Results for 'Necessity (Philosophy'

989 found
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  1.  55
    Causal Necessity: A Pragmatic Investigation of the Necessity of Laws.Brian Skyrms - 1980 - Yale University Press.
  2. Naming and Necessity.Saul Kripke - 1980 - In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 431-433.
    _Naming and Necessity_ has had a great and increasing influence. It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of naming, and of identity. This seminal work, to which today's thriving essentialist metaphysics largely owes its impetus, is here reissued in a newly corrected form with a new preface by the author. If there is such a thing as essential reading in metaphysics, or in philosophy of language, (...)
     
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  3. Naming and Necessity.Saul Kripke - 1980 - Harvard University Press.
  4. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Kripke and Naming and Necessity.Harold W. Noonan - 2012 - Routledge.
    Saul Kripke is one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. His most celebrated work, Naming and Necessity , makes arguably the most important contribution to the philosophy of language and metaphysics in recent years. Asking fundamental questions – how do names refer to things in the world? Do objects have essential properties? What are natural kind terms and to what do they refer? – he challenges prevailing theories of language and conceptions of metaphysics, especially the (...)
     
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  5. Necessity, Essence, and Individuation: A Defense of Conventionalism.Alan Sidelle - 1989 - Cornell University Press.
  6. Necessity, Cause, and Blame: Perspectives on Aristotle’s Theory.Richard Sorabji - 1980 - University of Chicago Press.
    A discussion of Aristotle’s thought on determinism and culpability, Necessity, Cause, and Blame also reveals Richard Sorabji’s own philosophical commitments. He makes the original argument here that Aristotle separates the notions of necessity and cause, rejecting both the idea that all events are necessarily determined as well as the idea that a non-necessitated event must also be non-caused. In support of this argument, Sorabji engages in a wide-ranging discussion of explanation, time, free will, essence, and purpose in nature. (...)
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  7. The Nature of Necessity.Alvin Plantinga - 1974 - Clarendon Press.
    This book, one of the first full-length studies of the modalities to emerge from the debate to which Saul Kripke, David Lewis, Ruth Marcus, and others are contributing, is an exploration and defense of the notion of modality de re, the idea that objects have both essential and accidental properties. Plantinga develops his argument by means of the notion of possible worlds and ranges over such key problems as the nature of essence, transworld identity, negative existential propositions, and the existence (...)
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  8.  62
    The Necessity of Pragmatism: John Dewey's Conception of Philosophy.R. W. SLEEPER - 1986 - University of Illinois.
    In this first paperback edition, a new introduction by Tom Burke establishes the ongoing importance of Sleeper's analysis of the integrity of Dewey's work and ...
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  9.  6
    Hampshire Stuart. Logical Necessity. Philosophy, Vol. 23 , Pp. 332–345.Charles A. Baylis - 1949 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (3):203-204.
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  10.  63
    Naming, Necessity, and Natural Kinds.Stephen P. Schwartz (ed.) - 1977 - Cornell University Press.
  11. Necessity, Volition, and Love.Harry G. Frankfurt - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    One of the most influential of contemporary philosophers, Harry Frankfurt has made major contributions to the philosophy of action, moral psychology, and the study of Descartes. This collection of essays complements an earlier collection published by Cambridge, The Importance of What We Care About. Some of the essays develop lines of thought found in the earlier volume. They deal in general with foundational metaphysical and epistemological issues concerning Descartes, moral philosophy, and philosophical anthropology. Some bear upon topics in (...)
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  12. Necessity in Self-Defense and War.Seth Lazar - 2012 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 40 (1):3-44.
    It is generally agreed that using lethal or otherwise serious force in self-defense is justified only when three conditions are satisfied: first, there are some grounds for the defender to give priority to his own interests over those of the attacker (whether because the attacker has lost the protection of his right to life, for example, or because of the defender’s prerogative to prefer himself to others); second, the harm used is proportionate to the threat thereby averted; third, the harm (...)
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  13.  71
    Necessity and Physical Laws in Descartes's Philosophy.Janet Broughton - 1987 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 68 (3/4):205.
    I argue that although in his earlier work descartes thought of the laws of motion as "eternal truths," he later came to think of them as truths whose necessity is of a different type.
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  14.  43
    Shame and Necessity.Bernard Arthur Owen Williams - 1994 - Ethics 105 (1):178-181.
    We tend to suppose that the ancient Greeks had primitive ideas of the self, of responsibility, freedom, and shame, and that now humanity has advanced from these to a more refined moral consciousness. Bernard Williams's original and radical book questions this picture of Western history. While we are in many ways different from the Greeks, Williams claims that the differences are not to be traced to a shift in these basic conceptions of ethical life. We are more like the ancients (...)
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  15.  30
    Necessity in Self‐Defense and War.Seth Lazar - 2012 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 40 (1):3-44.
    The necessity constraint is at the heart of the ethics of both self-defense and war, and yet we know little about it. This article seeks to remedy that defect. It proceeds in two stages: first, an analysis of the concept of necessity in self-defense; second, an application of this analysis to war, looking at both its implications for just war theory and its application in the laws of war.
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  16. Of Liberty and Necessity: The Free Will Debate in Eighteenth-Century British Philosophy.James A. Harris - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    The eighteenth century was a time of brilliant philosophical innovation in Britain. In Of Liberty and Necessity James A. Harris presents the first comprehensive account of the period's discussion of what remains a central problem of philosophy, the question of the freedom of the will. He offers new interpretations of contributions to the free will debate made by canonical figures such as Locke, Hume, Edwards, and Reid, and also discusses in detail the arguments of some less familiar writers. (...)
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  17. Perceiving Necessity.Catherine Legg & James Franklin - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (3).
    In many diagrams one seems to perceive necessity – one sees not only that something is so, but that it must be so. That conflicts with a certain empiricism largely taken for granted in contemporary philosophy, which believes perception is not capable of such feats. The reason for this belief is often thought well-summarized in Hume's maxim: ‘there are no necessary connections between distinct existences’. It is also thought that even if there were such necessities, perception is too (...)
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  18. Selective Necessity and the Free Will Problem.Michael Slote - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (January):5-24.
  19. Meaning and Necessity.Rudolf Carnap - 1947 - University of Chicago Press.
    "This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence.
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  20. Shame and Necessity.Bernard Williams - 1992 - University of California Press.
    We tend to suppose that the ancient Greeks had primitive ideas of the self, of responsibility, freedom, and shame, and that now humanity has advanced from these to a more refined moral consciousness. Bernard Williams's original and radical book questions this picture of Western history. While we are in many ways different from the Greeks, Williams claims that the differences are not to be traced to a shift in these basic conceptions of ethical life. We are more like the ancients (...)
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  21. Kripke: Names, Necessity, and Identity.Christopher Hughes - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Saul Kripke, in a series of classic writings of the 1960s and 1970s, changed the face of metaphysics and philosophy of language. Christopher Hughes offers a careful exposition and critical analysis of Kripke's central ideas about names, necessity, and identity. He clears up some common misunderstandings of Kripke's views on rigid designation, causality and reference, and the necessary a posteriori and contingent a priori. Through his engagement with Kripke's ideas Hughes makes a significant contribution to ongoing debates on, (...)
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  22.  15
    Causal Necessity.Brian Skyrms - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (2):329-335.
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  23.  94
    Logical Necessity.Ian Rumfitt - 2010 - In Bob Hale & Aviv Hoffmann (eds.), Modality: Metaphysics, Logic, and Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    Book synopsis: The philosophy of modality investigates necessity and possibility, and related notions--are they objective features of mind-independent reality? If so, are they irreducible, or can modal facts be explained in other terms? This volume presents new work on modality by established leaders in the field and by up-and-coming philosophers. Between them, the papers address fundamental questions concerning realism and anti-realism about modality, the nature and basis of facts about what is possible and what is necessary, the nature (...)
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  24. Logical Necessity, Physical Necessity, Ethics, and Quantifiers.Richard Montague - 1960 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 3 (1-4):259 – 269.
    Some philosophers, for example Quine, doubt the possibility of jointly using modalities and quantification. Simple model-theoretic considerations, however, lead to a reconciliation of quantifiers with such modal concepts as logical, physical, and ethical necessity, and suggest a general class of modalities of which these are instances. A simple axiom system, analogous to the Lewis systems S1 —S5, is considered in connection with this class of modalities. The system proves to be complete, and its class of theorems decidable.
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  25. Accidental Necessity and Logical Determinism.Alfred J. Freddoso - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (5):257-278.
    This paper attempts to construct a systematic and plausible account of the necessity of the past. The account proposed is meant to explicate the central ockhamistic thesis of the primacy of the pure present and to vindicate Ockham's own non-Aristotelian response to the challenge of logical determinism.
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  26.  91
    Necessity, Essence, and Individuation: A Defense of Conventionalism.Stephen Yablo & Alan Sidelle - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (4):878.
  27. The Methodological Necessity of Experimental Philosophy.Jonathan M. Weinberg - 2015 - Discipline Filosofiche 25 (1):23-42.
    Must philosophers incorporate tools of experimental science into their methodological toolbox? I argue here that they must. Tallying up all the resources that are now part of standard practice in analytic philosophy, we see the problem that they do not include adequate resources for detecting and correcting for their own biases and proclivities towards error. Methodologically sufficient resources for error- detection and error-correction can only come, in part, from the deployment of specific methods from the sciences. However, we need (...)
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  28. Brute Necessity.James Van Cleve - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (9):e12516.
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  29. Necessity and Contingency in Thomas Aquinas'natural Philosophy.Pietro B. Rossi - 2013 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 68 (1):95-111.
     
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  30. God and Necessity.Brian Leftow - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Modal basics -- Some solutions -- Theist solutions -- The ontology of possibility -- Modal truthmakers -- Modality and the divine nature -- Deity as essential -- Against deity theories -- The role of deity -- The biggest bang -- Divine concepts -- Concepts, syntax, and actualism -- Modality: basic notions -- The genesis of secular modality -- Modal reality -- Essences -- Non-secular modalities -- Theism and modal semantics -- Freedom, preference, and cost -- Explaining modal status -- Explaining (...)
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  31.  18
    Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World.Margaret J. Osler - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is about the influence of varying theological conceptions of contingency and necessity on two versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi and René Descartes both believed that all natural phenomena could be explained in terms of matter and motion alone. They disagreed about the details of their mechanical accounts of the world, in particular about their theories of matter and their approaches to scientific method. This book traces their differences back to theological (...)
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  32. Causal Powers. A Theory of Natural Necessity.Rom Harré - 1975 - Rowman & Littlefield.
  33. Practical Necessity and the Constitution of Character.Roman Altshuler - 2013 - In Alexandra Perry & Chris Herrera (eds.), The Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 40-53.
    Deliberation issues in decision, and so might be taken as a paradigmatic volitional activity. Character, on the other hand, may appear pre-volitional: the dispositions that constitute it provide the background against which decisions are made. Bernard Williams offers an intriguing picture of how the two may be connected via the concept of practical necessities, which are at once constitutive of character and deliverances of deliberation. Necessities are thus the glue binding character and the will, allowing us to take responsibility for (...)
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  34. Kant and Wittgenstein: Philosophy, Necessity and Representation.Hans-Johann Glock - 1997 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (2):285-305.
    Several authors have detected profound analogies between Kant and Wittgenstein. Their claims have been contradicted by scholars, such being the agreed penalty for attributions to authorities. Many of the alleged similarities have either been left unsubstantiated at a detailed exegetical level, or have been confined to highly general points. At the same time, the 'scholarly' backlash has tended to ignore the importance of some of these general points, or has focused on very specific issues or purely terminological matters. To advance (...)
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  35.  44
    Chance, Necessity, and Purpose: Toward a Philosophy of Evolution.Jeffrey S. Wicken - 1981 - Zygon 16 (4):303-322.
  36. The Necessity of Gratuitous Evil.William Hasker - 1992 - Faith and Philosophy 9 (1):23-44.
  37.  89
    Causal Necessity in Aristotle.Nathanael Stein - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (5):855-879.
    Like many realists about causation and causal powers, Aristotle uses the language of necessity when discussing causation, and he appears to think that by invoking necessity, he is clarifying the manner in which causes bring about or determine their effects. In so doing, he would appear to run afoul of Humean criticisms of the notion of a necessary connection between cause and effect. The claim that causes necessitate their effects may be understood—or attacked—in several ways, however, and so (...)
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  38. Chance and Necessity.Jacques Monod - 1971 - New York: Vintage Books.
  39. Necessity or Contingency: The Master Argument.Jules Vuillemin - 1996 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
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  40. Divine Necessity.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (11):741-752.
  41.  39
    Divine Necessity.Einar Duenger Bohn - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (11):e12457.
    Divine necessity is the thesis that God must exist. In this paper, I give a brief survey of what the thesis is more exactly, the main arguments for it, and the main arguments against it.
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  42.  32
    Necessity and Relative Contingency.Claudio Pizzi - 2007 - Studia Logica 85 (3):395-410.
    The paper introduces a contingential language extended with a propositional constant τ axiomatized in a system named KΔτ , which receives a semantical analysis via relational models. A definition of the necessity operator in terms of Δ and τ allows proving (i) that KΔτ is equivalent to a modal system named K□τ (ii) that both KΔτ and K□τ are tableau-decidable and complete with respect to the defined relational semantics (iii) that the modal τ -free fragment of KΔτ is exactly (...)
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  43. Naming and Necessity.Saul Kripke - 1981 - Philosophy 56 (217):431-433.
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  44.  77
    Necessity and Criteria.Keith S. Donnellan - 1962 - Journal of Philosophy 59 (22):647-658.
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  45. Necessity and Apriority.Gordon Prescott Barnes - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (3):495-523.
    The classical view of the relationship between necessity and apriority, defended by Leibniz and Kant, is that all necessary truths are known a priori. The classical view is now almost universally rejected, ever since Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam discovered that there are necessary truths that are known only a posteriori. However, in recent years a new debate has emerged over the epistemology of these necessary a posteriori truths. According to one view – call it the neo-classical view – (...)
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  46.  40
    Physical Necessity is Not Necessity Tout Court.George Masterton - 2012 - Metaphysica 13 (2):175-182.
    The very last of words of Naming and Necessity are ‘The third lecture suggests that a good deal of what contemporary philosophy regards as mere physical necessity is actually necessary tout court. The question how far this can be pushed is one I leave for further work.’ Kripke (1980). To my knowledge he never conducted that further work; moreover, no one following him has wished to take up the baton either. Herein, I argue that in general, physical (...)
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  47. Saints, Heroes and Moral Necessity.Alfred Archer - 2015 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 77:105-124.
    Many people who perform paradigmatic examples of acts of supererogation claim that they could not have done otherwise. In this paper I will argue that these self-reports from moral exemplars present a challenge to the traditional view of supererogation as involving agential sacrifice. I will argue that the claims made by moral exemplars are plausibly understood as what Bernard Williams calls a ‘practical necessity’. I will then argue that this makes it implausible to view these acts as involving agential (...)
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  48. Identity, Necessity, and Events.Fred Feldman - 1980 - In Ned Block (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology. , Vol.
     
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  49.  19
    Torture, Necessity, and the Union of Law & Philosophy.Kimberly Kessler Ferzan - manuscript
    This brief essay critiques the torture memoranda's use of the necessity defense from the perspectives of criminal law doctrine, criminal law theory, and moral philosophy.
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  50.  20
    Necessity and Least Infringement Conditions in Public Health Ethics.Timothy Allen & Michael J. Selgelid - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):525-535.
    The influential public health ethics framework proposed by Childress et al. includes five “justificatory conditions,” two of which are “necessity” and “least infringement.” While the framework points to important moral values, we argue it is redundant for it to list both necessity and least infringement because they are logically equivalent. However, it is ambiguous whether Childress et al. would endorse this view, or hold the two conditions distinct. This ambiguity has resulted in confusion in public health ethics discussions (...)
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