132 found
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  1.  17
    Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Are people rational? This question was central to Greek thought and has been at the heart of psychology and philosophy for millennia. This book provides a radical and controversial reappraisal of conventional wisdom in the psychology of reasoning, proposing that the Western conception of the mind as a logical system is flawed at the very outset. It argues that cognition should be understood in terms of probability theory, the calculus of uncertain reasoning, rather than in terms of logic, the calculus (...)
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  2.  42
    Probabilistic Models of Cognition: Exploring Representations and Inductive Biases.Thomas L. Griffiths, Nick Chater, Charles Kemp, Amy Perfors & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):357-364.
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  3.  17
    Against Logicist Cognitive Science.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 1991 - Mind and Language 6 (1):1-38.
  4.  54
    Language as Shaped by the Brain.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):489-509.
    It is widely assumed that human learning and the structure of human languages are intimately related. This relationship is frequently suggested to derive from a language-specific biological endowment, which encodes universal, but communicatively arbitrary, principles of language structure (a Universal Grammar or UG). How might such a UG have evolved? We argue that UG could not have arisen either by biological adaptation or non-adaptationist genetic processes, resulting in a logical problem of language evolution. Specifically, as the processes of language change (...)
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  5.  86
    Précis of Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):69-84.
    According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic – the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty between propositions. Piaget viewed logical reasoning as defining (...)
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  6.  58
    Probabilistic Models of Cognition: Conceptual Foundations.Nick Chater & Alan Yuille - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (7):287-291.
    Remarkable progress in the mathematics and computer science of probability has led to a revolution in the scope of probabilistic models. In particular, ‘sophisticated’ probabilistic methods apply to structured relational systems such as graphs and grammars, of immediate relevance to the cognitive sciences. This Special Issue outlines progress in this rapidly developing field, which provides a potentially unifying perspective across a wide range of domains and levels of explanation. Here, we introduce the historical and conceptual foundations of the approach, explore (...)
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  7.  50
    Probabilistic Models of Language Processing and Acquisition.Nick Chater & Christopher D. Manning - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (7):335-344.
  8.  16
    The Now-or-Never Bottleneck: A Fundamental Constraint on Language.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-52.
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  9.  25
    Autonomy, Implementation and Cognitive Architecture: A Reply to Fodor and Pylyshyn.Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 1990 - Cognition 34 (1):93-107.
  10.  45
    The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science.Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    'The Probabilistic Mind' is a follow-up to the influential and highly cited 'Rational Models of Cognition' . It brings together developments in understanding how, and how far, high-level cognitive processes can be understood in rational terms, and particularly using probabilistic Bayesian methods.
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  11. Simplicity: A Unifying Principle in Cognitive Science?Nick Chater & P. Vitanyi - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):19-22.
  12.  12
    Toward a Connectionist Model of Recursion in Human Linguistic Performance.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (2):157-205.
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  13.  36
    Networks in Cognitive Science.Andrea Baronchelli, Ramon Ferrer-I.-Cancho, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (7):348-360.
  14.  16
    Dynamic Inference and Everyday Conditional Reasoning in the New Paradigm.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):346-379.
  15.  49
    Language Acquisition Meets Language Evolution.Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (7):1131-1157.
    Recent research suggests that language evolution is a process of cultural change, in which linguistic structures are shaped through repeated cycles of learning and use by domain-general mechanisms. This paper draws out the implications of this viewpoint for understanding the problem of language acquisition, which is cast in a new, and much more tractable, form. In essence, the child faces a problem of induction, where the objective is to coordinate with others (C-induction), rather than to model the structure of the (...)
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  16.  8
    Distributional Information: A Powerful Cue for Acquiring Syntactic Categories.Martin Redington, Nick Chater & Steven Finch - 1998 - Cognitive Science 22 (4):425-469.
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  17.  22
    The Differential Role of Phonological and Distributional Cues in Grammatical Categorisation.Padraic Monaghan, Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen - 2005 - Cognition 96 (2):143-182.
  18.  13
    The Mental Representation of Causal Conditional Reasoning: Mental Models or Causal Models.Nilufa Ali, Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 2011 - Cognition 119 (3):403-418.
  19.  2
    A Temporal Ratio Model of Memory.Gordon D. A. Brown, Ian Neath & Nick Chater - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (3):539-576.
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  20.  8
    The Probabilistic Analysis of Language Acquisition: Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Analysis.Anne S. Hsu, Nick Chater & Paul M. B. Vitányi - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):380-390.
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  21.  39
    The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition: A Probabilistic Perspective.Anne S. Hsu & Nick Chater - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):972-1016.
    Natural language is full of patterns that appear to fit with general linguistic rules but are ungrammatical. There has been much debate over how children acquire these “linguistic restrictions,” and whether innate language knowledge is needed. Recently, it has been shown that restrictions in language can be learned asymptotically via probabilistic inference using the minimum description length (MDL) principle. Here, we extend the MDL approach to give a simple and practical methodology for estimating how much linguistic data are required to (...)
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  22. A Rational Analysis of the Selection Task as Optimal Data Selection.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (4):608-631.
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  23.  41
    Ten Years of the Rational Analysis of Cognition.Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (2):57-65.
  24.  27
    Does the Brain Calculate Value?Ivo Vlaev, Nick Chater, Neil Stewart & Gordon D. A. Brown - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (11):546-554.
  25.  13
    The Imaginary Fundamentalists: The Unshocking Truth About Bayesian Cognitive Science.Nick Chater, Noah Goodman, Thomas L. Griffiths, Charles Kemp, Mike Oaksford & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):194-196.
    If Bayesian Fundamentalism existed, Jones & Love's (J&L's) arguments would provide a necessary corrective. But it does not. Bayesian cognitive science is deeply concerned with characterizing algorithms and representations, and, ultimately, implementations in neural circuits; it pays close attention to environmental structure and the constraints of behavioral data, when available; and it rigorously compares multiple models, both within and across papers. J&L's recommendation of Bayesian Enlightenment corresponds to past, present, and, we hope, future practice in Bayesian cognitive science.
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  26.  30
    Programs as Causal Models: Speculations on Mental Programs and Mental Representation.Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):1171-1191.
    Judea Pearl has argued that counterfactuals and causality are central to intelligence, whether natural or artificial, and has helped create a rich mathematical and computational framework for formally analyzing causality. Here, we draw out connections between these notions and various current issues in cognitive science, including the nature of mental “programs” and mental representation. We argue that programs (consisting of algorithms and data structures) have a causal (counterfactual-supporting) structure; these counterfactuals can reveal the nature of mental representations. Programs can also (...)
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  27.  72
    The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):349-357.
    A recent development in the cognitive science of reasoning has been the emergence of a probabilistic approach to the behaviour observed on ostensibly logical tasks. According to this approach the errors and biases documented on these tasks occur because people import their everyday uncertain reasoning strategies into the laboratory. Consequently participants' apparently irrational behaviour is the result of comparing it with an inappropriate logical standard. In this article, we contrast the probabilistic approach with other approaches to explaining rationality, and then (...)
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  28.  38
    Connectionist Psycholinguistics: Capturing the Empirical Data.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):82-88.
  29.  14
    Similarity as Transformation.Ulrike Hahn, Nick Chater & Lucy B. Richardson - 2003 - Cognition 87 (1):1-32.
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  30.  11
    Transfer in Artificial Grammar Learning: A Reevaluation.Martin Redington & Nick Chater - 1996 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125 (2):123.
  31.  5
    A Simplicity Principle in Unsupervised Human Categorization.Emmanuel M. Pothos & Nick Chater - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (3):303-343.
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  32.  30
    Herding in Humans.Ramsey M. Raafat, Nick Chater & Chris Frith - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (10):420-428.
  33.  28
    Similarity and Rules: Distinct? Exhaustive? Empirically Distinguishable?Ulrike Hahn & Nick Chater - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):197-230.
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  34.  5
    Connectionist Natural Language Processing: The State of the Art.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (4):417-437.
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  35.  17
    Probabilistic Single Function Dual Process Theory and Logic Programming as Approaches to Non-Monotonicity in Human Vs. Artificial Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):269-295.
  36.  12
    Searching Choices: Quantifying Decision‐Making Processes Using Search Engine Data.Helen Susannah Moat, Christopher Y. Olivola, Nick Chater & Tobias Preis - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (3):685-696.
    When making a decision, humans consider two types of information: information they have acquired through their prior experience of the world, and further information they gather to support the decision in question. Here, we present evidence that data from search engines such as Google can help us model both sources of information. We show that statistics from search engines on the frequency of content on the Internet can help us estimate the statistical structure of prior experience; and, specifically, we outline (...)
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  37. Perspectives on Imitation: From Mirror Neurons to Memes, Vol II.Susan Hurley & Nick Chater (eds.) - 2005 - MIT Press.
  38.  22
    Probabilistic Models of Cognition: Where Next?Nick Chater, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Alan Yuille - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (7):292-293.
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  39.  4
    The Language Faculty That Wasn't: A Usage-Based Account of Natural Language Recursion.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  40.  16
    Dual Processes, Probabilities, and Cognitive Architecture.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):15-26.
    It has been argued that dual process theories are not consistent with Oaksford and Chater’s probabilistic approach to human reasoning (Oaksford and Chater in Psychol Rev 101:608–631, 1994 , 2007 ; Oaksford et al. 2000 ), which has been characterised as a “single-level probabilistic treatment[s]” (Evans 2007 ). In this paper, it is argued that this characterisation conflates levels of computational explanation. The probabilistic approach is a computational level theory which is consistent with theories of general cognitive architecture that invoke (...)
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  41.  31
    Conditional Probability and the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):359–379.
  42. The Rational Analysis of Mind and Behavior.Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 2000 - Synthese 122 (1-2):93-131.
    Rational analysis (Anderson 1990, 1991a) is an empiricalprogram of attempting to explain why the cognitive system isadaptive, with respect to its goals and the structure of itsenvironment. We argue that rational analysis has two importantimplications for philosophical debate concerning rationality. First,rational analysis provides a model for the relationship betweenformal principles of rationality (such as probability or decisiontheory) and everyday rationality, in the sense of successfulthought and action in daily life. Second, applying the program ofrational analysis to research on human reasoning (...)
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  43.  33
    Probabilistic and Distributional Approaches to Language Acquisition.Martin Redington & Nick Chater - 1997 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (7):273-281.
  44.  19
    Judging the Probability of Hypotheses Versus the Impact of Evidence: Which Form of Inductive Inference Is More Accurate and Time‐Consistent?Katya Tentori, Nick Chater & Vincenzo Crupi - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):758-778.
    Inductive reasoning requires exploiting links between evidence and hypotheses. This can be done focusing either on the posterior probability of the hypothesis when updated on the new evidence or on the impact of the new evidence on the credibility of the hypothesis. But are these two cognitive representations equally reliable? This study investigates this question by comparing probability and impact judgments on the same experimental materials. The results indicate that impact judgments are more consistent in time and more accurate than (...)
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  45.  4
    Can Cognitive Science Create a Cognitive Economics?Nick Chater - 2015 - Cognition 135:52-55.
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  46.  22
    Unwritten Rules: Virtual Bargaining Underpins Social Interaction, Culture, and Society.Jennifer B. Misyak, Tigran Melkonyan, Hossam Zeitoun & Nick Chater - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (10):512-519.
  47.  1
    Probability Logic and the Modus Ponens-Modus Tollens Asymmetry in Conditional Inference.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2008 - In Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.), The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 97--120.
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  48.  58
    Language Learning From Positive Evidence, Reconsidered: A Simplicity-Based Approach.Anne S. Hsu, Nick Chater & Paul Vitányi - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):35-55.
    Children learn their native language by exposure to their linguistic and communicative environment, but apparently without requiring that their mistakes be corrected. Such learning from “positive evidence” has been viewed as raising “logical” problems for language acquisition. In particular, without correction, how is the child to recover from conjecturing an over-general grammar, which will be consistent with any sentence that the child hears? There have been many proposals concerning how this “logical problem” can be dissolved. In this study, we review (...)
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  49.  34
    The Uncertain Reasoner: Bayes, Logic, and Rationality.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):105-120.
    Human cognition requires coping with a complex and uncertain world. This suggests that dealing with uncertainty may be the central challenge for human reasoning. In Bayesian Rationality we argue that probability theory, the calculus of uncertainty, is the right framework in which to understand everyday reasoning. We also argue that probability theory explains behavior, even on experimental tasks that have been designed to probe people's logical reasoning abilities. Most commentators agree on the centrality of uncertainty; some suggest that there is (...)
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  50.  40
    Probabilistic Effects in Data Selection.Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Becki Grainger - 1999 - Thinking and Reasoning 5 (3):193 – 243.
    Four experiments investigated the effects of probability manipulations on the indicative four card selection task (Wason, 1966, 1968). All looked at the effects of high and low probability antecedents (p) and consequents (q) on participants' data selections when determining the truth or falsity of a conditional rule, if p then q . Experiments 1 and 2 also manipulated believability. In Experiment 1, 128 participants performed the task using rules with varied contents pretested for probability of occurrence. Probabilistic effects were observed (...)
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