22 found
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  1. A Mutualistic Approach to Morality: The Evolution of Fairness by Partner Choice.Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André & Dan Sperber - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):59-122.
    What makes humans moral beings? This question can be understood either as a proximate question or as an ultimate question. The question is about the mental and social mechanisms that produce moral judgments and interactions, and has been investigated by psychologists and social scientists. The question is about the fitness consequences that explain why humans have morality, and has been discussed by evolutionary biologists in the context of the evolution of cooperation. Our goal here is to contribute to a fruitful (...)
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  2. The Origins of Fairness: How Evolution Explains Our Moral Nature.Nicolas Baumard - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
     
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  3.  6
    Psychological Origins of the Industrial Revolution: More Work is Needed!Nicolas Baumard - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    I am grateful to have received so many stimulating commentaries from interested colleagues regarding the psychological origins of the Industrial Revolution and the role of evolutionary theory in understanding historical phenomena. Commentators criticized, extended, and explored the implications of the perspective I presented, and I wholeheartedly agree with many commentaries that more work is needed. In this response, I thus focus on what is needed to further test the psychological origins of the Industrial Revolution. Specifically, I argue, in agreement with (...)
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  4.  44
    Moral Reputation: An Evolutionary and Cognitive Perspective.Dan Sperber & Nicolas Baumard - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (5):495-518.
    From an evolutionary point of view, the function of moral behaviour may be to secure a good reputation as a co-operator. The best way to do so may be to obey genuine moral motivations. Still, one's moral reputation maybe something too important to be entrusted just to one's moral sense. A robust concern for one's reputation is likely to have evolved too. Here we explore some of the complex relationships between morality and reputation both from an evolutionary and a cognitive (...)
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  5.  67
    Explaining Moral Religions.Nicolas Baumard & Pascal Boyer - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (6):272-280.
  6.  17
    Punishment is Not a Group Adaptation: Humans Punish to Restore Fairness Rather Than to Support Group Cooperation.Nicolas Baumard - 2011 - Mind and Society 10 (1):1-26.
    Punitive behaviours are often assumed to be the result of an instinct for punishment. This instinct would have evolved to punish wrongdoers and it would be the evidence that cooperation has evolved by group selection. Here, I propose an alternative theory according to which punishment is a not an adaptation and that there was no specific selective pressure to inflict costs on wrongdoers in the ancestral environment. In this theory, cooperation evolved through partner choice for mutual advantage. In the ancestral (...)
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  7.  39
    Has Punishment Played a Role in the Evolution of Cooperation? A Critical Review.Nicolas Baumard - 2010 - Mind and Society 9 (2):171-192.
    In the past decade, experiments on altruistic punishment have played a central role in the study of the evolution of cooperation. By showing that people are ready to incur a cost to punish cheaters and that punishment help to stabilise cooperation, these experiments have greatly contributed to the rise of group selection theory. However, despite its experimental robustness, it is not clear whether altruistic punishment really exists. Here, I review the anthropological literature and show that hunter-gatherers rarely punish cheaters. Instead, (...)
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  8.  57
    Weird People, Yes, but Also Weird Experiments.Nicolas Baumard & Dan Sperber - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):84-85.
    Henrich et al.’s article fleshes out in a very useful and timely manner comments often heard but rarely published about the extraordinary cultural imbalance in the recruitment of participants in psychology experiments and the doubt this casts on generalization of findings from these “weird” samples to humans in general. The authors mention that one of the concerns they have met in defending their views has been of a methodological nature: “the observed variation across populations may be due to various methodological (...)
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  9.  15
    What Goes Around Comes Around: The Evolutionary Roots of the Belief in Immanent Justice.Nicolas Baumard & Coralie Chevallier - 2012 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 12 (1-2):67-80.
    The belief in immanent justice is the expectation that the universe is designed to ensure that evil is punished and virtue rewarded. What makes this belief so ‘natural’? Here, we suggest that this intuition of immanent justice derives from our evolved sense of fairness. In cases where a misdeed is followed by a misfortune, our sense of fairness construes the misfortune as a way to compensate for the misdeed. To test this hypothesis, we designed a set of studies in which (...)
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  10.  16
    Projecting WEIRD Features on Ancient Religions.Pascal Boyer & Nicolas Baumard - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  11.  17
    Partner Choice, Fairness, and the Extension of Morality.Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André & Dan Sperber - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):102-122.
    Our discussion of the commentaries begins, at the evolutionary level, with issues raised by our account of the evolution of morality in terms of partner-choice mutualism. We then turn to the cognitive level and the characterization and workings of fairness. In a final section, we discuss the degree to which our fairness-based approach to morality extends to norms that are commonly considered moral even though they are distinct from fairness.
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  12.  24
    Life-History Theory Explains Childhood Moral Development.Mark Sheskin, Coralie Chevallier, Stéphane Lambert & Nicolas Baumard - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (12):613-615.
  13.  5
    Both Collection Risk and Waiting Costs Give Rise to the Behavioral Constellation of Deprivation.Hugo Mell, Nicolas Baumard & Jean-Baptiste André - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  14.  3
    Climate is Not a Good Candidate to Account for Variations in Aggression and Violence Across Space and Time.Hugo Mell, Lou Safra, Nicolas Baumard & Pierre O. Jacquet - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  15.  1
    Surveillance Cues Enhance Moral Condemnation.Pierrick Bourrat, Nicolas Baumard & Ryan McKay - 2011 - Evolutionary Psychology 9 (2):193-199.
    Humans pay close attention to the reputational consequences of their actions. Recent experiments indicate that even very subtle cues that one is being observed can affect cooperative behaviors. Expressing our opinions about the morality of certain acts is a key means of advertising our cooperative dispositions. Here, we investigated how subtle cues of being watched would affect moral judgments. We predicted that participants exposed to such cues would affirm their endorsement of prevailing moral norms by expressing greater disapproval of moral (...)
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  16. The Restorative Logic of Punishment: Another Argument in Favor of Weak Selection.Nicolas Baumard & Francesco Guala - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):17.
    Strong reciprocity theorists claim that punishment has evolved to promote the good of the group and to deter cheating. By contrast, weak reciprocity suggests that punishment aims to restore justice (i.e., reciprocity) between the criminal and his victim. Experimental evidences as well as field observations suggest that humans punish criminals to restore fairness rather than to support group cooperation.
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  17.  22
    Psychological Origins of the Industrial Revolution.Nicolas Baumard - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42:1-47.
    Since the Industrial Revolution, human societies have experienced high and sustained rates of economic growth. Recent explanations of this sudden and massive change in economic history have held that modern growth results from an acceleration of innovation. But it is unclear why the rate of innovation drastically accelerated in England in the eighteenth century. An important factor might be the alteration of individual preferences with regard to innovation resulting from the unprecedented living standards of the English during that period, for (...)
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  18.  27
    The Needs of the Many Do Not Outweigh the Needs of the Few: The Limits of Individual Sacrifice Across Diverse Cultures.Mark Sheskin, Coralie Chevallier, Kuniko Adachi, Renatas Berniūnas, Thomas Castelain, Martin Hulín, Hillary Lenfesty, Denis Regnier, Anikó Sebestény & Nicolas Baumard - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 18 (1-2):205-223.
    A long tradition of research in WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) countries has investigated how people weigh individual welfare versus group welfare in their moral judgments. Relatively less research has investigated the generalizability of results across non-WEIRD populations. In the current study, we ask participants across nine diverse cultures (Bali, Costa Rica, France, Guatemala, Japan, Madagascar, Mongolia, Serbia, and the USA) to make a series of moral judgments regarding both third-party sacrifice for group welfare and first-person sacrifice for group (...)
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  19.  8
    For Public Policies, Our Evolved Psychology is the Problem and the Solution.Nicolas Baumard - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):418-419.
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  20.  10
    Fairness, More Than Any Other Cognitive Mechanism, is What Explains the Content of Folk-Economic Beliefs.Nicolas Baumard, Coralie Chevallier & Jean-Baptiste André - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  21.  4
    Biological Markets Explain Human Ultrasociality.Mark Sheskin, Stéphane Lambert & Nicolas Baumard - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  22.  6
    Increased Affluence, Life History Theory, and the Decline of Shamanism.Nicolas Baumard - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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