Results for 'Nicholas J. Peatfield'

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  1.  35
    Sheaf Cohomology in o-Minimal Structures.Mário J. Edmundo, Gareth O. Jones & Nicholas J. Peatfield - 2006 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 6 (2):163-179.
    Here we prove the existence of sheaf cohomology theory in arbitrary o-minimal structures.
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  2.  52
    Invariance Results for Definable Extensions of Groups.Mário J. Edmundo, Gareth O. Jones & Nicholas J. Peatfield - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (1-2):19-31.
    We show that in an o-minimal expansion of an ordered group finite definable extensions of a definable group which is defined in a reduct are already defined in the reduct. A similar result is proved for finite topological extensions of definable groups defined in o-minimal expansions of the ordered set of real numbers.
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  3. Vagueness and Degrees of Truth.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    In VAGUENESS AND DEGREES OF TRUTH, Nicholas Smith develops a new theory of vagueness: fuzzy plurivaluationism. -/- A predicate is said to be VAGUE if there is no sharply defined boundary between the things to which it applies and the things to which it does not apply. For example, 'heavy' is vague in a way that 'weighs over 20 kilograms' is not. A great many predicates -- both in everyday talk, and in a wide array of theoretical vocabularies, from (...)
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  4.  3
    Postmodernism, Sociology and Health.Nicholas J. Fox - 1993
    Postmodernism and poststructuralism challenge fundamental positions in social theory. This book sets out some of the components of a postmodern social theory of health and healing, deriving from theorists including Derrida, Deleuze and Guattari, Foucault, Cixous and Kristeva. Nicholas J. Fox observes that the knowledge of the medical profession about the body, illness and health supplies the basis for medical dominance. The body of the patient is inscribed by discourses of professional `care,' an interaction which subjectifies the patient. Fox (...)
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  5. Logic: The Laws of Truth.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2012 - Princeton University Press.
    Logic is essential to correct reasoning and also has important theoretical applications in philosophy, computer science, linguistics, and mathematics. This book provides an exceptionally clear introduction to classical logic, with a unique approach that emphasizes both the hows and whys of logic. Here Nicholas Smith thoroughly covers the formal tools and techniques of logic while also imparting a deeper understanding of their underlying rationales and broader philosophical significance. In addition, this is the only introduction to logic available today that (...)
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  6.  45
    Holography and Emergence.Nicholas J. Teh - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):300-311.
    In this paper, I discuss one form of the idea that spacetime and gravity might ‘emerge’ from quantum theory, i.e. via a holographic duality, and in particular via AdS/CFT duality. I begin by giving a survey of the general notion of duality, as well as its connection to emergence. I then review the AdS/CFT duality and proceed to discuss emergence in this context. We will see that it is difficult to find compelling arguments for the emergence of full quantum gravity (...)
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  7.  80
    Theoretical Equivalence in Classical Mechanics and its Relationship to Duality.Nicholas J. Teh & Dimitris Tsementzis - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 59:44-54.
    As a prolegomenon to understanding the sense in which dualities are theoretical equivalences, we investigate the intuitive `equivalence' of hyper-regular Lagrangian and Hamiltonian classical mechanics. We show that the symplectification of these theories provides a sense in which they are isomorphic, and mutually and canonically definable through an analog of `common definitional extension'.
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  8. Worldly Indeterminacy: A Rough Guide.Nicholas J. J. Smith & Gideon Rosen - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):185 – 198.
    This paper defends the idea that there might be vagueness or indeterminacy in the world itself--as opposed to merely in our representations of the world--against the charges of incoherence and unintelligibility. First we consider the idea that the world might contain vague properties and relations ; we show that this idea is already implied by certain well-understood views concerning the semantics of vague predicates (most notably the fuzzy view). Next we consider the idea that the world might contain vague objects (...)
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  9. Bananas Enough for Time Travel?Nicholas J. J. Smith - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (3):363-389.
    This paper argues that the most famous objection to backward time travel can carry no weight. In its classic form, the objection is that backward time travel entails the occurrence of impossible things, such as auto-infanticide—and hence is itself impossible. David Lewis has rebutted the classic version of the objection: auto-infanticide is prevented by coincidences, such as time travellers slipping on banana peels as they attempt to murder their younger selves. I focus on Paul Horwich‘s more recent version of the (...)
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  10. Inconsistency in the A-Theory.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 156 (2):231 - 247.
    This paper presents a new argument against A-theories of time. A-theorists hold that there is an objective now (present moment) and an objective flow of time, the latter constituted by the movement of the objective now through time. A-theorists therefore want to draw different pictures of reality—showing the objective now in different positions—depending upon the time at which the picture is drawn. In this paper it is argued that the times at which the different pictures are drawn may be taken (...)
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  11.  47
    Is Evaluative Compositionality a Requirement of Rationality?Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2014 - Mind 123 (490):457-502.
    This paper presents a new solution to the problems for orthodox decision theory posed by the Pasadena game and its relatives. I argue that a key question raised by consideration of these gambles is whether evaluative compositionality (as I term it) is a requirement of rationality: is the value that an ideally rational agent places on a gamble determined by the values that she places on its possible outcomes, together with their mode of composition into the gamble (i.e. the probabilities (...)
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  12.  49
    “Just” Markets From the Perspective of Catholic Social Teaching.Nicholas J. C. Santos & Gene R. Laczniak - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (S1):29-38.
    The "justice of markets" is intricately connected to the treatment of the poor and the disadvantaged in market economies. The increased interest of multinational corporations in low-income market segments affords, on one hand, the opportunity for a more inclusive capitalism, and on the other, the threat of greater exploitation of poor and disadvantaged consumers. This article traces the contributions of Catholic Social Teaching and its basic principles toward providing insight into what constitutes "justice" in such "marketing to the impoverished" situations.
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  13. A Plea for Things That Are Not Quite All There: Or, Is There a Problem About Vague Composition and Vague Existence?Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2005 - Journal of Philosophy 102 (8):381-421.
    Orthodoxy has it that mereological composition can never be a vague matter, for if it were, then existence would sometimes be a vague matter too, and that's impossible. I accept that vague composition implies vague existence, but deny that either is impossible. In this paper I develop degree-theoretic versions of quantified modal logic and of mereology, and combine them in a framework that allows us to make clear sense of vague composition and vague existence, and the relationships between them.
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  14.  57
    Gravity and Gauge.Nicholas J. Teh - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):497-530.
    Philosophers of physics and physicists have long been intrigued by the analogies and disanalogies between gravitational theories and gauge theories. Indeed, repeated attempts to collapse these disanalogies have made us acutely aware that there are fairly general obstacles to doing so. Nonetheless, there is a special case space-time dimensions) in which gravity is often claimed to be identical to a gauge theory. I subject this claim to philosophical scrutiny in this article. In particular, I analyse how the standard disanalogies can (...)
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  15.  26
    Truth Via Satisfaction?Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2017 - In Pavel Arazim & Tomas Lavicka (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2016. London: College Publications. pp. 273-287.
    One of Tarski’s stated aims was to give an explication of the classical conception of truth—truth as ‘saying it how it is’. Many subsequent commentators have felt that he achieved this aim. Tarski’s core idea of defining truth via satisfaction has now found its way into standard logic textbooks. This paper looks at such textbook definitions of truth in a model for standard first-order languages and argues that they fail from the point of view of explication of the classical notion (...)
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  16.  31
    Time Travel.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2013 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    There is an extensive literature on time travel in both philosophy and physics. Part of the great interest of the topic stems from the fact that reasons have been given both for thinking that time travel is physically possible—and for thinking that it is logically impossible! This entry deals primarily with philosophical issues; issues related to the physics of time travel are covered in the separate entries on time travel and modern physics and time machines. We begin with the definitional (...)
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  17. Vagueness as Closeness.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):157 – 183.
    This paper presents and defends a definition of vagueness, compares it favourably with alternative definitions, and draws out some consequences of accepting this definition for the project of offering a substantive theory of vagueness. The definition is roughly this: a predicate 'F' is vague just in case for any objects a and b, if a and b are very close in respects relevant to the possession of F, then 'Fa' and 'Fb' are very close in respect of truth. The definition (...)
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  18.  4
    Dimensional Structure of and Variation in Anthropomorphic Concepts of God.Nicholas J. Shaman, Anondah R. Saide & Rebekah A. Richert - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  19. Frege's Judgement Stroke and the Conception of Logic as the Study of Inference Not Consequence.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (4):639-665.
    One of the most striking differences between Frege's Begriffsschrift (logical system) and standard contemporary systems of logic is the inclusion in the former of the judgement stroke: a symbol which marks those propositions which are being asserted , that is, which are being used to express judgements . There has been considerable controversy regarding both the exact purpose of the judgement stroke, and whether a system of logic should include such a symbol. This paper explains the intended role of the (...)
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  20.  42
    Infinite Decisions and Rationally Negligible Probabilities.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2016 - Mind (500):1-14.
    I have argued for a picture of decision theory centred on the principle of Rationally Negligible Probabilities. Isaacs argues against this picture on the grounds that it has an untenable implication. I first examine whether my view really has this implication; this involves a discussion of the legitimacy or otherwise of infinite decisions. I then examine whether the implication is really undesirable and conclude that it is not.
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  21. Degree of Belief is Expected Truth Value.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2009 - In Sebastiano Moruzzi & Richard Dietz (eds.), Cuts and Clouds. Vaguenesss, its Nature and its Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 491--506.
    A number of authors have noted that vagueness engenders degrees of belief, but that these degrees of belief do not behave like subjective probabilities. So should we countenance two different kinds of degree of belief: the kind arising from vagueness, and the familiar kind arising from uncertainty, which obey the laws of probability? I argue that we cannot coherently countenance two different kinds of degree of belief. Instead, I present a framework in which there is a single notion of degree (...)
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  22.  10
    Mortality Salience Biases Attention to Positive Versus Negative Images Among Individuals Higher in Trait Self-Control.Nicholas J. Kelley, David Tang & Brandon J. Schmeichel - 2014 - Cognition and Emotion 28 (3):550-559.
  23.  79
    Vagueness, Uncertainty and Degrees of Belief: Two Kinds of Indeterminacy—One Kind of Credence.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (5):1027-44.
    If we think, as Ramsey did, that a degree of belief that P is a stronger or weaker tendency to act as if P, then it is clear that not only uncertainty, but also vagueness, gives rise to degrees of belief. If I like hot coffee and do not know whether the coffee is hot or cold, I will have some tendency to reach for a cup; if I like hot coffee and know that the coffee is borderline hot, I (...)
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  24.  3
    Beyond Health: Postmodernism and Embodiment.Nicholas J. Fox - 1999 - Free Assn Books.
    Beyond Health applies post-structuralist and postmodern ideas to issues of health and health care to provide a radical re-think of how health is to be understood. It offers a perspective in which health is seen as an affirmation of potential rather than as a narrow biopsychosocial construct. The author develops his notion of arche-health and in so doing provides a lucid account of a wide range of post-structuralist and postmodern theoretical perspectives and their relevance to the field of health. This (...)
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  25. Why Sense Cannot Be Made of Vague Identity.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2008 - Noûs 42 (1):1–16.
    In this paper I present a new argument against vague identity — one that is more fundamental than existing arguments — and I also try to explain why we find the idea of vague identity puzzling, in a way that will dispel the puzzlement. In brief, my argument is this: to make clear sense of something, one must at least model it set-theoretically; but due to the special place of identity in set-theoretic models, any vague relation that one does model (...)
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  26. Vagueness and Blurry Sets.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2004 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (2):165-235.
    This paper presents a new theory of vagueness, which is designed to retain the virtues of the fuzzy theory, while avoiding the problem of higher-order vagueness. The theory presented here accommodates the idea that for any statement S₁ to the effect that 'Bob is bald' is x true, for x in [0, 1], there should be a further statement S₂ which tells us how true S₁ is, and so on - that is, it accommodates higher-order vagueness without resorting to the (...)
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  27. The Principle of Uniform Solution (of the Paradoxes of Self-Reference).Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2000 - Mind 109 (433):117-122.
    Graham Priest (1994) has argued that the following paradoxes all have the same structure: Russell’s Paradox, Burali-Forti’s Paradox, Mirimanoff’s Paradox, König’s Paradox, Berry’s Paradox, Richard’s Paradox, the Liar and Liar Chain Paradoxes, the Knower and Knower Chain Paradoxes, and the Heterological Paradox. Their common structure is given by Russell’s Schema: there is a property φ and function δ such that..
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  28.  7
    Nicholas Rescher on Hypothetical Reasoning and the Coherence of Systems of Knowledge.Nicholas J. Moutafakis - 1984 - Idealistic Studies 14 (3):229-236.
    In his celebrated article on the contrary-to-fact conditional Roderick Chisholm makes the following astute observation.
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  29.  76
    Many-Valued Logics.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2012 - In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge. pp. 636--51.
    A many-valued (aka multiple- or multi-valued) semantics, in the strict sense, is one which employs more than two truth values; in the loose sense it is one which countenances more than two truth statuses. So if, for example, we say that there are only two truth values—True and False—but allow that as well as possessing the value True and possessing the value False, propositions may also have a third truth status—possessing neither truth value—then we have a many-valued semantics in the (...)
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  30.  17
    Problems of Precision in Fuzzy Theories of Vagueness and Bayesian Epistemology.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2019 - In Richard Dietz (ed.), Vagueness and Rationality in Language Use and Cognition. Springer Verlag. pp. 31-48.
    A common objection to theories of vagueness based on fuzzy logics centres on the idea that assigning a single numerical degree of truth -- a real number between 0 and 1 -- to each vague statement is excessively precise. A common objection to Bayesian epistemology centres on the idea that assigning a single numerical degree of belief -- a real number between 0 and 1 -- to each proposition is excessively precise. In this paper I explore possible parallels between these (...)
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  31. Fuzzy Logics in Theories of Vagueness.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2015 - In Petr Cintula, Christian Fermüller & Carles Noguera (eds.), Handbook of Mathematical Fuzzy Logic - Volume 3. College Publications.
  32.  7
    The Capacity of Trans-Saccadic Memory in Visual Search.Nicholas J. Kleene & Melchi M. Michel - 2018 - Psychological Review 125 (3):391-408.
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  33.  17
    Negative Affect and Ruminative Self-Focus During Everyday Goal Pursuit.Nicholas J. Moberly & Edward R. Watkins - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (4):729-739.
  34.  67
    Frege's Judgement Stroke.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2000 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78 (2):153 – 175.
    This paper brings to light a new puzzle for Frege interpretation, and offers a solution to that puzzle. The puzzle concerns Frege’s judgement-stroke (‘|’), and consists in a tension between three of Frege’s claims. First, Frege vehemently maintains that psychological considerations should have no place in logic. Second, Frege regards the judgementstroke—and the associated dissociation of assertoric force from content, of the act of judgement from the subject matter about which judgement is made—as a crucial part of his logic. Third, (...)
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  35.  2
    Worldly Indeterminacy: A Rough Guide.Nicholas J. J. Smith & Gideon Rosen - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (Issue in Honour of David Lewis):185-198.
    This paper defends the idea that there might be vagueness or indeterminacy in the world itself---as opposed to merely in our representations of the world---against the charges of incoherence and unintelligibility. First we consider the idea that the world might contain vague *properties and relations*; we show that this idea is already implied by certain well-understood views concerning the semantics of vague predicates (most notably the fuzzy view). Next we consider the idea that the world might contain vague *objects*; we (...)
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  36.  8
    Truthier Than Thou: Truth, Supertruth and Probability of Truth.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2016 - Noûs 50 (4):740-58.
    Different formal tools are useful for different purposes. For example, when it comes to modelling degrees of belief, probability theory is a better tool than classical logic; when it comes to modelling the truth of mathematical claims, classical logic is a better tool than probability theory. In this paper I focus on a widely used formal tool and argue that it does not provide a good model of a phenomenon of which many think it does provide a good model: I (...)
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  37. I’D Do Anything to Change the Past (But I Can’T Do ‘That').Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2017 - American Philosophical Quarterly 54 (2):153-168.
    This paper addresses a worry about backwards time travel. The worry is that there is something mysteriously inexplicable about the combination of commonplace events that will inevitably conspire to prevent the time traveler from doing something impossible such as killing her younger self. The worry is first distinguished from other problems for backwards time travel concerning its alleged impossibility or improbability. It is then shown that the worry is misplaced: there is in fact no real problem here. Yet the worry (...)
     
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  38.  18
    A Theory of Propositions.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2016 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 25 (1):83-125.
    In this paper I present a new theory of propositions, according to which propositions are abstract mathematical objects: well-formed formulas together with models. I distinguish the theory from a number of existing views and explain some of its advantages  chief amongst which are the following. On this view, propositions are unified and intrinsically truth-bearing. They are mind- and language-independent and they are governed by logic. The theory of propositions is ontologically innocent. It makes room for an appropriate interface with (...)
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  39.  99
    Measuring and Modelling Truth.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (4):345-356.
    Philosophers, linguists and others interested in problems concerning natural language frequently employ tools from logic and model theory. The question arises as to the proper interpretation of the formal methods employed—of the relationship between, on the one hand, the formal languages and their set-theoretic models and, on the other hand, the objects of ultimate interest: natural language and the meanings and truth conditions of its constituent words, phrases and sentences. Two familiar answers to this question are descriptivism and instrumentalism. More (...)
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  40.  12
    Bringing Transparency to Medicine: Exploring Physicians' Views and Experiences of the Sunshine Act.Susan Chimonas, Nicholas J. DeVito & David J. Rothman - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):4-18.
    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires health care product manufacturers to report to the federal government payments more than $10 to physicians. Bringing unprecedented transparency to medicine, PPSA holds great potential for enabling medical stakeholders to manage conflicts of interest and build patient trust—crucial responsibilities of medical professionalism. The authors conducted six focus groups with 42 physicians in Chicago, IL, San Francisco, CA, and Washington, DC, to explore attitudes and experiences around PPSA. Participants valued the concept of transparency but were (...)
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  41.  51
    Review of Michael Lynch Truth as One and Many (Oxford University Press, 2009). [REVIEW]Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2010 - Analysis 70 (1):191-193.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  42.  2
    An Architecturally Constrained Model of Random Number Generation and its Application to Modeling the Effect of Generation Rate.Nicholas J. Sexton & Richard P. Cooper - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  43.  34
    A Note on Rovelli’s ‘Why Gauge?’.Nicholas J. Teh - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (3):339-348.
    Rovelli’s “Why Gauge?” offers a parable to show that gauge-dependent quantities have a modal and relational physical significance. We subject the morals of this parable to philosophical scrutiny and argue that, while Rovelli’s main point stands, there are important disanalogies between his parable and Yang-Mills type gauge theory.
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  44.  10
    Hooking Some Stem‐Group “Worms”: Fossil Lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale.Nicholas J. Butterfield - 2006 - Bioessays 28 (12):1161-1166.
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  45.  42
    Śiva and Indo-European Ideology: One Line of Thought. [REVIEW]Nicholas J. Allen - 2007 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 11 (2):191-207.
  46.  5
    The Relative Effectiveness of Various Instructional Approaches in Developing Anticipation Skill.Nicholas J. Smeeton, A. Mark Williams, Nicola J. Hodges & Paul Ward - 2005 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 11 (2):98-110.
  47. Fuzzy Logic and Higher-Order Vagueness.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2011 - In Petr Cintula, Christian G. Fermüller, Lluis Godo & Petr Hájek (eds.), Understanding Vagueness: Logical, Philosophical and Linguistic Perspectives. College Publications. pp. 1--19.
    The major reason given in the philosophical literature for dissatisfaction with theories of vagueness based on fuzzy logic is that such theories give rise to a problem of higherorder vagueness or artificial precision. In this paper I first outline the problem and survey suggested solutions: fuzzy epistemicism; measuring truth on an ordinal scale; logic as modelling; fuzzy metalanguages; blurry sets; and fuzzy plurivaluationism. I then argue that in order to decide upon a solution, we need to understand the true nature (...)
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  48.  61
    Why Surplus Structure Is Not Superfluous.Nguyen James, J. Teh Nicholas & Wells Laura - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (2):665-695.
    The idea that gauge theory has `surplus' structure poses a puzzle: in one much discussed sense, this structure is redundant; but on the other hand, it is also widely held to play an essential role in the theory. In this paper, we employ category-theoretic tools to illuminate an aspect of this puzzle. We precisify what is meant by `surplus' structure by means of functorial comparisons with equivalence classes of gauge fields, and then show that such structure is essential for any (...)
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  49.  35
    'Anger is a Short Madness': Dealing with Anger in Émile's Education.Nicholas J. H. Dent - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 34 (2):313–325.
  50.  5
    Imperatives and Their Logics.Nicholas J. Moutafakis - 1975 - Sterling Publishers.
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