Results for 'Nick Shuler'

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  1.  53
    A Rose by Any Other Name: Pain Contracts/Agreements.Myra Christopher, Nick Shuler, Lisa Robin, Ben Rich, Steve Passik, Carlton Haywood, Carmen Green, Aaron Gilson, Lennie Duensing, Robert Arnold, Evan Anderson & Richard Payne - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (11):5-12.
  2. Superintelligence: paths, dangers, strategies.Nick Bostrom (ed.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of (...)
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  3. Human Enhancement.Nick Bostrom & Julian Savulescu (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    To what extent should we use technological advances to try to make better human beings? Leading philosophers debate the possibility of enhancing human cognition, mood, personality, and physical performance, and controlling aging. Would this take us beyond the bounds of human nature? These are questions that need to be answered now.
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  4. A history of transhumanist thought.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (1):1-25.
    The human desire to acquire new capacities is as ancient as our species itself. We have always sought to expand the boundaries of our existence, be it socially, geographically, or mentally. There is a tendency in at least some individuals always to search for a way around every obstacle and limitation to human life and happiness.
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  5. Trivial Truths and the Aim of Inquiry.NicK Treanor - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (3):552-559.
    A pervasive and influential argument appeals to trivial truths to demonstrate that the aim of inquiry is not the acquisition of truth. But the argument fails, for it neglects to distinguish between the complexity of the sentence used to express a truth and the complexity of the truth expressed by a sentence.
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  6. The Measure of Knowledge.Nick Treanor - 2012 - Noûs 47 (3):577-601.
    What is it to know more? By what metric should the quantity of one's knowledge be measured? I start by examining and arguing against a very natural approach to the measure of knowledge, one on which how much is a matter of how many. I then turn to the quasi-spatial notion of counterfactual distance and show how a model that appeals to distance avoids the problems that plague appeals to cardinality. But such a model faces fatal problems of its own. (...)
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  7. Normativity and the Metaphysics of Mind.Nick Zangwill - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):1–19.
    I consider the metaphysical consequences of the view that propositional attitudes have essential normative properties. I argue that realism should take a weak rather than a strong form. I argue that expressivism cannot get off the ground. And I argue that eliminativism is self-refuting.
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  8. The (A)temporal Emergence of Spacetime.Nick Huggett & Christian Wüthrich - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (December):1190-1203.
    This paper examines two cosmological models of quantum gravity to investigate the foundational and conceptual issues arising from quantum treatments of the big bang. While the classical singularity is erased, the quantum evolution that replaces it may not correspond to classical spacetime: it may instead be a non-spatiotemporal region, which somehow transitions to a spatiotemporal state. The different kinds of transition involved are partially characterized, the concept of a physical transition without time is investigated, and the problem of empirical incoherence (...)
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  9.  51
    Essentialism, word use, and concepts.Nick Braisby, Bradley Franks & James Hampton - 1996 - Cognition 59 (3):247-274.
    The essentialist approach to word meaning has been used to undermine the fundamental assumptions of the cognitive psychology of concepts. Essentialism assumes that a word refers to a natural kind category in virtue of category members possessing essential properties. In support of this thesis, Kripke and Putnam deploy various intuitions concerning word use under circumstances in which discoveries about natural kinds are made. Although some studies employing counterfactual discoveries and related transformations appear to vindicate essentialism, we argue that the intuitions (...)
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  10.  72
    The phenomenological habitus and its construction.Nick Crossley - 2001 - Theory and Society 30 (1):81-120.
  11.  26
    Visual Standards and Disciplinary Change: Normal Plates, Tables and Stages in Embryology.Nick Hopwood - 2005 - History of Science 43 (3):239-303.
  12.  58
    Uses and abuses of anachronism in the history of the sciences.Nick Jardine - 2000 - History of Science 38 (3):251-270.
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  13. Human Enhancement Ethics: The State of the Debate.Nick Bostrom & Julian Savulescu - 2007 - In Nick Bostrom & Julian Savulescu (eds.). Oxford University Press. pp. 1--22.
  14. Negative Properties.Nick Zangwill - 2011 - Noûs 45 (3):528-556.
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  15.  79
    Emotion and the Unreal Self: Depersonalization Disorder and De-Affectualization.Nick Medford - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (2):139-144.
    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a psychiatric condition in which there is a pervasive change in the quality of subjective experience, in the absence of psychosis. The core complaint is a persistent and disturbing feeling that experience of oneself and the world has become empty, lifeless, and not fully real. A greatly reduced emotional responsivity, or “de-affectualization,” is frequently described. This article examines the phenomenology and neurobiology of DPD with a particular emphasis on the emotional aspects. It is argued that the (...)
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  16.  28
    Etics and emics (not to mention anemics and emetics) in the history of the sciences.Nick Jardine - 2004 - History of Science 42 (3):261-278.
  17.  64
    Similarity and rules: distinct? exhaustive? empirically distinguishable?Ulrike Hahn & Nick Chater - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):197-230.
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  18.  42
    Mitonuclear match: Optimizing fitness and fertility over generations drives ageing within generations.Nick Lane - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (11):860-869.
    Many conserved eukaryotic traits, including apoptosis, two sexes, speciation and ageing, can be causally linked to a bioenergetic requirement for mitochondrial genes. Mitochondrial genes encode proteins involved in cell respiration, which interact closely with proteins encoded by nuclear genes. Functional respiration requires the coadaptation of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, despite divergent tempi and modes of evolution. Free‐radical signals emerge directly from the biophysics of mosaic respiratory chains encoded by two genomes prone to mismatch, with apoptosis being the default penalty for (...)
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  19.  24
    Limits to natural selection.Nick Barton & Linda Partridge - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (12):1075-1084.
    We review the various factors that limit adaptation by natural selection. Recent discussion of constraints on selection and, conversely, of the factors that enhance “evolvability”, have concentrated on the kinds of variation that can be produced. Here, we emphasise that adaptation depends on how the various evolutionary processes shape variation in populations. We survey the limits that population genetics places on adaptive evolution, and discuss the relationship between disparate literatures. BioEssays 22:1075–1084, 2000. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  20.  39
    Psychiatric Categories as Natural Kinds: Essentialist Thinking about Mental Disorder.Nick Haslam - 2000 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 67:1031-1058.
  21.  19
    Rational and mechanistic perspectives on reinforcement learning.Nick Chater - 2009 - Cognition 113 (3):350-364.
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  22. The Mysteries of Self-Locating Belief and Anthropic Reasoning.Nick Bostrom - 2003 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 11 (1):59-73.
    1. How big is the smallest fish in the pond? You take your wide-meshed fishing net and catch one hundred fishes, every one of which is greater than six inches long. Does this evidence support the hypothesis that no fish in the pond is much less than six inches long? Not if your wide-meshed net can’t actually catch smaller fish...
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  23. Scruton's musical experiences.Nick Zangwill - 2010 - Philosophy 85 (1):91-104.
    Roger Scruton’s account of the nature of music and our experience of it foregrounds the imagination. It is a particularly interesting and promising ‘non-realist’ view in the aesthetics of music, in the sense that it does not postulate aesthetic properties of music that we represent in musical experience. In this paper I critically examine both Scruton’s view and his main argument for it.
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  24.  23
    The Social Construction of ‘Mental Toughness’ – a Fascistoid Ideology?Nick Caddick & Emily Ryall - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):137-154.
    This article considers the social construction of mental toughness in line with prevailing social attitudes towards success and dominance in elite sport. Critical attention is drawn to the research literature which has sought to conceptualise mental toughness and the idealistic rhetoric and metaphor with which it has done so. The concept of mental toughness currently reflects an elitist ideal, constructed along the lines of the romantic narrative of the ‘Hollywood hero’ athlete. In contrast, the mental and moral virtues which should (...)
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  25.  14
    Questions for a reluctant jurisprudence of alterity.Nick Smith - 2009 - In Desmond Manderson (ed.), Essays on Levinas and law: a mosaic. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Levinas and Adorno both refuse to translate their stringent ethical convictions into a programmatic social theory because translating their theories of non-identity into models of governance would necessarily perpetrate, en masse, the very subsumptive violence they denounce. Although Levinas and Adorno have come to provide ethical guidance to Continental philosophers, their outright refusal to be drawn into applied theory has caused innumerable difficulties for progressive theorists compelled by their critiques of instrumental reason but handcuffed by their skepticism toward practical reform. (...)
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  26. Consistency and evidence.Nick Hughes - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (2):333-338.
    Williamson (2000) appeals to considerations about when it is natural to say that a hypothesis is consistent with one’s evidence in order to motivate the claim that all and only knowledge is evidence. It is argued here that the relevant considerations do not support this claim, and in fact conflict with it.
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  27.  21
    Self-Service Technologies and e-Services Risks in Social Commerce Era.Mauricio S. Featherman & Nick Hajli - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (2):251-269.
    Social commerce as a subset of e-commerce has been emerged in part due to the popularity of social networking sites. Social commerce brings new challenges to marketing activities. And social commerce transactions like e-commerce transactions can be dangerous and cause harmful losses to personal finances, time, and information privacy. This article examines ethical issues and consumer assessments of the risks of using an e-service and how risk affects consumer evaluations and usage of Internet-based services and self-service technologies. Results from two (...)
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  28. Why quantize gravity (or any other field for that matter)?Nick Huggett & Craig Callender - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S382-.
    The quantum gravity program seeks a theory that handles quantum matter fields and gravity consistently. But is such a theory really required and must it involve quantizing the gravitational field? We give reasons for a positive answer to the first question, but dispute a widespread contention that it is inconsistent for the gravitational field to be classical while matter is quantum. In particular, we show how a popular argument (Eppley and Hannah 1997) falls short of a no-go theorem, and discuss (...)
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  29. A way out of the Euthyphro dilemma.Nick Zangwill - 2012 - Religious Studies 48 (1):7 - 13.
    I defend the view that morality depends on God against the Euthyphro dilemma by arguing that the reasons that God has for determining the moral-natural dependencies might be personal reasons that have non-moral content. I deflect the 'arbitrary whim' worry, but I concede that the account cannot extend to the goodness of God and His will. However, human moral-natural dependencies can be explained by God's will. So a slightly restricted version of divine commandment theory is defensible.
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  30. FLASH—A superluminal communicator based upon a new kind of quantum measurement.Nick Herbert - 1982 - Foundations of Physics 12 (12):1171-1179.
    The FLASH communicator consists of an apparatus which can distinguish between plane unpolarized (PUP) and circularly unpolarized (CUP) light plus a simple EPR arrangement. FLASH exploits the peculiar properties of “measurements of the Third Kind.” One purpose of this article is to focus attention on the operation of idealized laser gain tubes at the one-photon limit.
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  31.  30
    ŽŒŽ— ŽŸŽ•˜™–Ž—œ ’— ‘Ž ‘’Œœ Œ’Ž—ŒŽ Š— ˜•’’Œœ ˜ ’Ž ¡Ž—œ’˜—.Nick Bostrom - manuscript
    Blackballing the reaper is an old ambition, and considerable progress has been made. For the past 150 years, best-performance life-expectancy (i.e. life-expectancy in the country where it is highest) has increased at a very steady rate of 3 months per year.1 Lifeexpectancy for the ancient Romans was circa 23 years; today the average life-expectancy in the world is 64 years.2 Will this trend continue? What are the consequences if it does? And what ethical and political challenges does the prospect of (...)
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  32.  35
    Ethical principles in the creation of artificial minds.Nick Bostrom - manuscript
    We differentiate morally between actual and potential beings: the latter do not exist now and will never exist unless we bring them into existence. The interests of existing persons should guide the creation of new beings. We ought not to create new beings that are expected to harm the interests of existing persons. If a potential being becomes actual, it becomes a member of the moral community and its interests should be taken into account. A being can be actual even (...)
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  33.  91
    Understanding Quine's theses of indeterminacy.Nick Bostrom - manuscript
    The state of the art as regards the thesis of indeterminacy of translation is as follows. Very much has been said about it, most of which is based on misunderstandings. No satisfactory formulation of the thesis has been presented. No good argument has been given in favour of the thesis. No good argument has been advanced against it.
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  34.  37
    Introduction to the special issue on continental philosophy of law.Nick Smith - 2009 - Continental Philosophy Review 42 (1):1-4.
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  35.  30
    Democratic Indignation: Black American Thought and the Politics of Dignity.Nick Bromell - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (2):0090591712470627.
    This essay argues that black Americans writing from outside or at the margins of the democratic polity shed important light on the nature of human dignity and on the political emotion that offers—to oneself and to others—the surest proof of the existence of such dignity: indignation. I focus in particular on four insights of this body of black American political thought: that the presumption of dignity is the basis on which citizenship is conferred, while its denial is the justification by (...)
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  36.  93
    Hume, taste, and teleology.Nick Zangwill - 1994 - Philosophical Papers 23 (1):1-18.
  37.  34
    Essays on free will and moral responsibility.Nick Trakakis & Daniel Cohen (eds.) - 2008 - Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.
    The problem of free will has fascinated philosophers since ancient times: Do we have free will, or at least the kind of free will that seems necessary for moral responsibility? Does determinism - the idea that everything that happens is necessitated to happen, given the past and the laws of nature - threaten the commonly held assumption that we are indeed free and morally responsible? Although these questions have been widely discussed in the past, the present volume offers a variety (...)
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  38.  34
    Pseudomonadic Algebras as Algebraic Models of Doxastic Modal Logic.Nick Bezhanishvili - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (4):624-636.
    We generalize the notion of a monadic algebra to that of a pseudomonadic algebra. In the same way as monadic algebras serve as algebraic models of epistemic modal system S5, pseudomonadic algebras serve as algebraic models of doxastic modal system KD45. The main results of the paper are: Characterization of subdirectly irreducible and simple pseudomonadic algebras, as well as Tokarz's proper filter algebras; Ordertopological representation of pseudomonadic algebras; Complete description of the lattice of subvarieties of the variety of pseudomonadic algebras.
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  39. The doomsday argument.Nick Bostrom - 2008 - Think 6 (17-18):23-28.
    A recent paper by Korb and Oliver in this journal attempts to refute the Carter-Leslie Doomsday argument. I organize their remarks into five objections and show that they all fail. Further efforts are thus called upon to find out what, if anything, is wrong with Carter and Leslie’s disturbing reasoning. While ultimately unsuccessful, Korb and Oliver’s objections do however in some instances force us to become clearer about what the Doomsday argument does and doesn’t imply.
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  40.  30
    Extendible Formulas in Two Variables in Intuitionistic Logic.Nick Bezhanishvili & Dick Jongh - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (1-2):61-89.
    We give alternative characterizations of exact, extendible and projective formulas in intuitionistic propositional calculus IPC in terms of n -universal models. From these characterizations we derive a new syntactic description of all extendible formulas of IPC in two variables. For the formulas in two variables we also give an alternative proof of Ghilardi’s theorem that every extendible formula is projective.
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  41. The Superintelligent Will: Motivation and Instrumental Rationality in Advanced Artificial Agents. [REVIEW]Nick Bostrom - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (2):71-85.
    This paper discusses the relation between intelligence and motivation in artificial agents, developing and briefly arguing for two theses. The first, the orthogonality thesis, holds (with some caveats) that intelligence and final goals (purposes) are orthogonal axes along which possible artificial intellects can freely vary—more or less any level of intelligence could be combined with more or less any final goal. The second, the instrumental convergence thesis, holds that as long as they possess a sufficient level of intelligence, agents having (...)
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  42. Folk psychiatry: Lay thinking about mental disorder.Nick Haslam - 2003 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 70 (2):621-644.
  43.  82
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence appraisal and ageism.Andrew Stevens, Nick Doyle, Peter Littlejohns & Mary Docherty - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (5):258-262.
    The requirements of the UK Equality Act 2010 and some high profile criticism for using a potentially ageist methodology have prompted the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to assess the processes and methodology it uses to make appraisal decisions. This paper argues that NICE has established rigorous systems to protect against ageist decisions, has no track record of ageism and is well placed to meet the requirements of new UK equality legislation.
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  44. Reading the Past in the Present.Nick Huggett - unknown
    Why is our knowledge of the past so much more ‘expansive’ (to pick a suitably vague term) than our knowledge of the future, and what is the best way to capture the difference(s) (i.e., in what sense is knowledge of the past more ‘expansive’)? One could reasonably approach these questions by giving necessary conditions for different kinds of knowledge, and showing how some were satisfied by certain propositions about the past, and not by corresponding propositions about the future. I take (...)
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  45.  46
    Whistle Blowing — What is it?Nick Bone - 2007 - Research Ethics 3 (3):103-105.
    This paper describes the provisions of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998.
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  46.  30
    Realism, Radical Constructivism, and Film History.Nick Redfern - 2006 - Essays in Philosophy 7 (2):187-199.
    As a technology and an art form perceived to be capable of reproducing the world, it has long been thought that the cinema has a natural affinity with reality. In this essay I consider the Realist theory of film history out forward by Robert C. Allen and Douglas Gomery from the perspective of Radical Constructivism. I argue that such a Realist theory cannot provide us with a viable approach to film history as it presents a flawed description of the historian’s (...)
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  47. Evidential Problem of Evil, The.Nick Trakakis - forthcoming - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Evidential Problem of Evil The evidential problem of evil is the problem of determining whether and, if so, to what extent the existence of evil (or certain instances, kinds, quantities, or distributions of evil) constitutes evidence against the existence of God, that is to say, a being perfect in power, knowledge and goodness. Evidential […].
     
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  48. Entanglement Exchange And Bohmian Mechanics.Nick Huggett & Tiziana Vistarini - 2010 - Manuscrito 33 (1):223-242.
    This paper explains the phenomenon of `entanglement exchange' within the Bohmian approach to quantum mechanics. After explaining Bohmian mechanics and entanglement exchange, in which pairs of particles become entangled without ever interacting causally in the usual, unitary sense, our aim is to use this example, to illustrate how the `pilot wave' mediates non-local correlations. The discussion thus gives a useful new way to think about entanglement exchange, and clarifies the structure of Bohmian mechanics.
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  49.  51
    Marx, Engels, and the Ethics of Violence in Revolt.Nick Hewlett - 2012 - The European Legacy 17 (7):882-898.
    Marx and Engels's thought—combined with the way in which it has been interpreted—has tended to militate against discussion of an ethics of violence in revolt. Along with Sorel and Fanon, their attitude towards violence is often seen simply as one where the ends justify the means and where violence in pursuit of a just society is necessarily defensible. However, we can (and should) look to certain sources within Marx and Engels for inspiration for an ethics of violence in revolt, which (...)
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  50. On adapting Romulus, my father.Nick Drake - 2011 - In Christopher Cordner (ed.), Philosophy, Ethics and a Common Humanity: Essays in Honour of Raimond Gaita. New York: Routledge.
     
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