63 found
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  1.  56
    Are Animal Models Predictive for Humans?Niall Shanks, Ray Greek & Jean Greek - 2009 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4:2.
    It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically (...)
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  2.  17
    Animal Models in Biomedical Research: Some Epistemological Worries.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1993 - Public Affairs Quarterly 7 (2):113-130.
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  3.  30
    The Intact Systems Argument: Problems with the Standard Defense of Animal Experimentation.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1993 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):323-333.
  4.  51
    Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1997 - Routledge.
    _Brute Science_ investigates whether biomedical research using animals is, in fact, scientifically justified. Hugh LaFollette and Niall Shanks examine the issues in scientific terms using the models that scientists themselves use. They argue that we need to reassess our use of animals and, indeed, rethink the standard positions in the debate.
  5.  98
    Two Models of Models in Biomedical Research.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):141-160.
    Biomedical researchers claim there is significant biomedical information about humans which can be discovered only through experiments on intact animal systems (AMA p. 2). Although epidemiological studies, computer simulations, clinical investigation, and cell and tissue cultures have become important weapons in the biomedical scientists' arsenal, these are primarily "adjuncts to the use of animals in research" (Sigma Xi p. 76). Controlled laboratory experiments are the core of the scientific enterprise. Biomedical researchers claim these should be conducted on intact biological systems, (...)
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  6. Redundant Complexity: A Critical Analysis of Intelligent Design in Biochemistry.Niall Shanks & Karl H. Joplin - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (2):268-282.
    Biological systems exhibit complexity at all levels of organization. It has recently been argued by Michael Behe that at the biochemical level a type of complexity exists--irreducible complexity--that cannot possibly have arisen as the result of natural, evolutionary processes and must instead be the product of (supernatural) intelligent design. Recent work on self-organizing chemical reactions calls into question Behe's analysis of the origins of biochemical complexity. His central interpretative metaphor for biochemical complexity, that of the well-designed mousetrap that ceases to (...)
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  7. The Rise and Fall of Time-Symmetrized Quantum Mechanics.W. David Sharp & Niall Shanks - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (3):488-499.
    In the context of a discussion of time symmetry in the quantum mechanical measurement process, Aharonov et al. (1964) derived an expression concerning probabilities for the outcomes of measurements conducted on systems which have been pre- and postselected on the basis of both preceding and succeeding measurements. Recent literature has claimed that a resulting "time-symmetrized" interpretation of quantum mechanics has significant implications for some basic issues, such as contextuality and determinateness, in elementary, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Bub and Brown (1986) have (...)
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  8.  10
    The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals.Ray Greek, Niall Shanks & Mark J. Rice - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 11:1-32.
    The current use of animals to test for potential teratogenic effects of drugs and other chemicals dates back to the thalidomide disaster of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Controversy surrounds the following questions: 1. What was known about placental transfer of drugs when thalidomide was developed? 2. Was thalidomide tested on animals for teratogenicity prior to its release? 3. Would more animal testing have prevented the thalidomide disaster? 4. What lessons should be learned from the thalidomide disaster regarding animal (...)
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  9. Belief and the Basis of Humor.Niall Shanks & Hugh LaFollette - 1993 - American Philosophical Quarterly 30 (4):329-39.
    When theorists have studied humor, they often assumed that laughter was either a necessary or a sufficient condition of humor. It is neither. Although humorous events usually evoke laughter, they do not do so invariably. Humor may evoke smiles or smirks which fall short of laughter. Thus it is not a necessary condition. Nor is it a sufficient condition. People may laugh because they are uncomfortable (nervous laughter), they may laugh at someone (derisive laughter), they may laugh because they are (...)
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  10.  84
    Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (3):195 – 210.
    Claude Bernard, the father of scientific physiology, believed that if medicine was to become truly scientiifc, it would have to be based on rigorous and controlled animal experiments. Bernard instituted a paradigm which has shaped physiological practice for most of the twentieth century. ln this paper we examine how Bernards commitment to hypothetico-deductivism and determinism led to (a) his rejection of the theory of evolution; (b) his minima/ization of the role of clinical medicine and epidemiological studies; and (c) his conclusion (...)
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  11. The Origin of Speciesism.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1996 - Philosophy 71 (275):41-.
    Anti-vivisectionists charge that animal experimenters are speciesists people who unjustly discriminate against members of other species. Until recently most defenders of experimentation denied the charge. After the publication of `The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research' in the New England Journal of Medicine , experimenters had a more aggressive reply: `I am a speciesist. Speciesism is not merely plausible, it is essential for right conduct...'1. Most researchers now embrace Cohen's response as part of their defense of animal (...)
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  12. Tim Maudlin, Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity: Metaphysical Intimations of Modern Physics (2nd Edn.). [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 2003 - Metascience 12 (1):97-100.
  13.  27
    Evolution and Medicine: The Long Reach of "Dr. Darwin".Niall Shanks & Rebecca A. Pyles - 2007 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2:4-.
    In this review we consider the new science of Darwinian medicine. While it has often been said that evolutionary theory is the glue that holds the disparate branches of biological inquiry together and gives them direction and purpose, the links to biomedical inquiry have only recently been articulated in a coherent manner. Our aim in this review is to make clear first of all, how evolutionary theory is relevant to medicine; and secondly, how the biomedical sciences have enriched our understanding (...)
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  14.  92
    Modeling Biological Systems: The Belousov–Zhabotinsky Reaction. [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 2001 - Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):33-53.
    In this essay I examine the ways in which the Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is being used by biologists to model a variety of biological systems and processes. The BZ reaction is characterized as a functional model of biological phenomena. It is able to play this role because, though based on very different substrates, the model and system modeled are examples of the same type of excitable medium. Lessons are drawn from this case about the relationships between the sciences of chemistry (...)
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  15.  10
    Methodology and the Birth of Modern Cosmological Inquiry.George Gale & Niall Shanks - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (3):279-296.
  16.  93
    Util-Izing Animals.Hugh Lafollette & Niall Shanks - 1995 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):13-25.
    Biomedical experimentation on animals is justified, researchers say, because of its enormous benefits to human being. Sure an imals die a nd suffer , but that is m orally insignificant since the benefits of research incalculably outweigh the evils. Although this utilitarian claim appears straightforward and uncontroversial, it is neither straightforw ard n ot uncontroversial. This defense of animal experimentation is like ly to succeed only by rejecting three widely held moral presumptions. W e identify those presumptions and explain their (...)
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  17.  26
    Chaos Theory.Niall Shanks - 1994 - Idealistic Studies 24 (3):241-254.
    In this article we discuss two divergent accounts of non-human animals as analog models of human biomedical phenomena. Using a classical account of analogical reasoning, toxicologists and teratologists claim that if the model and subject modeled are substantially similar, then test results in non-human animals are likely applicable to humans . However, the same toxicologists report that different species often react very differently to the same chemical stimuli . The best way to understand their findings is to abandon the classical (...)
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  18. Intelligent Design in Theological Perspective.Niall Shanks & Keith Green - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):307 - 330.
    While "scientism" is typically regarded as a position about the exclusive epistemic authority of science held by a certain class of "cultured despisers" of "religion", we show that only on the assumption of this sort of view do purportedly "scientific" claims made by proponents of "intelligent design" appear to lend epistemic or apologetic support to claims affirmed about God and God's action in "creation" by Christians in confessing their "faith". On the other hand, the hermeneutical strategy that better describes the (...)
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  19. Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation.Hugh Lafollette & Niall Shanks - 1999 - Ethics and the Environment 4 (1):115-121.
     
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  20. Idealization in Contemporary Physics.Niall Shanks (ed.) - 1998
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  21. James T. Cushing and Ernan McMullin, Eds., Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory: Reflections on Bell's Theorem Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11 (1):22-25.
  22.  77
    Quantum Mechanics and Determinism.Niall Shanks - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (170):20-37.
  23.  11
    The Intact Systems Argument.Niall Shanks - 1993 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):323-333.
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  24.  56
    Time, Physics and Freedom.Niall Shanks - 1994 - Metaphilosophy 25 (1):45-59.
  25.  46
    Complex Systems, Evolution, and Animal Models.Ray Greek & Niall Shanks - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):542-544.
  26.  6
    Animal Modeling in Psychopharmacological Contexts.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):653.
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  27.  54
    Time and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability.Niall Shanks - 1993 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 24 (2):293 - 302.
    The prime concern of this paper is with the nature of probability. It is argued that questions concerning the nature of probability are intimately linked to questions about the nature of time. The case study here concerns the single case propensity interpretation of probability. It is argued that while this interpretation of probability has a natural place in the quantum theory, the metaphysical picture of time to be found in relativity theory is incompatible with such a treatment of probability.
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  28.  1
    Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation.Hugh Lafollette & Niall Shanks - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):621-624.
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  29. Methodology and the Birth of Modern Cosmological Inquiry.George Gale & Niall Shanks - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (3):279-296.
  30.  40
    Axiomatic Quantum Mechanics and Radioactive Decay.Niall Shanks - 1993 - Erkenntnis 39 (2):243 - 255.
    This paper explores the consequences of the orthodox resolution of the measurement problem for the axiomatic base of non-relativistic elementary quantum mechanics. It is argued that the standard resolution of the measurement problem generates a paradox whose dissolution may be achieved through an enrichment of the axiomatic foundations of quantum mechanics. These results are also linked to some recent creative proposals by Nancy Cartwright concerning the nature of the so-called reduction of the wave packet.
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  31.  25
    Logical Positivism.Niall Shanks - 1983 - Teaching Philosophy 6 (1):75-76.
  32. Robert T. Pennock, Ed., Intelligent Design Creationism and its Critics: Philosophical, Theological and Scientific Perspectives Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 2003 - Philosophy in Review 23 (4):270-272.
     
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  33.  10
    The Adaptive Radiation of Biological Explanation.Niall Shanks - 2001 - Idealistic Studies 31 (2/3):155-168.
    In this essay I will consider some epistemological issues raised by the following two questions:(l) Does molecular biology provide the best explanations of biological phenomena?(2) What are the best ways (i.e., fruitful strategies) to cast molecular explanations of molecular phenomena?I will argue that notwithstanding the manifest scientific successes of the molecular revolution, the assessment of the philosophical debate between reductionists and antireductionists requires an examination of the ways in which the second question is currently being answered by molecular biologists.
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  34. Gonzalo Munévar, Ed., Beyond Reason: Essays on the Philosophy of Paul K. Feyerabend Reviewed By.Niall Shanks - 1992 - Philosophy in Review 12 (6):412-414.
     
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  35.  8
    Review. [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 1984 - Journal of Business Ethics 3 (2):151-152.
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  36.  7
    Creationism, Evolution and Baloney.Niall Shanks & Cassandra L. Pinnick - 2000 - Metascience 9 (1):86-101.
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  37.  6
    Evolution and the Ethics of Animal Research.Niall Shanks & Keith Green - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):30.
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  38.  3
    Complex Systems, Evolution, and Animal Models.Ray Greek & Niall Shanks - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):542-544.
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  39.  3
    The Intact Systems Argument: Problems with the Standard Defense of Animal Experimentation.Hugh Lafollette & Niall Shanks - 1993 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):323-333.
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  40.  11
    Indeterminacy and Verificationism.Niall Shanks - 1983 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):301-312.
  41.  14
    Review of Neil Manson (Ed.), God and Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science[REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 2004 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (1).
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  42.  5
    Biochemical Reductionism In Biological Context.Niall Shanks - 1997 - Idealistic Studies 27 (1/2):11-22.
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  43.  4
    Complex Systems, Evolution, and Animal Models.Ray Greek & Niall Shanks - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (4):542-544.
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  44.  3
    Julian H. Franklin. Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy. Xix + 151 Pp., Bibl., Index. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. $35 .Lorraine Daston;, Gregg Mitman . Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism. Vi + 230 Pp., Table, Notes, Index. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. $49.50. [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 2006 - Isis 97 (1):194-195.
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  45.  2
    Chaos Theory: Analogical Reasoning In Biomedical Research.Hugh Lafollette & Niall Shanks - 1994 - Idealistic Studies 24 (3):241-254.
    In this article we discuss two divergent accounts of non-human animals as analog models of human biomedical phenomena. Using a classical account of analogical reasoning, toxicologists and teratologists claim that if the model and subject modeled are substantially similar, then test results in non-human animals are likely applicable to humans. However, the same toxicologists report that different species often react very differently to the same chemical stimuli. The best way to understand their findings is to abandon the classical view of (...)
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  46.  2
    Indeterminacy and Verification.Niall Shanks - 1983 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):301-312.
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  47.  2
    Minds, Brains, and Quantum Mechanics.Niall Shanks - 1995 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):243-260.
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  48.  4
    Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy; Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism.Niall Shanks - 2006 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 97:194-195.
    Julian H. Franklin. Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy. xix + 151 pp., bibl., index. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. $35 .; Lorraine Daston; Gregg Mitman . Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism. vi + 230 pp., table, notes, index. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. $49.50 (cloth.
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  49.  4
    Matter Over Mind.Niall Shanks - 2010 - Metascience 19 (1):113-115.
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  50.  3
    Review of “Demons of the Modern World”. [REVIEW]Niall Shanks - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (1):38.
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