68 found
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  1. Unreliable Probabilities, Risk Taking, and Decision Making.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):361-386.
  2. Decision, Probability and Utility: Selected Readings.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.) - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    Decision theory and the theory of rational choice have recently been the subjects of considerable research by philosophers and economists. However, no adequate anthology exists which can be used to introduce students to the field. This volume is designed to meet that need. The essays included are organized into five parts covering the foundations of decision theory, the conceptualization of probability and utility, pholosophical difficulties with the rules of rationality and with the assessment of probability, and causal decision theory. The (...)
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  3.  9
    Science and Proven Experience : A Swedish Variety of Evidence Based Medicine and a Way to Better Risk Analysis?Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman, Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg & Nils-Eric Sahlin - forthcoming - Journal of Risk Research.
    A key question for evidence-based medicine is how best to model the way in which EBM should‘[integrate] individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence’. We argue that the formulations and models available in the literature today are modest variations on a common theme and face very similar problems when it comes to risk analysis, which is here understood as a decision procedure comprising a factual assessment of risk, the risk assessment, and the decision what to do based on this (...)
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  4. Decision Science: From Ramsey to Dual Process Theories.Nils-Eric Sahlin, Annika Wallin & Johannes Persson - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):129-143.
    The hypothesis that human reasoning and decision-making can be roughly modeled by Expected Utility Theory has been at the core of decision science. Accumulating evidence has led researchers to modify the hypothesis. One of the latest additions to the field is Dual Process theory, which attempts to explain variance between participants and tasks when it comes to deviations from Expected Utility Theory. It is argued that Dual Process theories at this point cannot replace previous theories, since they, among other things, (...)
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  5.  12
    A New Challenge for Objective Uncertainties and The Propensity Theorist.Robin Stenwall, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2018 - Metaphysica 19 (2):219-224.
    The paper is concerned with the existence of objective uncertainties. What would it take for objective uncertainties to exist, and what would be the consequences for our understanding of the world we live in? We approach these questions by considering two common theories on how we are to understand the being of propensities and how it pertains to possible outcomes that remain unmanifested. It is argued that both or these theories should be rejected, and be replaced with a theory we (...)
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  6.  19
    The Philosophy of F. P. Ramsey.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    F. P. Ramsey was a remarkably creative and subtle philosopher who in the briefest of academic careers made significant contributions to logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language and decision theory. His few published papers reveal him to be a figure or comparable importance to Russell, Carnap and Wittgenstein in the history of analytical philosophy. This book was the first critical study of Ramsey's work, offering a thorough exposition and interpretation of his ideas, setting the ideas in their historical context, (...)
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  7.  6
    Climate Change, Values, and the Cultural Cognition Thesis.Johannes Persson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Annika Wallin - 2015 - Environmental Science and Policy 52 (1-5).
    Recently the importance of addressing values in discussions of risk perception and adaptation to climate change has become manifest. Values-based approaches to climate change adaptation and the cultural cognition thesis both illustrate this trend. We argue that in the wake of this development it is necessary to take the dynamic relationship between values and beliefs seriously, to acknowledge the possibility of bi-directional relationships between values and beliefs, and to address the variety of values involved. The dynamic relationship between values and (...)
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  8.  42
    Decision Making with Unreliable Probabilities.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    This paper presents a decision theory which allows subjects to account for the uncertainties of their probability estimates. This is accomplished by modelling beliefs about states of nature by means of a class of probability measures. In order to represent uncertainties of those beliefs a measure of epistemic reliability is introduced. The suggested decision theory is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence on ambiguity and uncertainty in decision making. The theory is also compared to Tversky & Kahneman's prospect theory.
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  9.  84
    Baconian Inductivism in Research on Human Decision Making.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    The paper discusses the pros and cons of inductive research methods. It is argued that, despite the profusion of good arguments against this scientific strategy, it is frequently employed, for example in psychology. A case probe taken from the realm of cognitive psychology is used as an illustration.
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  10.  6
    Ruling Out Risks in Medical Research.Sten Anttila, Johannes Persson, Måns Rosén, Niklas Vareman, Sigurd Vitols & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2019 - Journal of Risk Research 22 (6):796-802.
    In medical research, it is not unusual that risks are ruled out without any specification the exact risk that was ruled out. This makes it difficult to balance expected health benefits and risk of harm when choosing between alternative treatment options. International guidelines for reporting medical research results are sufficiently specific when it comes to establishing health benefits. However, there is a lack of standards for reporting on ruling out risks. We argue that transparency is needed, as in the case (...)
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  11.  44
    Why Metaphysicians Do Not Explain.Ingar Brinck, Göran Hermerén, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    The paper discusses the concept of explanation in metaphysics. Different types of explanation are identified and explored. Scientific explanation is compared with metaphysical explanation. The comparison illustrates the difficulties with applying the concept of explanation in metaphysics.
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  12.  85
    Obtained by a Reliable Process and Always Leading to Success.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1991 - Theoria 57 (3):132-149.
  13.  1
    Unreliable Probabilities, Risk Taking and Decision Making.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1988 - In Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.), Decision, Probability and Utility. Cambridge University Press. pp. 313-334.
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  14.  92
    The Significance of Empirical Evidence for Developments in the Foundations of Decision Theory.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
  15. Worthy of Choice.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1993 - Theoria 59 (1-3):178-191.
  16. Some Ontological Speculations: Ramsey on Particulars, Universals and Facts.Anna-Sofia Maurin & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2005 - Metaphysica 3 (3):7-28.
  17.  85
    Weight of the Value of Knowledge.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
  18.  87
    On Epistemic Risk and Outcome Risk in Criminal Cases.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  19.  95
    Should the Quest for Optimality Worry Us?Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):231-231.
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  20.  20
    A Philosophical Account of Interventions and Causal Representation in Nursing Research: A Discussion Paper.Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    BACKGROUND: Representing is about theories and theory formation. Philosophy of science has a long-standing interest in representing. At least since Ian Hacking's modern classic Representing and Intervening analytical philosophers have struggled to combine that interest with a study of the roles of intervention studies. With few exceptions this focus of philosophy of science has been on physics and other natural sciences. In particular, there have been few attempts to analyse the use of the notion of intervention in other disciplines where (...)
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  21.  15
    How Can We Be Moral When We Are so Irrational?Nils-Eric Sahlin & Johan Brännmark - unknown
    Normative ethics usually presupposes background accounts of human agency, and although different ethical theorists might have different pictures of human agency in mind, there is still something like a standard account that most of mainstream normative ethics can be understood to rest on. Ethical theorists tend to have Rational Man, or at least some close relative to him, in mind when constructing normative theories. It will be argued here that empirical findings raise doubts about the accuracy of this kind of (...)
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  22.  46
    The Role of Second-Order Probabilities in Decision Making.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Robert Goldsmith - unknown
    The importance, legitimacy and role of second-order probabilities are discussed. Two descriptive models of the use of second-order probabilities in decisions are presented. The results of two empirical studies of the effects of second-order probabilities upon the rank orderings of bets are summarized briefly. The bets were of three basic types and involved a wide variety of first- and second-order probabilities as subjectively assessed by the subjects. Support was obtained for the assumption that the majority of subjects make use of (...)
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  23.  8
    Paternal Consent in Prenatal Research: Ethical Aspects.Mats Johansson, Göran Hermerén & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (2):325-331.
    The role of mothers in prenatal research has been discussed extensively. Significantly less work has been done on the father’s role. In this article, focusing on ethical issues, we seek to redress this imbalance. Examining the father’s position in research conducted on pregnant women, we ask whether or not paternal consent ought to be required in addition to that of the pregnant woman. Having distinguished between different concepts of father and mother, we proceed by giving an overview of the reasons (...)
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  24.  12
    On Second Order Probabilities and the Notion of Epistemic Risk.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    Second or higher order probabilities have commonly been viewed with scepticism by those working within the realm of probability and decision theory. The aim of the present note is to show how the notion of second order probabilities can add to our understanding of judgmental and decision processes and how the traditional framework of Bayesian decision theory can be extended in a fruitful way by taking such entities into account. Section one consists of a brief account of arguments put forth (...)
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  25.  1
    The Philosophy of F. P. Ramsey.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    F. P. Ramsey was a remarkably creative and subtle philosopher who in the briefest of academic careers made significant contributions to logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language and decision theory. His few published papers reveal him to be a figure or comparable importance to Russell, Carnap and Wittgenstein in the history of analytical philosophy. This book was the first critical study of Ramsey's work, offering a thorough exposition and interpretation of his ideas, setting the ideas in their historical context, (...)
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  26.  51
    Do People Combine Evidence According to an Evidentiary Value Model?Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1983 - In Peter Gärdenförs, Bengt Hansson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Sören Halldén (eds.), Evidentiary Value: Philosophical, Judicial, and Psychological Aspects of a Theory: Essays Dedicated to Sören Halldén on His Sixtieth Birthday. C.W.K. Gleerups.
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  27.  55
    Preference Among Preferences as a Method for Obtaining a Higher Ordered Metric Scale.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    A method is presented for collecting data which yield a scale on which the entities are ranked in preference and all combinations of value distances are ranked. The method is based on the concept of secondary preference, i.e. preference among preferences. This method is compared with a classical method based on 50–50 game comparison. Two empirical studies are presented. The first examines whether both methods yield the same ordering of value distances. The second involves empirical derivation of a higher-ordered metric (...)
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  28.  41
    Reply to Levi.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):433 - 438.
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  29.  22
    On Higher Order Beliefs.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1993 - In J. Dubucs (ed.), Philosophy of Probability. Kluwer, Dordrecht. pp. 13--34.
  30.  13
    'He Is No Good for My Work': On the Philosophical Relations Between Ramsey and Wittgenstein.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:61-86.
  31.  12
    Three Decision Rules for Generalized Probability Representations.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):751-753.
  32.  4
    A Reply to Mellor’s “Propensities and Possibilities”.Robin Stenwall, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2019 - Metaphysica 20 (2):149-150.
    We would like to thank D. H. Mellor for taking time to comment on our paper “A New Challenge for Objective Uncertainties and The Propensity Theorist”.
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  33.  1
    Ramsey Sentences: An Observation.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Martin Kaså - 2005 - Metaphysica (3):109-117.
    Ramsey argued that the best way to understand how the theoretical terms of a theory function is to picture them as existentially bound variables. We explore the ontological ramifications of Ramsey's idea by developing a new type of dynamic model-theoretical semantics, based on the concept of an experimental logic.
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  34.  4
    The Evidentiary Value Model.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Wlodek Rabinowicz - unknown
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  35. Evidentiary Value: Philosophical, Judicial, and Psychological Aspects of a Theory: Essays Dedicated to Sören Halldén on His Sixtieth Birthday.Peter Gärdenförs, Bengt Hansson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Sören Halldén (eds.) - 1983 - C.W.K. Gleerups.
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  36.  16
    On the Philosophical Relations Between Ramsey and Wittgenstein.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
  37.  27
    Introduction : Bayesian Decision Theory, Foundations and Problems.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
  38.  31
    How to Be 100% Certain 99.5% of the Time.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):91-111.
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  39.  2
    The Value of Life.Göran Hermerén & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  40.  16
    Science and Proven Experience : A Swedish Variety of Evidence-Based Medicine?Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman, Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    A key question for evidence-based medicine is how best to model the way in which EBM should “[integrate] individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence”. We argue that the formulations and models available in the literature today are modest variations on a common theme and face very similar problems. For example, both the early and updated models of evidence-based clinical decisions presented in Haynes, Devereaux and Guyatt assume that EBM consists of, among other things, evidence from clinical research and (...)
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  41.  12
    Combining Evidence.Anthony Freeling & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1983 - In Peter Gärdenförs, Bengt Hansson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Sören Halldén (eds.), Evidentiary Value: Philosophical, Judicial, and Psychological Aspects of a Theory: Essays Dedicated to Sören Halldén on His Sixtieth Birthday. C.W.K. Gleerups.
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  42.  20
    The Risks of Ignorance.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
  43.  17
    Some Ontological Speculations: Ramsey on Universals, Particulars and Facts.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2005 - Metaphysica 3:7-28.
  44.  5
    Levels of Aspiration and Risk.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  45.  1
    The Complexity of Creativity.Å. E. Andersson & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.) - 1997 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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  46.  1
    Conclusiveness Resolves the Conflict Between Quality of Evidence and Imprecision in GRADE.Sten Anttila, Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2016 - Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 75:1-5.
    The objective of our article is to show how “quality of evidence” and “imprecision,” as they are defined in Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation articles, may lead to confusion. We focus only on the context of systematic reviews.
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  47.  1
    Value Uncertainty and Value Instability in Decision-Making.Göran Hermerén, Ingar Brinck, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2014 - In Julien Dutant, Davide Fassio & Anne Meylan (eds.), Liber Amicorum Pascal Engel. pp. 100-110.
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of value uncertainty and value instability in decision-making that concerns morally controversial issues. Value uncertainty and value instability are distinguished from moral uncertainty, and several types of value uncertainty and value instability are defined and discussed. The relations between value uncertainty and value instability are explored, and value uncertainty is illustrated with examples drawn from the social sciences, medicine and everyday life. Several types of factor producing value uncertainty and/or value (...)
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  48.  1
    Frank Ramsey.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    Frank Plumpton Ramsey, British mathematician and philosopher, best known for his work on the foundations of mathematics. But Ramsey also made remarkable contributions to epistemology, semantics, logic, philosophy of science, mathematics, statistics, probability and decision theory, economics and metaphysics.
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  49.  1
    Miller's Principle, the Principal Principle, and Other Principles.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1980 - The Mattias Fremling Society 22.
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  50.  1
    Ramsey, Knowledge and Mechanisms.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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