory the claim that natural rights theory fails to capture the fact that moral rights are shaped by social and legal convention. While the conventionalist challenge is a natural concern, it is less than clear what this challenge amounts to. This paper aims to develop a clear formulation strong enough to put pressure on the natural rights theorist and precise enough to clarify what an adequate (...)
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  22.  13
    The Republicanism of John Milton: Natural Rights, Civic Virtue and the Dignity of Man.Christopher Hamel - 2013 - History of Political Thought 34 (1):35-63.
    This article considers the connection between Milton's republicanism and his use of natural rights language. Based on Milton's understanding of man's dignity, it claims that natural rights and civic virtue are articulated consistently. Inextricably linked to his being created free, the dignity of man is central both in the description of the birth of political society and in the defence of the inalienable right to liberty against tyrannical government. Thus, while not an end in itself, civic (...)
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  23. Natural Rights and Individual Sovereignty.Siegfried Van Duffel - 2004 - Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (2):147–162.
    TO assert that one should come to terms with the past if one wants to understand the present would be to underline the obvious. And yet, even though we know much more of the history of natural rights theories now, especially of the origin of these theories before the seventeenth century, than we did, say, twenty years ago, this increase in knowledge seems to have had little impact on contemporary philosophical discussions about the nature of rights. Sometimes (...)
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  24. Natural Rights and Political Legitimacy.Christopher W. Morris - 2005 - Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):314-329.
    If we have a natural right to liberty, it is hard to see how a state could be legitimate without first obtaining the (genuine) consent of the governed. I consider the threat natural rights pose to state legitimacy. I distinguish minimal from full legitimacy and explore different understandings of the nature of our natural rights. Even though I conclude that natural rights do threaten the full legitimacy of states, I suggest that understanding our (...)
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  25.  36
    The Politics of the Book: The French Revolution and the Demise of Natural Rights Theory.Stuart D. Warner - 1990 - Philosophy and Theology 4 (3):223-252.
    The principal object of Ihis essay is to elucidate some of the story of how a theory that was so entrenched in the minds of intellectuals, namely, natural rights theory, fell so out of favor. This is the story of how the terror, fear, and destruction that became part of the French Revolution was laid at the feet of natural rights theory by three powerful figures: Burke, Bentham, and Hegel. It was these three figures, more than (...)
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  26.  53
    Scanlon as Natural Rights Theorist.Eric Mack - 2007 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):45-73.
    This article examines the character of Scanlon’s contractualism as presented in What We Owe to Each Other . I offer a range of reasons for thinking of Scanlon’s contractualism as a species of natural rights theorizing. I argue that to affirm the principle that actions are wrongful if and only if they are disallowed by principles that people could not reasonably reject is equivalent to affirming a natural right (of an admittedly non-standard sort) against being subject to (...)
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  27.  32
    Moral Psychological Aspects in William of Ockham’s Theory of Natural Rights.Virpi Mäkinen - 2012 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (3):507-525.
    Ockham’s theory of natural rights was based on a careful definition of the basic juridical terms dominium and ius utendi, as well as on the idea of human agency and morality. By defining a right as a licit power of action in accordance with right reason, Ockham placed rights firmly in the agent. A right was a subjective power of action. Ockham’s theory of natural rights was influential for later natural rights theories. Its (...)
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  28.  72
    The Groundlessness of Natural Rights.Ingmar Persson - 1994 - Utilitas 6 (1):9.
    Today talk of rights is very much in vogue both in philosophical and popular ethics; so much so that it is common to find even philosophers unabashedly going straight to discussing what rights we have without touching on what their foundation might be. This is so in spite of there being a time-honoured tradition of scepticism about rights, conceived as ‘natural’ ones, going back at least to Jeremy Bentham. The present paper is intended as a contribution (...)
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  29.  57
    Natural Rights Human Rights and the Role of Social Recognition.Rex Martin - 2011 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 17 (1):91-115.
    This paper pays special attention to T.H. Green's account of rights as developed in the Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation. Green's theory can be viewed as having at least two main levels. The first level is his general account of rights, emphasizing the notions of social recognition, of a power or capacity that each right-holder has, and of the common good subserved by proper rights. The second level is that of universal rights; here special (...)
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  30.  48
    Aristotle's Place in the History of Natural Rights.A. S. McGrade - 1996 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (4):803 - 829.
    Not everyone agreed with Barker when he wrote those words. Few students of the Politics would agree with him today. Disagreement comes from different sides. On one hand--the "rights" hand, one might call it--Karl Popper argued in 1945 in The Open Society and its Enemies that Aristotle's essentialism was less interesting than Platonism but equally congenial to modern totalitarianism. On the other hand--call it the "anti-rights" hand --scholars such as Alasdair MacIntyre and the legal historian Michel Villey would (...)
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  31. John Locke: Natural Rights And Natural Duties.Gary Herbert - 1996 - Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 4.
    The political problem John Locke inherited from Thomas Hobbes was to produce a theory of natural rights that would not preclude the possibility of entering peacefully into civil association. If political existence is grounded on an unmediated theory of natural right, where every individual has a natural right to whatever he or she conceives to be useful in assuring his or her preservation, and where there are no moral limits to what one's rights will justify, (...)
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  32.  56
    Medieval Theories of Natural Rights.John Kilcullen - unknown
    From the 12 th century onwards, medieval canon lawyers and, from the early 14 th century, theologians and philosophers began to use ius to mean a right, and developed a theory of natural rights, the predecessor of modern theories of human rights. The main applications of this theory were in respect of property and government.
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  33.  55
    Natural Rights and Imperial Constitutionalism: The American Revolution and the Development of the American Amalgam.Michael Zuckert - 2005 - Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):27-55.
    Robert Nozick worked in a Lockean tradition of political philosophy, a tradition with deep resonance in the American political culture. This paper attempts to explore the formative moments of that culture and at the same time to clarify the role of Lockean philosophy in the American Revolution. One of the currently dominant approaches to the revolution emphasizes the colonists' commitments to their rights, but identifies the relevant rights as “the rights of Englishmen,” not natural rights (...)
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  34.  45
    Ethical Individualism, Natural Law, and the Primacy of Natural Rights.Douglas J. Den Uyl & Douglas B. Rasmussen - 2001 - Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (1):34-69.
    Whether or not Strauss's observation is historically accurate, it does suggest two sets of questions for philosophical examination. (1) Is Strauss correct to view natural duties and natural rights as the same type of ethical concept? Do they serve the same function? Do they work on the same level, and are they necessarily in competition with each other? (2) Does saying that the individual human being is the center of the moral world require that one reject the (...)
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  35.  36
    Natural Rights Liberalism.Tibor R. Machan - 1990 - Philosophy and Theology 4 (3):253-265.
    Classical Iiberalism has at least two distinct strains. Its natural rights version requires extensive use of moral concepts. Some denigrate this tradition on grounds that it has been made obsolete by empiricist epistemology and materialist metaphysics. Since that tradition requires knowledge of moral truth and since empiricism precludes this, the tradition is hopeless. Since it also requires a teleological explanation of human action, and since mechanism precludes this, the hopelessness of the tradition is compounded. I argue that neither (...)
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  36.  16
    Natural Law and Natural Rights.Thomas Mautner - 2013 - In Peter R. Anstey (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century. Oxford University Press. pp. 472.
    This chapter, which analyzes the conception of natural laws and natural rights in Great Britain during the seventeenth century, suggests that the widely held belief that rights depend for their existence on being granted by law is not true, and that the opposite is arguably closer to the truth. It also explores the writings on politics and religion during this period that mentioned natural laws and rights.
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  37.  18
    Civil Power and Natural Rights of the Indigenous Peoples of the New World according to Fray Alonso de la Veracruz.Manuel Méndez Alonzo - 2013 - Ideas Y Valores 62 (151):195-213.
    El presente trabajo investiga las tesis sobre el poder civil de Alonso de la Veracruz que buscan incorporar en la comunidad política española a los habitantes autóctonos del Nuevo Mundo, tesis que suelen relacionarse con F. de Vitoria y el tomismo español, y que últimamente son consideradas parte del republicanismo novohispano elaborado desde la periferia americana. Se busca demostrar que su propósito era aplicar una teoría de derechos naturales, sin que ello implique participación política de los indios americanos. Se analiza (...)
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  38.  7
    Natural Law and Natural Rights: Bastiat Vindicated.Douglas B. Rasmussen - 2001 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 11 (2).
    Bastiat claims that the individual rights to life, liberty, and property are natural rights. Further, he claims that these natural rights are a matter of natural law and are not mere conventions. However, he never offers a detailed account of the connection between natural law and natural rights. By outlining a neo-Aristotelian theory of natural law that consists of two poles—an individualized vision of human flourishing and a conception of individual (...)
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  39.  7
    From Natural Law to Natural Rights? Protestant Dissent and Toleration in the Late Eighteenth Century.Martin Hugh Fitzpatrick - 2016 - History of European Ideas 42 (2).
    SummaryThe toleration gained by Protestant Dissenters, the Toleration Act of 1689, was far from comprehensive. It insisted that Dissenting authorities should subscribe to the doctrinal articles of the Church of England. It suspended anti-Dissent legislation rather than repealing it and the sacramental requirement for civil officials remained in place. The situation of Dissent under the law was ambiguous and, at least in theory, the freedom of worship gained under the act was incomplete. This article examines Dissenter attempts to clarify their (...)
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  40.  7
    From Religion to Politics: The Expression of Opinion as the Common Ground Between Religious Liberty and Political Participation in the Eighteenth-Century Conception of Natural Rights.G. Molivas - 2000 - History of Political Thought 21 (2):237-260.
    Although there has been growing awareness among historians of ideas of a close relationship between eighteenth-century religious and political argument, there is still no clear understanding of this kind of relationship. Despite its historical plausibility, the transition from religious to political thinking encounters serious logical obstacles stemming mainly from the traditional distinction between spiritual and temporal matters. This distinction, as articulated in the initial attempts to establish religious toleration, would make it untenable to extend arguments in defence of religious liberty (...)
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  41. Natural Rights Individualism and Progressivism in American Political Philosophy: Volume 29, Part 2.Ellen Frankel Paul, Jeffrey Paul & Miller Jr (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this collection investigate two political traditions and their critical interactions. The first series of essays deals with the development of natural rights individualism, some examining its origins in the thought of the seminal political theorist, John Locke, and the influential constitutional theorist, Montesquieu, others the impact of their theories on intellectual leaders during the American Revolution and the Founding era, and still others the culmination of this tradition in the writings of nineteenth-century individualists such as (...)
     
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  42. Natural Rights Liberalism From Locke to Nozick: Volume 22, Part 1.Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays is dedicated to the memory of the late Harvard philosopher Robert Nozick, who died in 2002. The publication of Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974 revived serious interest in natural rights liberalism, which, beginning in the latter half of the eighteenth century, had been eclipsed by a succession of antithetical political theories including utilitarianism, progressivism, and various egalitarian and collectivist ideologies. Some of our contributors critique Nozick's political philosophy. Other contributors examine earlier figures (...)
     
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  43.  8
    The Foundations of Natural Morality: On the Compatibility of Natural Rights and the Natural Law.S. Adam Seagrave - 2014 - University of Chicago Press.
    Recent years have seen a renaissance of interest in the relationship between natural law and natural rights. During this time, the concept of natural rights has served as a conceptual lightning rod, either strengthening or severing the bond between traditional natural law and contemporary human rights. Does the concept of natural rights have the natural law as its foundation or are the two ideas, as Leo Strauss argued, profoundly incompatible? With (...)
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  44. Natural Law and Natural Rights.John Finnis - 1979 - Oxford University Press.
    This new edition includes a substantial postscript by the author, in which he responds to thirty years of discussion, criticism and further work in the field to ...
  45.  50
    Metaphysics and Modernity: Natural Law and Natural Rights in Gershom Carmichael and Francis Hutcheson.Samuel Gregg - 2009 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (1):87-102.
    This paper argues that the founding fathers of the tradition of Scottish Enlightenment natural jurisprudence, Gersholm Carmichael (1672–1729) and Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746), articulated a view of rights that is pertinent to the contemporary dominance of the language of rights. Maintaining a metaphysical foundation for rights while drawing upon the early-modern Protestant natural law tradition, their conception of rights is more significantly indebted to the pre-modern scholastic natural law tradition than often realized. This is (...)
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  46.  18
    Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development.B. H. G. - 1981 - Review of Metaphysics 34 (4):810-811.
    Richard Tuck’s book reconstructs the historical debate that led ultimately to the modern concept of natural right. His study has the virtue of supplying a critical perspective often missing in the current controversy over the nature and status of rights.
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  47.  40
    The Critique of Natural Rights and the Search for a Non-Anthropocentric Basis for Moral Behavior.Michael E. Zimmerman - 1985 - Journal of Value Inquiry 19 (1):43-53.
    MacIntyre, Clark, and Heidegger would all agree that the current problem with moral theory is its lack of a satisfactory conception of human telos. This lack leads us to resort to such fictions as rights, interests, and utility, which are “disguises for the will to power.” Ibid., p. 240. These thinkers would also agree that modern nation-states are cut off from the roots of the Western tradition. Modern political economy, with “its individualism, its acquisitiveness and its elevation of the (...)
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  48.  10
    American Ideals 35. Natural Rights.Milton R. Konvitz - unknown
    In the Second Treatise on Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke spells out the hitherto only implied concept of human rights presumed by the concept of natural law. These include the right of property, which is derived from what is removed from the state of nature by the work of man’s body and his hands. To protect this property and to govern other aspects of human relationships and rights, civil society is established. Professor Konvitz explains the (...)
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  49.  3
    Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development. [REVIEW]B. H. G. - 1981 - Review of Metaphysics 34 (4):810-811.
    Richard Tuck’s book reconstructs the historical debate that led ultimately to the modern concept of natural right. His study has the virtue of supplying a critical perspective often missing in the current controversy over the nature and status of rights.
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  50. Origins of Natural Rights Language-Texts and Contexts, 1150-1250.Brian Tierney - 1989 - History of Political Thought 10 (4):615-646.
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