BackgroundThe last few decades have seen the rising global acknowledgment of the importance of ethics in the conduct of health research. But research ethics committees or institutional review boards have also been criticized for being barriers to research. This article examines the case of the Philippines, where little has been done to interrogate the health research and IRB culture, and whose circumstances can serve as reflection points for other low- and middle-income countries.MethodsSemi-structured interviews were conducted from July to October 2020 (...) to elicit health researchers’ perspectives and experiences regarding IRBs and the ethics approval process in the country, as well as counterpoint narratives from researchers who have also worked for IRBs.ResultsAcross the fields of clinical, public health, and social science research, the issue of ethics review revealed itself to be foremost an issue of inequity. IRB processes serve as a barrier for those outside the academe; those belonging to institutions, cities, or entire regions without their own accredited IRBs; and researchers working independently, without ample budget, or on highly specialized topics—more so for non-clinical researchers who must grapple with the primarily biomedical framework of most IRBs. Consequently, the research landscape invariably favors those with the resources to do research, and researches that tend to attract funding.ConclusionThe broader challenge of equity in health research will entail more fundamental reforms, but proximal interventions can be done to make the ethics approval process more equitable, such as enhancing institutional oversight, regulating IRB fees, and enabling a more supportive and welcoming environment for early-career, student, independent, and non-clinical health researchers. This article ends by reflecting on the implications of our findings toward the larger research culture. (shrink)
This research analyzes the theoretical answer received by one of the factors that cause the so-called Price Revolution in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, specifically the aspect related to the alterations in the monetary values of pieces of vellón and silver in Castile and England. In both countries, these episodes were rigorously analyzed from a theoretical point of view, as can be seen from the study of the monetary ideas of the period that were developed in these territories. (...) In this study, in light of the historical events that took place, we analyze the foundations of the monetary thought of Juan de Mariana and John Locke who oppose the the alteration of money by the sovereign for fiscal reasons, as well as their different reception. (shrink)
La entrevista al doctor Darío Villanueva es sobre el panorama literario del siglo XXI. A partir de cuatro tópicos fundamentales y reincidentes: los libros, los escritores, las editoriales y la realidad. Estos han sido incorporados en las preguntas para desentrañar el sistema literario que se ha originado en los últimos años. Frente a estas interrogantes, se notará que existen algunos obstáculos que han tergiversado y entorpecido la labor de la escritura, así como el canon literario, tal como la cultura (...) de masas y la diversificación que se aprecia desde la posmodernidad. (shrink)
AimThe functional prognosis of patients after coma following either cardiac arrest or acute structural brain injury is often uncertain. These patients are associated with high mortality and disability. N20 and N70 somatosensory evoked potentials are used to predict prognosis. We evaluated the utility of SSEP as an early indicator of long-term prognosis in these patients.MethodsThis was a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of coma after CA or ABI. An SSEP study was (...) performed, including N20 and N70 at 24–72 h, after coma onset. Functional recovery was assessed 6–12 months later using the modified Glasgow scale. The study was approved by our local research ethics committee.ResultsIn the CA and ABI groups, the absence of N20 or N70 was a strong indicator of poor outcome. Conversely, the presence of N70 was an indicator of a good outcome.ConclusionSomatosensory evoked potentials are useful early prognostic markers with high specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, N70 has additional potential value for improving the prediction of good long-term functional outcomes.Clinical Trial Registration:[https://clinicaltrials.gov/], identifier [2018/01/001]. (shrink)
The analysis of TV violence cannot be limited to the quantification of its incidence, but should also take into account the type of violence broadcast and its context. Thus, normative models of violence could be understood as positive, while contra-normative models of violence should be of far greater concern. This paper analyzes the normative contexts of TV violence through a content analysis of randomly selected fragments of TV programming. The results show that news programs and TV series/soaps delegitimized violence to (...) a higher extent, while films tend to show legitimized or ambivalent violence. Positive consequences of violence predominate in fictional programs, except for TV series/soaps. Normative presentation of violence is more frequent, especially in nonfiction genres, as fiction has more freedom to depict the socially undesirable. (shrink)
Crop genetic resources constitute a ‘new’ global commons, characterized by multiple layers of activities of farmers, genebanks, public and private research and development organizations, and regulatory agencies operating from local to global levels. This paper presents sui generis biocultural community protocols that were developed by four communities in Benin and Madagascar to improve their ability to contribute to, and benefit from, the crop commons. The communities were motivated in part by the fact that their national governments’ had recently ratified the (...) Plant Treaty and the Nagoya Protocol, which make commitments to promoting the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities and farmers, without being prescriptive as to how Contracting Parties should implement those commitments. The communities identified the protocols as useful means to advance their interests and/or rights under both the Plant Treaty and the Nagoya Protocol to be recognized as managers of local socio-ecological systems, to access genetic resources from outside the communities, and to control others’ access to resources managed by the community. (shrink)
Advances in technologies and biomedical informatics have expanded capacity to generate and share biomedical data. With a lens on genomic data, we present a typology characterizing the data-sharing landscape in biomedical research to advance understanding of the key stakeholders and existing data-sharing practices. The typology highlights the diversity of data-sharing efforts and facilitators and reveals how novel data-sharing efforts are challenging existing norms regarding the role of individuals whom the data describe.
This article explores Peter Singer’s Animal Liberation thesis and examines the arguments against his work, particularly from certain moral philosophers in the late 1970s and 1980s who seriously engaged with his ideas. This article argues that due to the straightforward, minimalist nature of Singer’s preference utilitarianism, his arguments have remained highly defensible and persuasive. By advancing sentience, above characteristics like intelligence or rationality, as a sufficient criterion for possessing interests, Singer provides a justifiable principle for morally considering animal interests equal (...) to those of humans. Numerous moral philosophers have challenged Singer, but they have struggled to seriously counter his core principle and to resolve the argument of ‘marginal cases’—that is, why do infants and intellectually disabled humans have moral status and animals do not. Ultimately, Singer broadly challenged prevailing anthropocentric views of animals and, in some instances, persuaded some of his most intransigent opponents. (shrink)
This paper explores the idea of linguistic meaning in the case of metaphysical referents or entities, quoting Plato's view assumed by Wittgenstein that there couldn't be a language for metaphysical referents like the Good or God. In order to expose the conceptual situation recourse is made to the thesis of a Logical Proper Name and to the thesis of Private Names as contrasting views of the nature of names and language. Furthermore, it is surmised that the Wittgenstein view helps to (...) realise why there cannot be metaphysical arguments. But all of that is presented in a very sketchy way and has to wait for further development. (shrink)
Making data broadly accessible is essential to creating a medical information commons. Transparency about data-sharing practices can cultivate trust among prospective and existing MIC participants. We present an analysis of 34 initiatives sharing DNA-derived data based on public information. We describe data-sharing practices captured, including practices related to consent, privacy and security, data access, oversight, and participant engagement. Our results reveal that data-sharing initiatives have some distance to go in achieving transparency.
Resumen: El trabajo se centrará en dar cuenta sobre la existencia de un territorio otro, invisibilizado por el logocentrismo y la historiografía tradicional del occidente moderno. Este territorio otro que denominamos territorios discursivos es una realidad que situamos en los discursos territoriales y que, dada su dimensión discursiva, puede ser develada mediante el análisis hermenéutico. Uno de los supuestos en que se basa esta investigación, es que los territorios discursivos actúan como el lugar desde el cual el discurso territorial llega (...) a ser el que es, a indicar una dirección y explicitar un sentido específico, en cualquiera de las formas institucionalizadas por una colectividad pero sin que se tenga plena conciencia o evidencia de éste. Por lo anterior, planteamos que los territorios discursivos se encuentran ligados a la imagen hologramática, condición que proponemos develar desde un trasfondo sociocultural y por medio de la interpretación hermenéutica de los discursos territoriales. (shrink)
Hintikka’s semantic approach to meaning, a development of Wittgenstein’s view of meaning as use, is the general theme of this chapter. We will focus on the analysis of quantified sentences and on the scope of the principle of compositionality and compare Hintikka’s take on these issues with that of Frege. The aim of this paper is to show that Hintikka’s analysis of quantified expressions as choice functions, in spite of its obvious dissimilarities with respect to the higher-order approach, is actually (...) very close to the Fregean stance on compositionality and context dependence. In particular, we will defend that the Fregean approach to quantifiers is unavoidably linked to the idea that quantified expressions are context-dependent, and therefore should not be conceived under the traditional inside-out model for analysis. (shrink)
We identify two senses of ‘pragmatics’ and related terms that give rise to two different methods of propositional individuation. The first one is the contextualist approach that essentially acknowledges contextual information to take part in the determination of what is said by the utterance of a sentence. In this sense, Pragmatics relies on the Principle of Compositionality and interprets propositions as structured entities. It epitomises the Building-block Model of Propositional Individuation. The general approach that makes what the agents do the (...) grounding level of philosophical and linguistic analysis characterizes the second sense, Pragmatism. It finds its clearest expression in Peirce’s Pragmatist Maxim, and it relies on the Fregean Principle of Context, and supports a view of propositions as unstructured entities. This is the Organic Model of Propositional Individuation. There is a test, the Analytic Equivalence Test, that tells apart the two models. According to it, the answer to the question whether a theory makes room for different but analytically equivalent propositions determines the model the theory belongs in. A positive answer classifies the theory as belonging to the building-block model; a negative answer allocates the theory within the organic model. (shrink)
The problem of the electromagnetic coupling for spin-3/2 particles is discussed. Following supergravity and some previous researches in the field of classical supersymmetric particles, we found that the electromagnetic coupling must not obey a minimal coupling in the sense of coupling the electromagnetic potential, but some kind of an electromagnetic field strength.
The analysis of social networks has remained a crucial and yet understudied aspect of the efforts to measure Triple Helix linkages. The Triple Helix model aims to explain, among other aspects of knowledge-based societies, “the current research system in its social context” (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 2000:109). This paper develops a novel approach to study the research system from the perspective of the individual, through the analysis of the relationships among researchers, and between them and other social actors. We develop a (...) new set of techniques and show how they can be applied to the study of a specific case (a group of academics within a university department). We analyse their informal social networks and show how a relationship exists between the characteristics of an individual’s network of social links and his or her research output. (shrink)
Resumen: Los territorios discursivos se erigen mediante la conformación de dos dimensiones, una que atiende a sus componentes discursivos y la otra que responde a las características territoriales donde todo lo develado por medio del discurso se constituye en un holograma territorial-identitario. Esto significa que nos encontramos frente a un tipo de territorio tradicionalmente invisibilizado, en gran parte, por la subalternización de los discursos y la no consideración recursiva de los territorios. Por tanto, esta investigación pretende dar cuenta de los (...) componentes que hacen de los territorios discursivos una realidad territorial con sentidos reconocibles, tanto en sus aspectos simbólicos como materiales, desde un origen epistemológico que atiende a la naturaleza del fenómeno.: Discursive territories are created through the conformation of two dimensions, one that attends to its discursive components and the other that responds to the territorial characteristics where everything unveiled through discourse is constituted in a territorial-identity hologram. This means that we are facing a type of territory traditionally rendered invisible, in large part, by the subalternization of discourses and the recusal of territories. Therefore, this research aims to account for the components that make discursive territories a territorial reality with recognizable meanings, both in its symbolic and material aspects, from an epistemological origin that attends to the nature of the phenomenon. (shrink)
Resumen: El trabajo se centrará en dar cuenta sobre la existencia de un territorio otro, invisibilizado por el logocentrismo y la historiografía tradicional del occidente moderno. Este territorio otro que denominamos territorios discursivos es una realidad que situamos en los discursos territoriales y que, dada su dimensión discursiva, puede ser develada mediante el análisis hermenéutico. Uno de los supuestos en que se basa esta investigación, es que los territorios discursivos actúan como el lugar desde el cual el discurso territorial llega (...) a ser el que es, a indicar una dirección y explicitar un sentido específico, en cualquiera de las formas institucionalizadas por una colectividad pero sin que se tenga plena conciencia o evidencia de éste. Por lo anterior, planteamos que los territorios discursivos se encuentran ligados a la imagen hologramática, condición que proponemos develar desde un trasfondo sociocultural y por medio de la interpretación hermenéutica de los discursos territoriales.: This work focusses on giving an account of the existence of a territory other, made invisible by the logocentrism and the traditional historiography of the modern west. This territory other that we call discursive territories is a reality that we situate in territorial discourses and that, given its discursive dimension, can be revealed through hermeneutical analysis. One of the assumptions on which this research is based, is that the discursive territories act as the place from which the territorial discourse becomes what it is, to indicate a direction and to specify a specific meaning, in any of the forms institutionalized by a collectivity but without full awareness or evidence of it. Therefore, we propose that the discursive territories are linked to the hologram image, a condition that we suggest is revealed from a sociocultural background and through the hermeneutic interpretation of territorial discourses. (shrink)