In this paper, we consider various conceptions of what matter is, taking into account the particular case of mixtures. Portions of matter are typically referred to by mass nouns. So we present the two main accounts of their semantics and how this constrains what can be thought about the ontology of matter and mixtures. The singularist approach treats mass nouns as singular terms referring to mereological sums (Link 1983). The non-singularist approach is based on the idea that mass nouns have (...) the ability to refer to several things at once (Nicolas 2008). In section 3, we examine Barnett’s (2004) reasons for arguing that mereological sums are inadequate to capture our intuitions concerning the identity of portions of mixtures over time. In section 4, we show that the non-singularist must treat nouns of mixtures as collective, temporary predicates. Then we take chemistry into account and explain how it changes our perspective on these issues. (shrink)
The discussion of ethics, corporate responsibility and its educational dimensions focuses primarily on CSR, corporate citizenship and philanthropic theory and practise. The partnership between Microsoft Corporation and UNHCR was launched to help the victims of the Kosovo crisis, at the same time as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gained momentum, and in particular, at the same time as Microsoft experienced a decrease in stock value. This case study sheds light on a decade of Microsoft Corp. efforts to align business (...) objectives with refugee aid, by use of corporate expertise and company revenues. As a leader in technology and corporate citizenship, can Microsoft bridge the digital divide for the disadvantaged and arouse the unlimited potential of tomorrow’s leaders, as the company claims in its communications? Is the partnership beneficial to UNHCR, in line with corporate objectives of “doing big things” and “doing good”? (shrink)
where ‘aa’ is a plural term, and ‘F’ a plural predicate. Following George Boolos (1984) and others, many philosophers and logicians also think that plural expressions should be analysed as not introducing any new ontological commitments to some sort of ‘plural entities’, but rather as involving a new form of reference to objects to which we are already committed (for an overview and further details, see Linnebo 2004). For instance, the plural term ‘aa’ refers to Alice, Bob and Charlie simultaneously, (...) and the plural predicate ‘F’ is true of some things just in case these things cooperate. A natural question that arises is whether the step from the singular to the plural can be iterated. Are there terms that stand to ordinary plural terms the way ordinary plural terms stand to singular terms? Let’s call such terms superplural. A superplural term would thus, loosely speaking, refer to several ‘pluralities’ at once, much as an ordinary plural term refers to several objects at once.1 Further, let’s call a predicate superplural if it can be predicated of superplural terms. It is reasonably straightforward to devise a formal logic of superplural terms, superplural predicates, and even superplural quantifiers (see Rayo 2006). But does this formal logic reflect any features of natural languages? In particular, does ordinary English contain superplural terms and predicates? The purpose of this article is to address these questions. We examine some earlier arguments for the existence of superplural expressions in English and find them to be either.. (shrink)
In this paper, we investigate how certain types of predicates should be connected with certain types of degree scales, and how this can affect the events they describe. The distribution and interpretation of various degree adverbials will serve us as a guideline in this perspective. They suggest that two main types of degree scales should be distinguished: (i) quantity scales, which are characterized by the semantic equivalence of Yannig ate the cake partially and Yannig ate part of the cake; quantity (...) scales only appear with verbs possessing an incremental theme (cf. Dowty 1991); (ii) intensity scales, which are characterized by degree modifiers (e.g., extremely, perfectly) receiving an intensive interpretation; intensity scales typically occur with verbs morphologically related to an adjective (to dry). More generally, we capitalize on a typology of degree structures to explain how degrees play a central role with respect to event structure. (shrink)
Abstract: Friends of plural logic—like Oliver & Smiley (2001), Rayo (2002), Yi (2005), and McKay (2006)—have argued that a semantics of plurals based on mereological sums would be too weak, and they have adduced several examples in favor of their claim. However, they have not considered various possible counter-arguments. So how convincing are their own arguments? We show that several of them are easily answered, while some others are more problematic. Overall, the case against mereological singularism—the idea that mereological sums (...) can serve as the semantic values of plurals—turns out to be much less strong than what it is usually presented to be. (shrink)
What semantics should we attribute to nouns like "wisdom" and "generosity", which are derived from gradable adjectives? We show that, from a morphosyntactic standpoint, these nouns are mass nouns. This leads us to consider and answer the following questions. How are these nouns interpreted in their various uses? What formal representations may one associate with their interpretations? How do these depend on the semantics of the adjective? And where lies the semantic unity of nouns like wisdom and generosity with the (...) more familiar concrete mass nouns, like wine and furniture? (shrink)
In English, some common nouns, like "cat", can be used in the singular and in the plural, while others, like "wate"r, are invariable. Moreover, nouns like "cat" can be employed with numerals like "one" and "two" and determiners like "a", "many" and "few", but neither with "much" nor "little". On the contrary, nouns like "milk" can be used with determiners like "much" and "little", but neither with "a", "one" nor "many". These two types of nouns constitute two morphosyntactic sub-classes of (...) English common nouns; cf. for instance Gillon (1992). They have been respectively called count nouns and mass nouns. In many languages, notably Romance and Germanic languages, one can similarly identify two morphosyntactic subclasses of common nouns, nouns of one class admitting singular and plural number, and nouns of the other being invariable in grammatical number. The question we want to address in this paper is one in lexical semantics: Is there anything characteristic about the meaning of a count noun? (shrink)
What semantics should we attribute to mass expressions like "wisdom" and "love", which are derived from gradable expressions? We first examine how these expressions are used, then how they are interpreted in their various uses. We then propose a model to account for these data, in which derived mass nouns denote instances of properties.
Contra Jackendoff, we argue that within the parallel architecture framework, the generality of language does not require a rich conceptual structure. To show this, we put forward a delegation model of specialization. We find Jackendoff's alternative, the subdivision model, insufficiently supported. In particular, the computational consequences of his representational notion of modularity need to be clarified.
'Philosophy may in no way interfere with the actual use of language; it can in the end only describe it. For it cannot give it any foundation either. It leaves everything as it is.' 'We must do away with all explanation, and description alone must take its place.'.
We assessed the effect of suggestion on the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm and associated it with the Remember–Know–Guess paradigm. Undergraduate students were given either lists of semantically related words or texts containing these words. After the recall task, if participants did not produce the critical lure, the experimenter suggested that the word had been present, using either a question or an assertion ; these conditions were compared to a condition without suggestion. Afterwards, participants took a recognition test. The results showed that strong (...) suggestions lead to more false recognitions than other conditions and the state of consciousness associated with false recognitions tends to be a feeling of knowing rather than remembering, regardless of the verbal version . Therefore moderate suggestions did not lead to more false recognitions compare to no suggestion. We discuss the impact of suggestion on consciousness associated with false memories. (shrink)
L'objet de cet article est d'examiner en quoi la phrase nominale existentielle : (a) Lecture pendant toute la matinée. (b) Lecture d'un poème. (c) Lecture. peut être concernée par la distinction aspectuelle télique / atélique. Nous avons examiné les phrases qui, notamment à cause du type d'expression nominale employé, renvoient à un événement, un processus ou un état. Celles qui renvoient à un événement sont téliques, les autres sont atéliques, comme dans le cas des expressions verbales. Nous avons étudié les (...) énoncés nominaux qui comportent un circonstant (a) pouvant influer sur l'aspect télique ou atélique de l'énoncé et les énoncés qui renferment uniquement un groupe nominal, comme en (b), ou un simple nom comme en (c). Il ressort de cette étude i) que le caractère télique ou atélique d'une phrase nominale existentielle dépend non seulement du type de nom utilisé, mais aussi de facteurs syntaxiques (circonstant, complément, adjectif et déterminant du nom) voire contextuels (l'énoncé précédent); ii) que la phrase nominale existentielle impose certaines contraintes d'emploi, notamment par rapport aux déterminants, ce qui peut freiner l'observation de la télicité pour certains groupes nominaux2. (shrink)
Le dernier étage de l’ Aufbau de Carnap est occupé par le type des objets culturels . L’examen des remarques fugitives de Carnap et la formulation des embarras ou des lacunes qu’elles manifestent montrent notamment, de l’intérieur, les faiblesses du cadre extensionnaliste en ce qui concerne la compréhension des objets culturels. La mention comparative de certains essais phénoménologiques d’ontologie des objets culturels suggère d’autres voies .The last floor of the Carnap's Aufbau by is inhabited by the type of cultural objects (...) . The examination of Carnap's brief remarks and the formulation of the embarrassments or the lacunas they exhibit show, from within, the weaknesses of the extensionalist framework for the comprehension of cultural objects. The comparative mention of phenomenological attempts at an ontology of cultural objects suggests other ways of handling them. (shrink)
Nos daremos a la tarea de presentar una discusión que se encuentra en la obra del filósofo colombiano Julio Enrique Blanco, y en particular en dos de sus primeros escritos: “De la causalidad biológica I” (1917) y “Caminos de perfección” (1918). Para hacerlo debimos primero recurrir a uno de los textos centrales del inglés John Stuart Mill: Un sistema de lógica (1843). Lo que ha resultado de estas tres lecturas es la reconstrucción de una propuesta metodológica realizada por el colombiano, (...) propuesta que presentamos con complementos que son el resultado de las lecturas de éstas y otras obras suyas. Finalmente, intentaremos demostrar que ante la evaluación de los fundamentos cognoscitivos de nociones heredadas, una de las posibilidades que se presenta es inmovilizar aquellas que sean de carácter hipotético antes que hipertético. (shrink)
This paper explores the work of Nicolas Rashevsky, a Russian émigré theoretical physicist who developed a program in "mathematical biophysics" at the University of Chicago during the 1930s. Stressing the complexity of many biological phenomena, Rashevsky argued that the methods of theoretical physics -- namely mathematics -- were needed to "simplify" complex biological processes such as cell division and nerve conduction. A maverick of sorts, Rashevsky was a conspicuous figure in the biological community during the 1930s and early 1940s: (...) he participated in several Cold Spring Harbor symposia and received several years of funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. However, in contrast to many other physicists who moved into biology, Rashevsky's work was almost entirely theoretical, and he eventually faced resistance to his mathematical methods. Through an examination of the conceptual, institutional, and scientific context of Rashevsky's work, this paper seeks to understand some of the reasons behind this resistance. (shrink)
The article analizes the several times of Proclus‘s reception by Nicholas of Cusa’s thought. The direct reading of Proclus can be established because Expositio in Parmenidem Platonis –Cod.Cus. 186– and Elementatio theological –Cod.Cus.195– (Moerbeke’s translation) and De theologia Platonis Libri VI –Cod.Cus.185– (Petrus Balbus’s translation) are in his Library in Bernkastel-Kues with his marginalia. The assimilation of doctrines can be considered assuming that the implicits and explicits references to Plato’s Diadochus, especially in the last works.
Humphry Osmond wrote to Aldous Huxley in 1956 proposing the term “psychedelic,” coined from two Greek words to mean “mind manifesting.” The scholars, one a psychiatrist and the other a celebrated novelist and philosopher, were exuberant about the potential of drugs for accessing the mind. Huxley favored a phrase from William Blake: -/- If the doors of perception were cleansed everything would appear to man as it is, infinite. -/- He postulated that psychedelics disturbed the “cerebral reducing valve” (1954), and (...) that this was in fact the shared mechanism for regular drug trips, as well as schizophrenic and mystical experiences. If it were the case, the drugs could offer a chemical shortcut to the divine, and a reasonable way to scientifically study mental illness. -/- With such ideas in vogue, the 1950s were heady years, at least for research on psychedelic drugs. More than 750 articles were published on LSD alone. Some studies made use of the drug experience to model schizophrenia, others to develop treatments for alcoholism. And as Nicolas Langlitz explains in Neuropsychedelia: The Revival of Hallucinogen Research Since the Decade of the Brain, the brain as filter – the idea of gates or doors (which, yes, also gave name to the band) – would go on to serve as a significant shared conceptual matrix for psychopharmacologic research, from experimental psychosis to experimental mysticism (10). (shrink)
The sense of fairness is a central aspect of human moral psychology. Intuitions about fairness lead to many widespread moral beliefs, such as the belief that the punishment should fit the crime or the belief that one deserves a fair share of what one has earned. In The Origins of Fairness, Nicolas Baumard sets out to shed light on the evolutionary origin of these intuitions. He argues that the human sense of fairness is innate and universal, and he offers (...) an account of its evolution that highlights the role of bargaining in early human “cooperation markets.”. (shrink)
É rara uma reflexão engenhosa sobre arte contemporânea como a do filósofo, crítico, editor e curador francês Nicolas Bourriaud. Conhecido do público brasileiro por sua participação nos “Seminários da 27ª Bienal de São Paulo”, em 2006, e pela publicação de Estética Relacional e de Pós-produção: como a arte reprograma o mundo contemporâneo, em 2009, Bourriaud tornouse referência no estudo das artes visuais a partir anos 1990. Sua ensaística vigorosa, não destituída de rigor, que mobiliza autores como Gilles Deleuze, Félix (...) Guattari, Michel Foucault e Jurgen Habermas, é reafirmada, agora, nos novos títulos publicados no Brasil: Formas de vida: a arte moderna e a invenção de si, de 1999, e Radicante: por uma estética da globalização, de 2009. (shrink)
Nicolas de Warren hat eine tiefgreifende und problemorientierte Interpretation von Husserls pha¨nomenologischen Untersuchungen der Zeit vorgelegt, in der er u¨ber eingehende Detailanalysen hinaus eine These u¨ber deren zentrale philosophische Bedeutung aufstellt: Das im Titel der Studie erwa¨hnte ,,Versprechen der Zeit‘‘1 besteht darin, dass durch die Analysen des Zeitbewusstseins die Grundlagen der transzendentalen Pha¨nomenologie u¨berhaupt zu einer Kla¨rung gelangen und damit zugleich das Fundament des pha¨nomenologischen Begriffs der Subjektivita¨t freigelegt wird. Das wahre ,,Versprechen der Zeit‘‘, so heißt es am Ende (...) des Buches, liege letztlich in dem unaufho¨rlichen Streben, ich selbst zu werden (S. 290). (shrink)
El pensamiento de Nicolás Gómez Dávila (Bogotá, 1913-1994), es un gran ausente en el concierto académico de nuestra Nación. Se quiere hacer aquí una presentación de sus principales presupuestos, para sopesar la riqueza argumentativa que podría avalar un verdadero pensamiento filosófico de nuestra tierra. Revisar sus posturas personales, frente a asuntos tales como la crítica a la democracia (a favor de la Aristocracia), la racionalidad moderna, el cristianismo, entre otros, pueden servirnos hoy como excusa para contactar con un erudito que, (...) si bien no dejó una larga producción, sí hizo una interesantísima producción de escolios y textos, que podrían inquietar a todo amigo del saber. A través de sus escritos, se puede observar la mirada crítica de un hombre formado en la tradición: Filósofo, cristiano, políglota, reaccionario confeso. Sin embargo, se logra adivinar en él un matiz de innovación, que vuelve apasionante la experiencia de la lectura de sus obras. Así, Gómez Dávila reta a su lector a saber más, desde su lenguaje exquisito tienta a descubrir aún más... desde el escolio, nos sugiere lo novedoso, teniendo como base la tradición del pensamiento que él mismo conoce al extremo. (shrink)
The problem of time consciousness was not only thought by Husserl to be the most difficult problem of phenomenology, it may legitimately claim to be, as Nicolas de Warren argues in this thought provoking book, at the root of the phenomenological project itself. For, understanding the claims Husserl makes for the fundamental status of transcendental subjectivity are required by and clariﬁed through the detailed analysis of time consciousness.
Henry More and Nicolas Malebranche, each in his own way, drew a distinction between two kinds of extension, the one indivisible and the other divisible. Spinoza also drew a comparable distinction, explaining that, insofar as extended substance was conceived intellectually, it would be grasped as indivisible, whereas, when it was instead depicted in the imagination, it would be seen as divisible. But, whereas for Spinoza these were just different views on one and the same extended substance, More and Malebranche's (...) two kinds of extension were supposed to be really distinct from one another. Consequently, neither of them could identify Spinoza's substance with both of his own non-identical kinds; and so they faced a choice over which one they would associate it with. The intriguing thing is that here they diverged. More felt that Spinoza's substance was actually divisible, and consequently material. Malebranche felt that it was actually indivisible, and consequently ideal and divine. In each case, they felt that the other kind of extension—whichever that might be—was simply absent from Spinoza's system. This article explores this divergence between More and Malebranche's interpretations of Spinoza's metaphysics, and it seeks an explanation for it in their own respective epistemologies. (shrink)
Al comienzo del De Visione Dei ,Nicolás de Cusa nos pone ante un icono del mirar divino y nos invita a una experiencia muy personal, a una acción inicialmente envuelta en la reflexión metafórica, la contemplación mística. Trabajando con la metáfora de la mirada, el Cusano nos sitúa ante la mirada del creador y la mirada de la creatura. En De Visione Dei, el mirar divino es creador y amante. El mirar de Dios ve, crea y ama. De esa manera, (...) el presente trabajo procurará reflejar la importancia del mirar, intentando trazar en el De Visione Dei una relación entre la unidad de la mirada del creador y la multiplicidad de la mirada de la creatura. (shrink)
Over the last decades, curator Nicolas Bourriaud has drawn significant inspiration for his writings on contemporary art from the theories of the Situationist International (SI), an avant-garde group in existence from 1957 until 1972. Mischaracterizing the SI’s concepts of the situation, détournement, and the dérive, Bourriaud claims to update these concepts with concepts of his own: relational aesthetics, detourage, and radicant aesthetics. This article identifies such misrepresentations and highlights the differences between Bourriaud’s paradigms and those of the SI. This (...) contextual restitution also provides an opportunity to examine Bourriaud’s general methodology of substituting conceptual formalism for art historical theory. Bourriaud’s publications repeatedly claim a historical materialist perspective on aesthetics, only to eventually eliminate this perspective; his use and abuse of Situationist theory is the foundational example for this pattern. More than the artworks showcased in Bourriaud’s exhibitions and referenced in his publications, his artistic paradigms describe and delineate his own philosophical sleight of hand. (shrink)