Results for 'Natural theology'

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  1. Natural Theology.William Paley - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
  2. Natural Theology, Evidence, and Epistemic Humility.Trent Dougherty & Brandon Rickabaugh - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):19-42.
    One not infrequently hears rumors that the robust practice of natural theology reeks of epistemic pride. Paul Moser’s is a paradigm of such contempt. In this paper we defend the robust practice of natural theology from the charge of epistemic pride. In taking an essentially Thomistic approach, we argue that the evidence of natural theology should be understood as a species of God’s general self-revelation. Thus, an honest assessment of that evidence need not be (...)
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  3. Negative Natural Theology and the Sinlessness, Incarnation, and Resurrection of Jesus.Robert Greg Cavin & Carlos A. Colombetti - 2014 - Philosophia Christi 16 (2):409-418.
    We respond to Swinburne’s reply to our critique of his argument for the Resurrection by defending the relevance of our counterexamples to his claim that God does not permit grand deception. We reaffirm and clarify our charge that Swinburne ignores two crucial items of Negative Natural Theology (NNT)—that God has an exceptionally weak tendency to raise the dead and that even people with exemplary public records sometimes sin. We show, accordingly, that our total evidence makes it highly probable (...)
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  4. A Natural History of Natural Theology. The Cognitive Science of Theology and Philosophy of Religion.Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt - 2015 - MIT Press.
    [from the publisher's website] Questions about the existence and attributes of God form the subject matter of natural theology, which seeks to gain knowledge of the divine by relying on reason and experience of the world. Arguments in natural theology rely largely on intuitions and inferences that seem natural to us, occurring spontaneously—at the sight of a beautiful landscape, perhaps, or in wonderment at the complexity of the cosmos—even to a nonphilosopher. In this book, Helen (...)
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  5.  35
    Natural Theology and the Plurality of Worlds: Observations on the Brewster-Whewell Debate.John Hedley Brooke - 1977 - Annals of Science 34 (3):221-286.
    Summary The object of this study is to analyse certain aspects of the debate between David Brewster and William Whewell concerning the probability of extra-terrestrial life, in order to illustrate the nature, constitution and condition of natural theology in the decades immediately preceding the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's Origin of species. The argument is directed against a stylised picture of natural theology which has been drawn from a backward projection of the Darwinian antithesis between (...)
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  6.  19
    William Whewell, Natural Theology and the Philosophy of Science in Mid Nineteenth Century Britain.Richard R. Yeo - 1979 - Annals of Science 36 (5):493-516.
    (1979). William Whewell, natural theology and the philosophy of science in mid nineteenth century Britain. Annals of Science: Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 493-516.
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  7.  12
    Natural Theology and the Evidence for God.Paul K. Moser - 2012 - Philosophia Christi 14 (2):305-311.
    This essay replies to the responses of Harold Netland, Charles Taliaferro, and Kate Waidler to my symposium paper, “Gethsemane Epistemology.” It contends that a God worthy of worship would not need the arguments of traditional natural theology, and that such arguments would not lead to such a God in the way desired by God. In addition, it explains why Paul’s position in Romans 1 offers no support to the arguments of traditional natural theology.
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  8. Natural Theology and the Uses of Argument.John M. DePoe & Timothy J. McGrew - 2013 - Philosophia Christi 15 (2):299-309.
    Arguments in natural theology have recently increased in their number and level of sophistication. However, there has not been much analysis of the ways in which these arguments should be evaluated as good, taken collectively or individually. After providing an overview of some proposed goals and good-making criteria for arguments in natural theology, we provide an analysis that stands as a corrective to some of the ill-formed standards that are currently in circulation. Specifically, our analysis focuses (...)
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  9.  23
    A Natural Theology for Our Time.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1967 - Philosophical Review 78 (1):129-131.
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  10.  46
    A Perspective on Natural Theology From Continental Philosophy.Avoidance of Natural Theology - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up.
  11.  34
    Postmodernism and Natural Theology.of Natural Theology - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up.
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  12.  47
    Natural Theology in the Middle Ages.Alexander W. Hall - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 350--57.
    The development of natural theology in the Middle Ages was driven by the rebirth experienced by Western Europe beginning in the 1000s owing to the emergence of stable monarchies and reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula. This expansion gave scholars access to the vast libraries of scientific and philosophical literature held in Arabic cultural centres – libraries that contained Aristotelian works on natural, ethical, and metaphysical sciences, which had for centuries been lost to the Latin West. The new (...)
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  13.  32
    The Uses of Natural Theology in Seventeenth-Century England.Scott Mandelbrote - 2007 - Science in Context 20 (3):451-480.
    This essay describes two styles of natural theology that emerged in England out of a debate over the correct interpretation of divine evidences in nature during the seventeenth century. The first style was exemplified in the work of John Wilkins and Robert Boyle. It stressed the lawful operation of the universe under a providential order. The second, embodied in the writings of the Cambridge Platonists, was more open to evidence for the wondrousness of nature provided by the marvelous (...)
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  14.  40
    Natural Theology and the Eastern Orthodox Tradition.Christopher C. Knight - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 213.
    This chapter examines Eastern Orthodox perspectives on natural theology. The discussions cover the classical roots Orthodox understanding of knowledge of God; worship and eschatology; creation and the limits of natural theology; panentheism and the structure of theophany; and science and theology in Orthodoxy.
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  15.  63
    Natural Theology, Its “Dwindling Probabilities” and “Lack of Rapport”.Richard Swinburne - 2004 - Faith and Philosophy 21 (4):533 - 546.
    This paper comments on the other papers in this special issue of ’Faith and Philosophy’ on natural theology. It claims that most people today need both bare natural theology (to show that there is a God) and ramified natural theology (to establish detailed doctrinal claims), and that Christian tradition has generally claimed that cogent arguments of natural theology (of both kinds) are available. Plantinga’s "dwindling probabilities" objection against ramified natural theology (...)
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  16.  40
    The Natural Theology of Xenophon’s Socrates.Nathan Powers - 2009 - Ancient Philosophy 29 (2):249-266.
  17.  64
    Protestant Perspectives on Natural Theology.Russell Re Manning - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up.
    This chapter examines the simultaneous rejection and endorsement of natural theology within Protestantism, focusing on two contentious issues representing the tensions within Protestant perspectives on natural theology. Firstly, it considers the historical theological question of the attitude to natural theology amongst the Reformers and the post-Reformation Protestant Orthodoxy. The chapter engages with the established consensus that the increasingly positive evaluation of the possibility and value of natural theology within Protestant Orthodoxy represents a (...)
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  18. Natural Theology and Naturalist Atheology: Plantinga's Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism.Ernest Sosa - 2007 - In Deane-Peter Baker (ed.), Alvin Plantinga. Cambridge University Press.
  19. Duns Scotus on Natural Theology.James F. Ross - manuscript
    Scotus’ natural theology has distinctive claims: (i) that we can reason demonstratively to the necessary existence and nature of God from what is actually so; but not from imagined situations, or from conceivability-to-us; rather, only from the possibility logically required for what we know actually to be so; (ii) that there is a univocal transcendental notion of being; (iii) that there are disjunctive transcendental notions that apply exclusively to everything, like ‘contingent/necessary,’ and such that the inferior cannot have (...)
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  20. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology.William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  21. The Reformed Objection to Natural Theology.Alvin Plantinga - 1982 - The Christian Scholars Review 11:187-198.
  22.  1
    A Natural Theology For Our Time.William Horosz - 1968 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (1):130-133.
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  23.  42
    The Reformed Objection to Natural Theology.Alvin Plantinga - 1980 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 54:49.
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  24.  33
    Natural Theology and Nature's Disguises.Muriel Blaisdell - 1982 - Journal of the History of Biology 15 (2):163 - 189.
  25. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology.William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  26.  37
    Natural Theology: Theism or Antitheism?Wallace A. Murphree - 1997 - Sophia 36 (1):75-83.
    I propose that reasons advanced in support of theism serve just as well, or can be modified to serve just as well, as reasons for believing that there exists a wholly evil supreme being. Accordingly, I suggest that attempts to justify theism are futile, since all would-be success is neutralized by the corresponding support that is thereby provided for antitheism.
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  27.  25
    Of Orchids, Insects, and Natural Theology: Timing, Tactics, and Cultural Critique in Darwin's Post-?Origin? Strategy. [REVIEW]John Angus Campbell - 1994 - Argumentation 8 (1):63-80.
    This essay examines the relation of Darwin's orchids book to a central persuasive flaw in theOrigin: Its inability to give variation sufficient “presence” to break the hold of “design” in the mind of the reader. Darwin characterized the orchids book as “a flank movement on the enemy”; this essay identifies the “enemy” as Paley's natural theology and the “flank” as thetopoi, maxims, and habits of perception that led Darwin's colleagues and contemporaries to see design in nature. Moreover, this (...)
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  28.  71
    The Prospects for Natural Theology.Alvin Plantinga - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:287-315.
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  29.  27
    Philosophical Critique of Natural Theology.Charles Taliaferro - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 385.
    This chapter discusses the two kinds of philosophical critiques of natural theology: external and internal critiques. External critiques take aim at the whole project, objecting to the metaphysics, epistemology, or theory of values that make natural theology possible at all. Internal critiques allow that natural theology can succeed but none of its arguments are cogent or meet high philosophical standards. Among external critiques, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason seeks to undermine all metaphysics, as do (...)
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  30.  25
    Religious Experience and Natural Theology.Mark Wynn - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 325.
    This chapter begins with a review of recent philosophical literature on religious experience, which has generally been concerned with experiences that focus on God or some other supernatural ‘thing’, and then considers other kinds of religious experience which should be of some interest for natural theology. It suggests that these kinds of religious experience invite a certain conception of God, namely, as an overarching meaning, rather than as a supernatural ‘object’, and also a correlative epistemology, one which gives (...)
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  31.  51
    Who You Could Have Known: Divine Hiddenness, Epistemic Counterfactuals, and the Recalcitrant Nature of Natural Theology.Brandon L. Rickabaugh & Derek L. McAllister - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (3):337-348.
    We argue there is a deep conflict in Paul Moser’s work on divine hiddenness. Moser’s treatment of DH adopts a thesis we call SEEK: DH often results from failing to seek God on His terms. One way in which people err, according to Moser, is by trusting arguments of traditional natural theology to lead to filial knowledge of God. We argue that Moser’s SEEK thesis commits him to the counterfactual ACCESS: had the atheist sought after God in harmony (...)
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  32.  22
    Natural Theology: A Recent History.Olli-Pekka Vainio - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):1-18.
    This article tells the story of Christian natural theology from the late 18th century to our own time by locating the key moments and thinkers, who have shaped how natural theology has been practiced in the past and how it is now being re-assessed and developed. I will summarize certain key elements that unite all forms of natural theology and assess briefly two basic criticisms of natural theology.
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  33.  18
    Mathematics and Natural Theology.Iohn Polkinghorne - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 449.
    This chapter discusses the significance of mathematics in natural theology. It suggests that the existence of an independent noetic realm of mathematics should encourage an openness to the possibility of further metaphysical riches to be explored. Engagement with mathematics is only a part of our mental experience. In itself it can give just a hint of what might be meant by the spiritual. The realm of the divine is yet more distant still, but just as arithmetic may have (...)
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  34.  2
    A Natural Theology for Our Time.Steven M. Cahn - 1968 - Journal of Philosophy 65 (8):231-233.
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  35.  96
    Natural Theology in St. Thomas's Early Doctrine of Truth.Michael M. Waddell - 2004 - Sapientia 59 (215):5-21.
    The role of natural theology in St. Thomas Aquinas's early doctrine of (transcendental) trut, especially in question one of Aquinas's "Disputed Questions on Truth (De veritate).
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  36. The Metaphysics of Creation: Aquinas’s Natural Theology in Summa Contra Gentiles II.Norman Kretzmann - 1999 - Clarendon Press.
    Norman Kretzmann expounds and criticizes Aquinas's theology of creation, which is `natural' in that Aquinas developed it without depending on the data of Scripture. Because of the special importance of intellective creatures like us, Aquinas's account of the divine origin and organization of the universe includes essential ingredients of his philosophy of mind. The Metaphysics of Creation is a continuation of the project Kretzmann began in The Metaphysics of Theism; as before, he not only explains Aquinas's natural (...)
     
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  37.  21
    Theodicy, Natural Theology, and Metaphysics.Joseph Owens - 1950 - Modern Schoolman 28 (2):126-137.
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  38. Leibniz' "Discourse on the Natural Theology of the Chinese" and the Leibniz-Clarke Controversy.Albert Ribas - 2003 - Philosophy East and West 53 (1):64-86.
    Leibniz was writing his "Discourse on the Natural Theology of the Chinese" as the Leibniz-Clarke Controversy developed. Both were terminated by his death. These two fronts show interesting doctrinal correlations. The first is Leibniz' concern for the "decadence of natural religion." The dispute with Clarke began with it, and the Discourse is a defense of Chinese natural religion in order to show its agreement with Christian natural religion. The Controversy can be summed up as "clockmaker (...)
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  39.  24
    Is Traditional Natural Theology Cognitively Presumptuous.Paul K. Moser & Clinton Neptune - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):213-222.
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  40. Adam Smith, Natural Theology, and the Natural Sciences.Peter Harrison - 2011 - In Paul Oslington (ed.), Adam Smith as Theologian. Routledge.
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  41.  33
    Natural Theology and Literature.Guy Bennett-Hunter - 2013 - In Russell Re Manning John Hedley Brooke & Fraser Watts (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, I hope to show, by referring to two specific literary examples, that works of literature can demonstrate the possibility of Natural Theology and can prompt their readers’ thinking along Natural Theological lines by allowing them to have experiences which mirror the structure of those dealt with by Natural Theology.
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  42.  4
    Natural Theology, Epistemic Parity, and Unbelief.Ronald J. Feenstra - 1988 - Modern Theology 5 (1):1-12.
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  43.  72
    Unrestricted Quantification and Natural Theology: Is" the World" on the Index?Stig Børsen Hansen - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (2):89-110.
    The first section of this paper introduces talk about absolutely everything -- the world as a totality -- as an integral element in the project of natural theology, as it has been presented by Fergus Kerr and Denys Turner respectively. The following section presents talk about the world as a totality of facts as a theme in philosophical logic and outlines a problem it has given rise to there. After confronting the solution originally suggested by Bertrand Russell and (...)
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  44.  22
    Emerson's Natural Theology and the Paris Naturalists: Toward a Theory of Animated Nature.David Robinson - 1980 - Journal of the History of Ideas 41 (1):69.
  45.  23
    Natural Theology in Evolution: A Review of Critiques and Changes. [REVIEW]Rope Kojonen - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):83-117.
    The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview and analysis of the evolution of natural theology in response to influential critiques raised against it. I identify eight main lines of critique against natural theology, and analyze how the defenders of different types of natural theology differ in their responses to these critiques, leading into several very different forms of natural theology. Based on the amount and quality of discussion that (...)
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  46.  35
    Biology in the Service of Natural Theology: Paley, Darwin, and the Bridgewater Treatises.Jonathan R. Topham - 2010 - In Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.), Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press.
    In his Natural Theology, the eighteenth-century Anglican theologian William Paley compares a watch with objects in nature, arguing that “every manifestation of design, which existed in the watch, exists in the works of nature…” Charles Darwin read Paley's Natural Theology as a young man and offered natural selection as an alternative, naturalistic explanation of Paley's explanandum: the appearance of design in nature. Many of Paley's successors diverged from him in their approach to the living world. (...)
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  47.  12
    Lectures and Essays on Natural Theology and Ethics.E. B. McGilvary - 1900 - Philosophical Review 9 (2):188-193.
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  48.  27
    Natural Theology: The Biological Sciences.Michael Ruse - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 397.
    This chapter demonstrates the significance of the biological sciences in natural theology. It does so by considering three major topics: the argument from design, the problem of evil, and the place of humans in the cosmic scheme of things. In the light of modern biology, specifically modern Darwinian evolutionary theory, there is little support for definitive proofs of the nature and existence of the Christian God. However, notwithstanding arguments to the contrary, there is nothing in modern Darwinian evolutionary (...)
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  49.  8
    Natural Theology and Ecology.Christopher Southgate - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 459.
    This chapter discusses the type of natural theology appropriate to the reading of ecosystems, and gives a number of examples of such an approach. It begins by discussing the impact of Darwinism and the possibilities for a natural theology of the biosphere, and then presents the author's own approach to a theological reading the ecological world. The approach involves stressing the integrity of the scientific account, and hence the ambiguity of ecosystems; taking seriously the few scriptural (...)
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  50.  26
    Natural Theology and the Mind Sciences.Fraser Watts - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 475.
    This chapter, which discusses how the mind sciences can be used in natural theology, identifies two aspects of human mental functioning to consider from a theological point of view. First, there is the theological significance of the general capacity for advanced mental functioning found in humans. Second, there is the theological significance of particular human capacities such as religion.
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