Slogans have always been highly popular in China. They are extensively used in politics, as a typical form of public behavior. They are the most convenient and practical means of mobilizing people. Many political slogans or posters are still fresh in the memories of those who experienced the years of war or revolution in China. The most familiar slogans for people these days are those of the Communist Party of China, which exerted an enormous influence on people’s lives. The English (...) word ‘slogan’ has two corresponding meanings in Chinese: ‘slogan’ and ‘poster’. Slogans are designed to be chanted, exclaimed or shouted by people in public, thus appealing to people’s sense of hearing. Posters are designed to be written, and hence appeal to people’s sense of vision. This paper explores political slogans from the viewpoint of logics. It analyzes their stipulative structure and the implicit presuppositions they contain. It argues that, from a formal point of view, effective slogans should be free from logical fallacy, easy to remember, and rationally demonstrable. (shrink)
There are at least five kinds of causative constructions in Chinese, the constructions of the collocation of verbs and prepositional phrases, verb-copying constructions, “ba” constructions with an object ahead, verb-copying constructions with their complements, and pivotal constructions with commands. But the current type-logical grammar has no tools representing the meanings of causative constructions. It would be neither intuitive nor simple to describe these constructions by means of the current type-logical grammar. So we intend to improve the type-logical grammar by adding (...) CAUSE as a logical constant, complementing the structure rules about the movement and addition or deletion of some components of causative constructions, assigning categories to Chinese nouns and prepositions; then we give an intuitive as well as simple analysis on these causative constructions. Based on this work we shall extend the multimodal system of type-logical grammar, increase structure postulates, make constraints on frame semantics, and then prove the soundness and completeness of that system. (shrink)
In Mainland China, due to dominant status and decisive function of Marxism philosophy, philosophy has developed as the state ideology since the foundation of People’s Republic of China in 1949. However, since the 1990s the humanities and social sciences have been experiencing an obvious academic turn in Mainland China. The event first set in with a debate on academic norms and with the debate the academic norms have gradually become the mainstreamin Mainland China. In accordance with the division of disciplines (...) in Mainland China, philosophy as the first-level discipline is subdivided into eight second-level disciplines: Marxist philosophy, Chinese philosophy, foreign philosophy, logic, ethics, aesthetics, religion, and philosophy of science and technology. Roughly speaking, aesthetics, ethics and Marxist philosophy have a remarkable turn, while others just have a weak one. The turn signifies the achievement of the academic autonomy of philosophy in China; and the turn also means that philosophy scholars have realized their transition to professional status. (shrink)
Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical (...) researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China. Data were analyzed by the Chi squared test, one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test, or Spearman’s rank correlation method, where appropriate. The overall response rates in 2010 and 2015 were 4.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Data from 15 participants in 2010 were invalid, and analysis was thus performed for 1263 participants. Among the participants, 54.7% thought that academic misconduct was serious-to-extremely serious, and 71.2% believed that the Chinese authorities paid no or little attention to the academic misconduct. Moreover, 70.2 and 65.2% of participants considered that the punishment for academic misconduct at the authority and institution levels, respectively, was not appropriate or severe enough. Inappropriate authorship and plagiarism were the most common forms of academic misconduct. The most important factor underlying academic misconduct was the academic assessment system, as judged by 50.7% of the participants. Participants estimated that 40.1% of published scientific articles were associated with some form of academic misconduct. Their perceptions towards academic misconduct had not significantly changed over the 5 years. Reform of the academic assessment system should be the fundamental approach to tackling this problem in China. (shrink)
Communication online via the Internet includes different genres, such as email, blogs, chat groups, virtual worlds, and the World Wide Web. Across different genres, Internet communication is primarily undertaken in the form of written language in visual modalities with oral features. The technical properties of Internet communication production and transmission influence how people perceive and use language orthography to construct meanings from language as a new way of thinking and practicing self-expression. My analysis uses Ernst Cassirer’s philosophy of symbolic forms (...) and Louis Hjelmslev’s glossomatics as a theoretical base to analyze and discuss how Internet communication serves to offer a new symbolic form of a new thought process as a type of Walter Ong’s second-order orality in human communication. (shrink)
Climate change is now a global problem that can no longer be ignored. As climate change signals a civilization failure, the emerging reality will spur cultures everywhere to re-examine their traditions and rediscover the ecological wisdom of the ancients. Daoism will be no exception. This paper tries to explain the Daoist response to climate change by focusing on the manifestation of Dao, the responsibility of humankind and the ideal life. It shows that in its tenets and practices, Daoism articulates ideas (...) that emphasize conservation, envision a post-consumerist existence and inform a climate ethics, which can help with the cultural adaptations that are now necessary for a sustainable future. (shrink)
The author of The Philosophy of Invention, Henry Dircks, was an English civil engineer, inventor and historian of technology. The Philosophy of Invention is a forgotten classic of the philosophy of technology, and its author a forgotten pioneer. This new discovery will correct the disciplinary consensus in the philosophy of technology.
The author of The Philosophy of Invention, Henry Dircks (1806–1873), was an English civil engineer, inventor and historian of technology. The Philosophy of Invention is a forgotten classic of the philosophy of technology, and its author a forgotten pioneer. This new discovery will correct the disciplinary consensus in the philosophy of technology.
As two fundamental modes of communication, analog and digital communication are not only ways of information transmission but also two mental habits in our perception and representation of the perception in the creation of communication sign systems. In a broader sense, analog and digital communication are not only for electronic communication or high technology computer networking communication. Language is featured by both analog and digital communication,especially in the development of the writing system. The development of the writing system from images (...) or icons to alphabets is the development of an analog communication to a digital communication. The creation and development of Chinese pictographs illustrate the trend from low digitization to high digitization. From this perspective, we can say that the creation and development of the writing system is a process of digitization. (shrink)
With the development of visual prostheses research from the engineering phase to clinical trials, volunteer recruitment for the early visual prosthesis trials needs to be carefully considered. In this article, we mainly discuss several issues related to volunteer recruitment that had posed serious challenges to the visual prosthesis trials, such as low rates of participants, high expectations and underlying motivations to participate in the visual prosthesis trials as well as the importance of informed consent. When recruiting volunteers for visual prosthesis (...) implants, it is critical that the visual prosthesis researchers should not only take into account the patient’s expectations and motivations, but also make the patients fully aware of the possible benefits and risks involved with their participation, and help patients establish realistic expectations for the early phase of visual prosthesis implantation. Based on these considerations to the challenges, eligible volunteers may be recruited in the preliminary stages of visual prosthesis trials. (shrink)
Evidence from invertebrate systems including Aplysia and Drosophila, as well as studies carried out with mammalian brain, suggests that Ca2+-sensitive adenylyl cyclases may be important for long-term synaptic changes and learning and memory. Furthermore, some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus elevate cyclic AMP (cAMP) signals, and activation of adenylyl cyclases and cAMP-dependent protein kinase may be required for late stages of LTP. We propose that long-term changes in neurons and at synapses may require synergism between the cAMP (...) and Ca2+ signal transduction systems which regulates transcription and synthesis of specific proteins required for long-term synaptic changes. During LTP, protein kinase C is activated and intraccllular Ca2+ increases. We hypothesize that the calmodulin (CaM)-regulated adenylyl cyclases may be activated during LTP because of increases in intracellular Ca2+, release of free CaM from neuromodulin, activation by protein kinase C, release of neurotransmitters, or a combination of these events. Synergistic activation of CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclases may produce a robust or prolonged cAMP signal required for transcriptional control. Furthermore, the coupling of the Ca2+ and cAMP systems may provide positive feedback regulation of Ca2+ channels by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (shrink)
The regulatory properties of the neurospecific, type I adenylyl cyclase and its distribution within brain have suggested that this enzyme may be important for neuroplasticity. To address this issue, the murine, Ca2+ -stimulated adenylyl cyclase (type I), was inactivated by targeted mutagenesis. Ca2+ -stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was reduced 40% to 60% in the hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum. Long term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus from mutants was perturbed relative to controls. Both the initial slope and maxim (...) um extent of changes in synaptic response were reduced. Although mutant mice learned to find a hidden platform normally in the Morris water task, they did not display a preference for the region where the platform had been when it was removed. The behavioral phenotype of these mice is very similar to that exhibited by mice which have been surgically lesioned in the hippocampus. These results indicate that disruption of the gene for the type I adenylyl cyclase produces changes in spatial memory and indicate that the cAMP signal transduction pathway may play an important role for synaptic plasticity. (shrink)
The subject of metaphysics and traditional logic of confrontation is the subject of alienation - the object opposing the inevitable consequences of the theory, the tension between the two depends on the maintenance of the spirit of the times since the Enlightenment, that is the subject of support for the abstract. Once the main body of the abstract is dissolved, the main myth was exposed, the alienation of the natural transgression of ontological existence. Only out of Marx's historical dialectic to (...) the main body of subject-object dichotomy of alienation logic of confrontation with the traditional paradox. In the "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844", Marx has been the traditional logic of alienation made the initial breakthrough. The antinomy between the traditional theory of alienation and the metaphysics of subjectivity is the inevitable theoretic aftermath rooted into the dichotomy of subject-object, whose tension depends on the pure subjectivity-so called the spirit of time that initiated from the era of enlightenment. Once the pure subjectivity was cleared up and the myth of subject was exposed, the alienation must arrogate the reality. Only ground on the historical creation and transcendent of the capitalism mode of production exposed by Marx can we walk out the paradox of the dichotomy of subject- object. (shrink)