Results for 'Newcomb's Paradox'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  71
    Newcomb’s Paradox and the Direction of Causation.John L. Mackie - 1977 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (2):213 - 225.
    Newcomb's paradox was first presented by Robert Nozick and has been discussed by a considerable number of writers. You are playing a game with a Being who seems to have extraordinary predictive powers. Before you are two boxes, in one of which you can see $1,000. The other is closed and you cannot see what it contains, but you know that the Being has put a million dollars into it if he has predicted that you will take it (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  2. Newcomb’s Paradox Realized with Backward Causation.Jan Hendrik Schmidt - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):67-87.
    In order to refute the widely held belief that the game known as ‘Newcomb's paradox’ is physically nonsensical and impossible to imagine (e.g. because it involves backward causation), I tell a story in which the game is realized in a classical, deterministic universe in a physically plausible way. The predictor is a collection of beings which are by many orders of magnitude smaller than the player and which can, with their exquisite measurement techniques, observe the particles in the (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  3. Newcomb’s Paradox Revisited.Maya Bar-Hillel & Avishai Margalit - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (4):295-304.
  4.  31
    Newcomb's paradox.Maurice W. Sasieni - 1984 - Theory and Decision 16 (3):217-223.
  5. Newcomb's paradox and omniscience.R. Lance Factor - 1978 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (1):30 - 40.
  6. Newcomb's paradox and Priest's principle of rational choice.Byeong-Uk Yi - 2003 - Analysis 63 (3):237–242.
  7.  30
    Newcomb's paradox and Priest's principle of rational choice.B. -U. Yi - 2003 - Analysis 63 (3):237-242.
  8.  95
    Newcomb's paradox.James Cargile - 1975 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 26 (3):234-239.
  9. The lesson of Newcomb’s paradox.David H. Wolpert & Gregory Benford - 2013 - Synthese 190 (9):1637-1646.
    In Newcomb’s paradox you can choose to receive either the contents of a particular closed box, or the contents of both that closed box and another one. Before you choose though, an antagonist uses a prediction algorithm to accurately deduce your choice, and uses that deduction to fill the two boxes. The way they do this guarantees that you made the wrong choice. Newcomb’s paradox is that game theory’s expected utility and dominance principles appear to provide conflicting recommendations (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  10. Counterfactuals and newcomb's paradox.Daniel Hunter & Reed Richter - 1978 - Synthese 39 (2):249 - 261.
    In their development of causal decision theory, Allan Gibbard and William Harper advocate a particular method for calculating the expected utility of an action, a method based upon the probabilities of certain counterfactuals. Gibbard and Harper then employ their method to support a two-box solution to Newcomb’s paradox. This paper argues against some of Gibbard and Harper’s key claims concerning the truth-values and probabilities of counterfactuals involved in expected utility calculations, thereby disputing their analysis of Newcomb’s Paradox. If (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  11. Newcomb's 'paradox'.T. M. Benditt & David J. Ross - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 (2):161-164.
  12.  54
    Newcomb's paradox: A realist resolution.N. Jacobi - 1993 - Theory and Decision 35 (1):1-17.
  13.  62
    Newcomb's paradox and compatibilism.Yemima Ben-Menahem - 1986 - Erkenntnis 25 (2):197 - 220.
  14. Divine foreknowledge and newcomb's paradox.William Lane Craig - 1987 - Philosophia 17 (3):331-350.
    Newcomb's Paradox thus serves as an illustrative vindication of the compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom. A proper understanding of the counterfactual conditionals involved enables us to see that the pastness of God's knowledge serves neither to make God's beliefs counterfactually closed nor to rob us of genuine freedom. It is evident that our decisions determine God's past beliefs about those decisions and do so without invoking an objectionable backward causation. It is also clear that in the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  15.  92
    Unboxing the Concepts in Newcomb’s Paradox: Causation, Prediction, Decision in Causal Knowledge Patterns.Roland Poellinger - manuscript
    In Nozick’s rendition of the decision situation given in Newcomb’s Paradox dominance and the principle of maximum expected utility recommend different strategies. While evidential decision theory seems to be split over which principle to apply and how to interpret the principles in the first place, causal decision theory seems to go for the solution recommended by dominance. As a reply to the CDT proposal by Wolfgang Spohn, who opts for “one-boxing” by employing reflexive decision graphs, I will draw on (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16.  18
    On Divine Foreknowledge and Newcomb’s Paradox.Thomas M. Crisp - 1999 - Philosophia Christi 1 (2):33-43.
  17.  73
    Simpson's Paradox and the Fisher-Newcomb Problem.Carl G. Wagner - 1991 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 40 (1):185-194.
    It is shown that the Fisher smoking problem and Newcomb's problem are decisiontheoretically identical, each having at its core an identical case of Simpson's paradox for certain probabilities. From this perspective, incorrect solutions to these problems arise from treating them as cases of decisionmaking under risk, while adopting certain global empirical conditional probabilities as the relevant subjective probabihties. The most natural correct solutions employ the methodology of decisionmaking under uncertainty with lottery acts, with certain local empirical conditional probabilities (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  13
    Simpson's Paradox and the Fisher-Newcomb Problem.Carl G. Wagner - 1991 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 40 (1):185-194.
    It is shown that the Fisher smoking problem and Newcomb's problem are decisiontheoretically identical, each having at its core an identical case of Simpson's paradox for certain probabilities. From this perspective, incorrect solutions to these problems arise from treating them as cases of decisionmaking under risk, while adopting certain global empirical conditional probabilities as the relevant subjective probabihties. The most natural correct solutions employ the methodology of decisionmaking under uncertainty with lottery acts, with certain local empirical conditional probabilities (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. An Epistemic Principle Which Solves Newcomb's Paradox.Keith Lehrer & Vann McGee - 1991 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 40 (1):197-217.
    If it is certain that performing an observation to determine whether P is true will in no way influence whether P is tme, then the proposition that the observation is performed ought to be probabilistically independent of P. Applying the notion of "observation" liberally, so that a wide variety of actions are treated as observations, this proposed new principle of belief revision yields the result that simple utihty maximization gives the correct solution to the Fisher smoking paradox and the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  19
    An Epistemic Principle Which Solves Newcomb's Paradox.Keith Lehrer & Vann McGee - 1991 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 40 (1):197-217.
    If it is certain that performing an observation to determine whether P is true will in no way influence whether P is tme, then the proposition that the observation is performed ought to be probabilistically independent of P. Applying the notion of "observation" liberally, so that a wide variety of actions are treated as observations, this proposed new principle of belief revision yields the result that simple utihty maximization gives the correct solution to the Fisher smoking paradox and the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  72
    How braess' paradox solves newcomb's problem.A. D. Irvine - 1993 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7 (2):141 – 160.
    Abstract Newcomb's problem is regularly described as a problem arising from equally defensible yet contradictory models of rationality. Braess? paradox is regularly described as nothing more than the existence of non?intuitive (but ultimately non?contradictory) equilibrium points within physical networks of various kinds. Yet it can be shown that Newcomb's problem is structurally identical to Braess? paradox. Both are instances of a well?known result in game theory, namely that equilibria of non?cooperative games are generally Pareto?inefficient. Newcomb's (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22.  54
    How braess' paradox solves newcomb's problem: Not!Louis Marinoff - 1996 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (3):217 – 237.
    Abstract In an engaging and ingenious paper, Irvine (1993) purports to show how the resolution of Braess? paradox can be applied to Newcomb's problem. To accomplish this end, Irvine forges three links. First, he couples Braess? paradox to the Cohen?Kelly queuing paradox. Second, he couples the Cohen?Kelly queuing paradox to the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD). Third, in accord with received literature, he couples the PD to Newcomb's problem itself. Claiming that the linked models are ?structurally (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  51
    Newcomb's Problem.Arif Ahmed (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Newcomb's Problem is a controversial paradox of decision theory. It is easily explained and easily understood, and there is a strong chance that most of us have actually faced it in some form or other. And yet it has proven as thorny and intractable a puzzle as much older and better-known philosophical problems of consciousness, scepticism and fatalism. It brings into very sharp and focused disagreement several long-standing philosophical theories on practical rationality, on the nature of free will, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. The Dr. Psycho Paradox and Newcomb’s Problem.Michael Clark & Nicholas Shackel - 2006 - Erkenntnis 64 (1):85 - 100.
    Nicholas Rescher claims that rational decision theory “may leave us in the lurch”, because there are two apparently acceptable ways of applying “the standard machinery of expected-value analysis” to his Dr. Psycho paradox which recommend contradictory actions. He detects a similar contradiction in Newcomb’s problem. We consider his claims from the point of view of both Bayesian decision theory and causal decision theory. In Dr. Psycho and in Newcomb’s Problem, Rescher has used premisses about probabilities which he assumes to (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. Paradoxes of Rationality and Cooperation: Prisoner’s Dilemma and Newcomb’s Problem.Richmond Campbell & Lanning Snowden (eds.) - 1985 - Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
    1 Background for the Uninitiated RICHMOND CAMPBELL Paradoxes are intrinsically fascinating. They are also distinctively ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  26.  48
    Foreknowledge: Nelson Pike and Newcomb's problem: DENNIS M. AHERN.Dennis M. Ahern - 1979 - Religious Studies 15 (4):475-490.
    The problem of foreknowledge and freedom presents a challenge to the defender of traditional Western theism. Nelson Pike has argued that the existence of an essentially omniscient God who possesses foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom. Pike's opponents in this matter, among whom is Alvin Plantinga, argue that no incompatibility has yet been shown. I shall develop the view that neither Pike nor his opponents have conclusively settled the question whether foreknowledge and freedom are compatible. Furthermore there is a reason (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  27.  21
    An adaptive cue combination model of human spatial reorientation.Yang Xu, Terry Regier & Nora S. Newcombe - 2017 - Cognition 163 (C):56-66.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  28.  47
    Five Reasons to Doubt the Existence of a Geometric Module.Alexandra D. Twyman & Nora S. Newcombe - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (7):1315-1356.
    It is frequently claimed that the human mind is organized in a modular fashion, a hypothesis linked historically, though not inevitably, to the claim that many aspects of the human mind are innately specified. A specific instance of this line of thought is the proposal of an innately specified geometric module for human reorientation. From a massive modularity position, the reorientation module would be one of a large number that organized the mind. From the core knowledge position, the reorientation module (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  29.  19
    The hippocampus is not a geometric module: processing environment geometry during reorientation.Jennifer E. Sutton & Nora S. Newcombe - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  30. Spatial cognition.Nora S. Newcombe - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  31.  35
    A spatial coding analysis of the a-not-b error: What IS “location at a”?Nora S. Newcombe - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):57-58.
    Thelen et al. criticize “spatial coding” approaches to the A-not-B error. However, newer thinking about spatial coding provides more precise analytic categories and recognizes that different spatial coding systems normally coexist. Theorizing about spatial coding is largely compatible with dynamic-systems theory, augmenting it with an analysis of what one means when discussing “location at A” (or B).
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  13
    Building a Cognitive Science of Human Variation: Individual Differences in Spatial Navigation.Nora S. Newcombe, Mary Hegarty & David Uttal - 2023 - Topics in Cognitive Science 15 (1):6-14.
    This issue assesses how human spatial navigation differs: within individuals across short‐term variations in mood or stress, and between individuals across variations in age, gender, education, culture, and physical environment.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  29
    Dealing with Big Numbers: Representation and Understanding of Magnitudes Outside of Human Experience.Resnick Ilyse, S. Newcombe Nora & F. Shipley Thomas - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1020-1041.
    Being able to estimate quantity is important in everyday life and for success in the STEM disciplines. However, people have difficulty reasoning about magnitudes outside of human perception. This study examines patterns of estimation errors across temporal and spatial magnitudes at large scales. We evaluated the effectiveness of hierarchical alignment in improving estimations, and transfer across dimensions. The activity was successful in increasing accuracy for temporal and spatial magnitudes, and learning transferred to the estimation of numeric magnitudes associated with events (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  34. CAMPBELL, R. and SOWDEN, L. : "Paradoxes of Rationality and Cooperation: Prisoner's Dilemma and Newcomb's Problem". [REVIEW]J. Collins - 1987 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 65:353.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  22
    Commentary on Leibovich et al.: What next?Kelly S. Mix, Nora S. Newcombe & Susan C. Levine - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  32
    Location memory in the real world: Category adjustment effects in 3-dimensional space.Mark P. Holden, Nora S. Newcombe & Thomas F. Shipley - 2013 - Cognition 128 (1):45-55.
  37.  21
    Move to learn: Integrating spatial information from multiple viewpoints.Corinne A. Holmes, Nora S. Newcombe & Thomas F. Shipley - 2018 - Cognition 178 (C):7-25.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38. A matter of trust: when landmarks and geometry are used during reorientation.Kristin R. Ratliff & Nora S. Newcombe - 2007 - In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 581.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  20
    Seeing Like a Geologist: Bayesian Use of Expert Categories in Location Memory.Mark P. Holden, Nora S. Newcombe, Ilyse Resnick & Thomas F. Shipley - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):440-454.
    Memory for spatial location is typically biased, with errors trending toward the center of a surrounding region. According to the category adjustment model, this bias reflects the optimal, Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical representations of a location. However, there is disagreement about whether categories are malleable. For instance, can categories be redefined based on expert-level conceptual knowledge? Furthermore, if expert knowledge is used, does it dominate other information sources, or is it used adaptively so as to minimize overall error, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40. Demons, Deceivers And Liars: Newcomb’s Malin Génie. [REVIEW]Peter Slezak - 2006 - Theory and Decision 61 (3):277-303.
    A fully adequate solution to Newcomb’s Problem (Nozick 1969) should reveal the source of its extraordinary elusiveness and persistent intractability. Recently, a few accounts have independently sought to meet this criterion of adequacy by exposing the underlying source of the problem’s profound puzzlement. Thus, Sorensen (1987), Slezak (1998), Priest (2002) and Maitzen and Wilson (2003) share the ‘no box’ view according to which the very idea that there is a right choice is misconceived since the problem is ill-formed or incoherent (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  41.  26
    Are all types of vertical information created equal?Steven M. Weisberg & Nora S. Newcombe - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):568 - 569.
    The vertical component of space occurs in two distinct fashions in natural environments. One kind of verticality is orthogonal-to-horizontal (as in climbing trees, operating in volumetric spaces such as water or air, or taking elevators in multilevel buildings). Another kind of verticality, which might be functionally distinct, comes from navigating on sloped terrain (as in traversing hills or ramps).
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  65
    Reeling and a-reasoning: Surprise examinations and newcomb's tale.Peter Cave - 2004 - Philosophy 79 (4):609-616.
    Certain paradoxes set us reeling endlessly. In surprise examination paradoxes, pupils' reasonings lead them to reel between expecting an examination and expecting none. With Newcomb's puzzle, choosers reel between reasoning in favour of choosing just one box and choosing two. The paradoxes demand an answer to what it is rational to believe or do. Highlighting other reelings and puzzles, this paper shows that the paradoxes should come as no surprise. The paradoxes demand an end to our reasoning when the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  43.  23
    Picturing perspectives: development of perspective-taking abilities in 4- to 8-year-olds.Andrea Frick, Wenke Mã¶Hring & Nora S. Newcombe - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  44.  13
    Where music meets space: Children’s sensitivity to pitch intervals is related to their mental spatial transformation skills.Wenke Möhring, Kizzann Ashana Ramsook, Kathryn Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta M. Golinkoff & Nora S. Newcombe - 2016 - Cognition 151 (C):1-5.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  45.  17
    The philosopher’s paradox.Christopher Viger, Carl Hoefer & Daniel Viger - 2019 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 34 (3):407-421.
    We offer a novel argument for one-boxing in Newcomb’s Problem. The intentional states of a rational person are psychologically coherent across time, and rational decisions are made against this backdrop. We compare this coherence constraint with a golf swing, which to be effective must include a follow-through after the ball is in flight. Decisions, like golf swings, are extended processes, and their coherence with other psychological states of a player in the Newcomb scenario links her choice with the way she (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  12
    Exploration patterns shape cognitive map learning.Iva K. Brunec, Melissa M. Nantais, Jennifer E. Sutton, Russell A. Epstein & Nora S. Newcombe - 2023 - Cognition 233 (C):105360.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  47.  15
    First Direct Evidence of Cue Integration in Reorientation: A New Paradigm.Alexandra D. Twyman, Mark P. Holden & Nora S. Newcombe - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):923-936.
    There are several models of the use of geometric and feature cues in reorientation. The adaptive combination approach posits that people integrate cues with weights that depend on cue salience and learning, or, when discrepancies are large, they choose between cues based on these variables. In a new paradigm designed to evaluate integration and choice, disoriented participants attempted to return to a heading direction, in a trapezoidal enclosure in which feature and geometric cues both unambiguously specified a heading, but later (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  17
    Measuring Spatial Perspective Taking: Analysis of Four Measures Using Item Response Theory.Maria Brucato, Andrea Frick, Stefan Pichelmann, Alina Nazareth & Nora S. Newcombe - 2023 - Topics in Cognitive Science 15 (1):46-74.
    Research on spatial thinking requires reliable and valid measures of individual differences in various component skills. Spatial perspective taking (PT)—the ability to represent viewpoints different from one's own—is one kind of spatial skill that is especially relevant to navigation. This study had two goals. First, the psychometric properties of four PT tests were examined: Four Mountains Task (FMT), Spatial Orientation Task (SOT), Perspective-Taking Task for Adults (PTT-A), and Photographic Perspective-Taking Task (PPTT). Using item response theory (IRT), item difficulty, discriminability, and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  15
    Measuring Spatial Perspective Taking: Analysis of Four Measures Using Item Response Theory.Maria Brucato, Andrea Frick, Stefan Pichelmann, Alina Nazareth & Nora S. Newcombe - 2023 - Topics in Cognitive Science 15 (1):46-74.
    Research on spatial thinking requires reliable and valid measures of individual differences in various component skills. Spatial perspective taking (PT)—the ability to represent viewpoints different from one's own—is one kind of spatial skill that is especially relevant to navigation. This study had two goals. First, the psychometric properties of four PT tests were examined: Four Mountains Task (FMT), Spatial Orientation Task (SOT), Perspective-Taking Task for Adults (PTT-A), and Photographic Perspective-Taking Task (PPTT). Using item response theory (IRT), item difficulty, discriminability, and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  9
    " To be an object" means" to have properties." Thus, any object has at least one property. A good formalization of this simple conclusion is a thesis of second-order logic:(1) Vx3P (Px) This formalization is based on two assumptions:(a) object variables. [REVIEW]Russell'S. Paradox - 2006 - In J. Jadacki & J. Pasniczek (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School: The New Generation. Reidel. pp. 6--129.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 1000