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Nick Zangwill
University of Hull
  1. The Indifference Argument.Nick Zangwill - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 138 (1):91 - 124.
    I argue against motivational internalism. First I recharacterise the issue over moral motivation. Second I describe the indifference argument against motivation internalism. Third I consider appeals to irrationality that are often made in the face of this argument, and I show that they are ineffective. Lastly, I draw the motivational externalist conclusion and reflect on the nature of the issue.
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  2. The Normativity of the Mental.Nick Zangwill - 2005 - Philosophical Explorations 8 (1):1-19.
    I describe and defend the view in a philosophy of mind that I call 'Normative Essentialism', according to which propositional attitudes have normative essences. Those normative essences are 'horizontal' rational requirements, by which I mean the requirement to have certain propositional attitudes given other propositional attitudes. Different propositional attitudes impose different horizontal rational requirements. I distinguish a stronger and a weaker version of this doctrine and argue for the weaker version. I explore the consequences for knowledge of mind, and I (...)
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  3. Normativity and the Metaphysics of Mind.Nick Zangwill - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):1–19.
    I consider the metaphysical consequences of the view that propositional attitudes have essential normative properties. I argue that realism should take a weak rather than a strong form. I argue that expressivism cannot get off the ground. And I argue that eliminativism is self-refuting.
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  4. Direction of Fit and Normative Functionalism.Nick Zangwill - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 91 (2):173-203.
    What is the difference between belief and desire? In order to explain the difference, recent philosophers have appealed to the metaphor of.
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  5. Moral Epistemology and the Because Constraint.Nick Zangwill - 2006 - In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell. pp. 263--281.
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    Love: Gloriously Amoral and Arational.Nick Zangwill - 2013 - Philosophical Explorations 16 (3):298 - 314.
    I argue that an evaluational conception of love collides with the way we value love. That way allows that love has causes, but not reasons, and it recognizes and celebrates a love that refuses to justify itself. Love has unjustified selectivity, due to its arbitrary causes. That imposes a non-tradability norm. A love for reasons, rational love or evaluational love would be propositional, and it therefore allows that the people we love are tradable commodities. A moralized conception of love is (...)
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  7. Externalist Moral Motivation.Nick Zangwill - 2003 - American Philosophical Quarterly 40 (2):143-154.
    “Motivational externalism” is the externalism until they see more of what view that moral judgements have no motisuch a theory would be like. The mere posvational efficacy in themselves, and that sibility of such a theory is not sufficiently when they motivate us, the source of motireassuring, even given strong arguments vation lies outside the moral judgement in against the opposite position. For there may a separate desire. Motivational externalism also be objections to externalism. contrasts with “motivational internalism,” Moral philosophers (...)
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    The Yummy and the Yucky: Expressive Language and the Agreeable.Nick Zangwill - 2018 - The Monist 101 (3):294-308.
    I probe the judgments of the agreeable that we make about food and drink. I first separate different concerns that we might have with food and drink. After that, I address expressive language by first sketching an evolutionary language-game-theoretic approach for referential language. I then try to extend it to expressive language, showing how expressive signaling might be likely to evolve. Given an account of expressive prediction, and its point, I turn to the Frege-Geach problem for the agreeable. I show (...)
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    The Metaphysics of Beauty.Nick Zangwill - 2001 - Cornell University Press.
    In The Metaphysics of Beauty, Zangwill argues that it is essential to beauty that it depends on the ordinary features of things.
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    Negative Properties.Nick Zangwill - 2011 - Noûs 45 (3):528-556.
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  11. Moral Supervenience.Nick Zangwill - 1995 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20 (1):240-262.
    morality? I want to pursue these questions by examining an argument against moral realism that Simon Blackburn has developed.' In parts 1 and 2, I consider..
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  12. Against the Sociology of the Aesthetic.Nick Zangwill - 2002 - Cultural Values 6 (4):443-452.
  13. Moral Dependence.Nick Zangwill - 2008 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 109-27.
    What is the relation between moral and natural properties? And how do we conceive of this relation? By ‘moral’ properties I will mean properties such as being evil, just or virtuous or having duties or rights; and by ‘natural’ properties I will mean properties such as psychological, sociological and physical properties.1 Suppose we judge that Queen Isabella of Spain was evil in 1492, or at least that many of her actions in 1492 were evil. Then we do not think that (...)
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  14.  89
    Does Knowledge Depend on Truth?Nick Zangwill - 2013 - Acta Analytica 28 (2):139-144.
    That knowledge does not depend on truth is a consequence of a basic principle concerning dependence applied to the case of knowledge: that A depends on C, and that B depends on C, do not mean that A depends on B. This is a standard causal scenario, where two things with a common cause are not themselves causally dependent. Similarly, knowledge that p depends in part on some combination of the belief that p, the fact that p and the proposition (...)
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    Hotel Paintings and the Nature of Art: Everyday Artistic Phenomena and Methodology.Nick Zangwill - 2018 - The Monist 101 (1):53-58.
    I argue that there is a problem for a wide class of theories of art that arises from counterexamples drawn from everyday artistic activity, rather than high artworld artistic activity. I explore how the counterexample functions. Part of the point is to reflect on methodological issues concerning the use of examples when considering theories of art. We will also see why thinking about everyday cases is theoretically significant.
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    Insane Consequentialism: A Pragmatic Objection to Direct Consequentialism.Nick Zangwill - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-16.
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  17. Non-Cognitivism and Motivation.Nick Zangwill - 2009 - In Constantine Sandis (ed.), New Essays on the Explanation of Action. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 416--24.
    In sum, the non-cognitivist account of motivation is far from unproblematic. The non-cognitivist has trouble telling us what moral attitudes are in a way that is consistent with the phenomenon of variable motivation. Given that the cognitivist has an easy explanation of variable motivation, it seems that cognitivism is preferable to non-cognitivism on the score of motivation, which is a reversal of the way the issue is usually perceived.
     
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  18. Moore, Morality, Supervenience, Essence, Epistemology.Nick Zangwill - 2005 - American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (2):125 - 130.
    riety of necessity that binds moral and natural his conception of mental properties has no metaphysical consequences. Descartes is properties because the necessity is neither..
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  19. Against Emotion: Hanslick Was Right About Music.Nick Zangwill - 2004 - British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (1):29-43.
    I argue that Hanslick was right to think that music should not be understood in terms of emotion. In particular, it is not essential to music to possess emotions, arouse emotions, express emotions, or represent emotions. All such theories are misguided.
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    Logic as Metaphysics.Nick Zangwill - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy 112 (10):517-550.
    I defend logical realism. I begin by motivating the realist approach by underlining the difficulties for its main rival: inferentialism. I then focus on AND and OR, and delineate a realist view of these two logical constants. The realist view is developed in terms of Alexander’s Principleshowing that AND and OR have distinctive determining roles. After that, I say what logic is not. We should not take logic to be essentially about the mind, or language, or exclusively about an abstract (...)
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  21. Constitution and Causation.Nick Zangwill - 2012 - Metaphysica 13 (1):1-6.
    I argue that the constitution relation transmits causal efficacy and thus is a suitable relation to deploy in many troubled areas of philosophy, such as the mind–body problem. We need not demand identity.
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  22. Non-Cognitivism and Consistency.Nick Zangwill - 2011 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 65 (4):465-484.
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  23. Besires and the Motivation Debate.Nick Zangwill - 2008 - Theoria 74 (1):50-59.
    Abstract: This article addresses a number of difficulties and complications in the standard formulations of motivational internalism, and considers what besires might be in the light of those difficulties and complications. Two notions of besire are then distinguished, before considering how different kinds of motivational internalism and different conceptions of besire fare against the significant argument that we may be indifferent to the demands of morality without irrationality.
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  24. Daydreams and Anarchy: A Defense of Anomalous Mental Causation.Nick Zangwill - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2):253–289.
    Must mental properties figure in psychological causal laws if they are causally efficacious? And do those psychological causal laws give the essence of mental properties? Contrary to the prevailing consensus, I argue that, on the usual conception of laws that is in play in these debates, there are in fact lawless causally efficacious properties both in and out of the philosophy of mind. I argue that this makes a great difference to the philosophical relevance of empirical psychology. I begin by (...)
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    II—Moral Dependence and Natural Properties.Nick Zangwill - 2017 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 91 (1):221-243.
    I explore the Because Constraint—the idea that moral facts depend on natural facts and that moral judgements ought to respect the dependence of moral facts on natural facts. I consider several issues concerning its clarification and importance.
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  26. Feasible Aesthetic Formalism.Nick Zangwill - 1999 - Noûs 33 (4):610-629.
    Aesthetic Formalism has fallen on hard times. At best it receives unsympathetic discussion and swift rejection. At worst it is the object of abuse and derision. But I think that there is something to be said for it. In this paper, I shall try to find and secure the truth in formalism. I shall not try to defend formalism against all of the objections to it.1 Instead I shall articulate a moderate formalist view that draws on aesthetic0nonaesthetic determination and Kant’s (...)
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    The Metaphysics of Beauty.Nick Zangwill - 2004 - Mind 113 (449):221-226.
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  28. Music, Essential Metaphor, and Private Language.Nick Zangwill - 2011 - American Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1):1.
    Music is elusive. describing it is problematic. In particular its aesthetic properties cannot be captured in literal description. Beyond very simple terms, they cannot be literally described. In this sense, the aesthetic description of music is essentially nonliteral. An adequate aesthetic description of music must have resort to metaphor or other nonliteral devices. I maintain that this is because of the nature of the aesthetic properties being described. I defend this view against an apparently simple objection put by Malcolm Budd. (...)
     
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  29. Against Analytic Moral Functionalism.Nick Zangwill - 2000 - Ratio 13 (3):275–286.
    I argue against the analytic moral functionalist view propounded by Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit. I focus on the ‘input’ clauses of our alleged ‘folk moral theory’. I argue that the examples they give of such input clauses cannot plausibly be interpreted as analytic truths. They are in fact substantive moral claims about the moral ‘domain’. It is a substantive claim that all human beings have equal moral standing. There are those who have rejected this, such as Herman Göring. He (...)
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    Moral modus ponens.Nick Zangwill - 1992 - Ratio 5 (2):177-193.
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  31. A Way Out of the Euthyphro Dilemma.Nick Zangwill - 2012 - Religious Studies 48 (1):7 - 13.
    I defend the view that morality depends on God against the Euthyphro dilemma by arguing that the reasons that God has for determining the moral-natural dependencies might be personal reasons that have non-moral content. I deflect the 'arbitrary whim' worry, but I concede that the account cannot extend to the goodness of God and His will. However, human moral-natural dependencies can be explained by God's will. So a slightly restricted version of divine commandment theory is defensible.
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    Variable Realization: Not Proven.Nick Zangwill - 1992 - Philosophical Quarterly 42 (167):214-19.
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    Scepticism About Scepticism.Nick Zangwill - 2016 - Philosophy 91 (1):109-118.
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  34. Aesthetic Creation.Nick Zangwill - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    What is the purpose of art? What drives us to make it? Why do we value it? Nick Zangwill argues that the function of art is to have certain aesthetic properties in virtue of its non-aesthetic properties, and this function arises because of the artist's insight into the nature of these dependence relations and her intention to bring them about.
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  35. In Defence of Moderate Aesthetic Formalism.Nick Zangwill - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (201):476-493.
    Most of the debate for and against aesthetic formalism in the twentieth century has been little more than a sequence of assertions, on both sides. But there is one discussion that stands out for its argumentative subtlety and depth, and that is Kendall Walton’s paper ‘Categories of Art’.1 In what follows I shall defend a certain version of formalism against the antiformalist arguments which Walton deploys. I want to show that while Walton’s arguments do indeed create insurmountable difficulties for an (...)
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  36. A Priori Knowledge That I Exist.Nick Zangwill - 2013 - Analytic Philosophy 54 (2):189-208.
    I exist. That is something I know. Most philosophers think that Descartes was right that each of us knows that we exist. Furthermore most philosophers agree with Descartes that there is something special about how we know it. Agreement ends there. There is little agreement about exactly what is special about this knowledge. I shall present an account that is in some respects Cartesian in spirit, although I shall not pursue interpretive questions very far. On this account, I know that (...)
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  37. Quietism.Nick Zangwill - 1992 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 17 (1):160-176.
    Metaphysics-—the enquiry into the constitution of reality-seems like the very crown of philosophy. What could be more exciting, more important, and more substantive than the pursuit of such a discipline? The majority of philosophers have been content to assume that metaphysics is a viable enterprise; they have held various metaphysical views and engaged in metaphysical arguments. But there has always been a small but persistent maverick minority of philosophers who have cast aspersions on the whole undertaking. Metaphysics, they tell us, (...)
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    Negative Properties, Determination and Conditionals.Nick Zangwill - 2003 - Topoi 22 (2):127-134.
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  39. Formal Natural Beauty.Nick Zangwill - 2001 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 101 (2):209–224.
    I defend moderate formalism about the aesthetics of nature. I argue that anti-formalists cannot account for the incongruousness of much natural beauty. This shows that some natural beauty is not kind-dependent. I then tackle several anti-formalist arguments that can be found in the writings of Ronald Hepburn, Allen Carlson, and Malcolm Budd.
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    Clouds of Illusion in the Aesthetics of Nature.Nick Zangwill - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (252):576-596.
    I defend extreme formalism about the aesthetics of inorganic nature. I outline the general issue over aesthetic formalism as it manifests itself in the visual arts. The main issue is over whether we need to know about the history of artworks in order to appreciate them aesthetically. I then turn to nature and concede that with organic nature we need to know a thing's biological kinds if we are fully to appreciate it. However, with in organic nature I deny that (...)
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  41. Music, Emotion and Metaphor.Nick Zangwill - 2007 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (4):391-400.
    We describe music in terms of emotion. How should we understand this? Some say that emotion descriptions should be understood literally. Let us call those views “literalist.” By contrast “nonliteralists” deny this and say that such descriptions are typically metaphorical.1 This issue about the linguistic description of music is connected with a central issue about the na- ture of music. That issue is whether there is any essential connection between music and emotion. According to what we can call “emotion theories,” (...)
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  42. Science and Ethics: Demarcation, Holism and Logical Consequences.Nick Zangwill - 2010 - European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):126-138.
    Philosophers have often wanted to state a principled way of demarcating empirical from non-empirical thought. This was a major concern of the Vienna Circle. In my view, this is an important intellectual project. Although it is not so common now to address the issue directly, it hovers in the background of many discussions. Non-empirical thought comes in different kinds. Perhaps some is a priori. Common candidates are mathematical, logical, modal and moral thought. Some non-empirical thought might be non-cognitive. Common candidates (...)
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  43. In Defence of Extreme Formalism About Inorganic Nature: Reply to Parsons.Nick Zangwill - 2005 - British Journal of Aesthetics 45 (2):185-191.
    I defend extreme formalism about inorganic nature against arguments put forward by Glenn Parsons. I begin by laying out the general issue over aesthetic formalism, and I describe the position of extreme formalism about inorganic nature. I then reconsider -Ronald Hepburn's beach/seabed example. Next I discuss the notions of function in play in our thinking about inorganic nature. And lastly I consider Parsons's flooding river example. I conclude that extreme formalism about inorganic nature is safe from Parsons's arguments.
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  44. Appropriate Musical Metaphors.Nick Zangwill - 2009 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 20 (38).
    I argue that we should avoid a unitary account of what makes metaphorical descriptions of music in terms of emotion appropriate. There are many different ways in which musical metaphors can be appropriate. The right view of metaphorical appropriateness is a generously pluralist one.
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  45. Art and Audience.Nick Zangwill - 1999 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (3):315-332.
    D0 works 0f an essentially involve a relation t0 an audience'? Many otherwise very different theories of art agree than they do. S0 the question ‘Wha1 is art?" has no be answered by describing than relation. I shall argue 10 the ccmmrary [hm a theory of wha; ir is m be art should nm invoke any relacicm m an audience. Art has nothing esscmial to do with an audience.
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  46. Moral Mind-Independence.Nick Zangwill - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (2):205-219.
  47.  3
    Aesthetic Creation.Nick Zangwill - 2008 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (4):416-418.
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  48. Defusing Anti-Formalist Arguments.Nick Zangwill - 2000 - British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (3):376-383.
    ANTI-FORMALISM has become the consensus in aesthetics. But in my view anti-formalism is not true to our aesthetic experience; it gives a revisionary account of the aesthetic properties that we think we find in works of art. The thesis I think we should hold is not extreme formalism—the view that all or almost all aesthetic properties are formal—but the moderate thesis that many are. This view has not been given its due because so many aestheticians have been convinced by anti-formalist (...)
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  49. Reply to Nathan on Art.Nick Zangwill - unknown
    I very much appreciate Daniel Nathan’s thoughtful commentary on Aesthe- tic Creation. He describes my view accurately, with a full understanding of what is moving me, and with some sympathy for my methodological concerns, even if he thinks that I over emphasize some desiderata and even if he cannot endorse the particular aesthetic theory that I argue emerges from the methodological reflections. He makes a number of interesting criticisms. (A) Nathan worries about doodles being classified as art according the aesthetic (...)
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  50. Rocks and Sunsets: A Defence of Ignorant Pleasures.Nick Zangwill - 2005 - Rivista di Estetica 45 (2).
    §1. How much do we have to know about what we evaluate? Many aestheticians say that all or most aesthetic evaluations of artworks and natural things require that we know not just about its immediately perceivable aspects but also about its history or deeper nature or wider role. I agree that quite a lot of aesthetic evaluation is like this. But I also think that much is not. Much of our aesthetic life is a matter of a relatively uninformed aesthetic (...)
     
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