51 found
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  1. Unreliable Probabilities, Risk Taking, and Decision Making.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):361-386.
  2. Decision, Probability and Utility: Selected Readings.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.) - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    Decision theory and the theory of rational choice have recently been the subjects of considerable research by philosophers and economists. However, no adequate anthology exists which can be used to introduce students to the field. This volume is designed to meet that need. The essays included are organized into five parts covering the foundations of decision theory, the conceptualization of probability and utility, pholosophical difficulties with the rules of rationality and with the assessment of probability, and causal decision theory. The (...)
     
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  3. Decision Science: From Ramsey to Dual Process Theories.Nils-Eric Sahlin, Annika Wallin & Johannes Persson - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):129-143.
    The hypothesis that human reasoning and decision-making can be roughly modeled by Expected Utility Theory has been at the core of decision science. Accumulating evidence has led researchers to modify the hypothesis. One of the latest additions to the field is Dual Process theory, which attempts to explain variance between participants and tasks when it comes to deviations from Expected Utility Theory. It is argued that Dual Process theories at this point cannot replace previous theories, since they, among other things, (...)
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  4.  11
    The Philosophy of F. P. Ramsey.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    F. P. Ramsey was a remarkably creative and subtle philosopher who in the briefest of academic careers made significant contributions to logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language and decision theory. His few published papers reveal him to be a figure or comparable importance to Russell, Carnap and Wittgenstein in the history of analytical philosophy. This book was the first critical study of Ramsey's work, offering a thorough exposition and interpretation of his ideas, setting the ideas in their historical context, (...)
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  5.  82
    Baconian Inductivism in Research on Human Decision Making.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    The paper discusses the pros and cons of inductive research methods. It is argued that, despite the profusion of good arguments against this scientific strategy, it is frequently employed, for example in psychology. A case probe taken from the realm of cognitive psychology is used as an illustration.
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  6.  34
    Why Metaphysicians Do Not Explain.Ingar Brinck, Göran Hermerén, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    The paper discusses the concept of explanation in metaphysics. Different types of explanation are identified and explored. Scientific explanation is compared with metaphysical explanation. The comparison illustrates the difficulties with applying the concept of explanation in metaphysics.
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  7.  88
    The Significance of Empirical Evidence for Developments in the Foundations of Decision Theory.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  8.  86
    On Epistemic Risk and Outcome Risk in Criminal Cases.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  9.  82
    Weight of the Value of Knowledge.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
  10.  33
    Decision Making with Unreliable Probabilities.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    This paper presents a decision theory which allows subjects to account for the uncertainties of their probability estimates. This is accomplished by modelling beliefs about states of nature by means of a class of probability measures. In order to represent uncertainties of those beliefs a measure of epistemic reliability is introduced. The suggested decision theory is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence on ambiguity and uncertainty in decision making. The theory is also compared to Tversky & Kahneman's prospect theory.
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  11.  89
    Should the Quest for Optimality Worry Us?Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):231.
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  12.  12
    A Philosophical Account of Interventions and Causal Representation in Nursing Research: A Discussion Paper.Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    BACKGROUND: Representing is about theories and theory formation. Philosophy of science has a long-standing interest in representing. At least since Ian Hacking's modern classic Representing and Intervening analytical philosophers have struggled to combine that interest with a study of the roles of intervention studies. With few exceptions this focus of philosophy of science has been on physics and other natural sciences. In particular, there have been few attempts to analyse the use of the notion of intervention in other disciplines where (...)
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  13. Worthy of Choice.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1993 - Theoria 59 (1-3):178-191.
  14.  37
    Obtained by a Reliable Process and Always Leading to Success.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1991 - Theoria 57 (3):132-149.
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  15.  52
    Preference Among Preferences as a Method for Obtaining a Higher Ordered Metric Scale.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    A method is presented for collecting data which yield a scale on which the entities are ranked in preference and all combinations of value distances are ranked. The method is based on the concept of secondary preference, i.e. preference among preferences. This method is compared with a classical method based on 50–50 game comparison. Two empirical studies are presented. The first examines whether both methods yield the same ordering of value distances. The second involves empirical derivation of a higher-ordered metric (...)
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  16.  48
    Do People Combine Evidence According to an Evidentiary Value Model?Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1983 - In Peter Gärdenförs, Bengt Hansson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Sören Halldén (eds.), Evidentiary Value: Philosophical, Judicial, and Psychological Aspects of a Theory: Essays Dedicated to Sören Halldén on His Sixtieth Birthday. C.W.K. Gleerups.
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  17.  40
    The Role of Second-Order Probabilities in Decision Making.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Robert Goldsmith - unknown
    The importance, legitimacy and role of second-order probabilities are discussed. Two descriptive models of the use of second-order probabilities in decisions are presented. The results of two empirical studies of the effects of second-order probabilities upon the rank orderings of bets are summarized briefly. The bets were of three basic types and involved a wide variety of first- and second-order probabilities as subjectively assessed by the subjects. Support was obtained for the assumption that the majority of subjects make use of (...)
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  18.  9
    How Can We Be Moral When We Are so Irrational?Nils-Eric Sahlin & Johan Brännmark - unknown
    Normative ethics usually presupposes background accounts of human agency, and although different ethical theorists might have different pictures of human agency in mind, there is still something like a standard account that most of mainstream normative ethics can be understood to rest on. Ethical theorists tend to have Rational Man, or at least some close relative to him, in mind when constructing normative theories. It will be argued here that empirical findings raise doubts about the accuracy of this kind of (...)
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  19. Evidentiary Value: Philosophical, Judicial, and Psychological Aspects of a Theory: Essays Dedicated to Sören Halldén on His Sixtieth Birthday.Peter Gärdenförs, Bengt Hansson, Nils-Eric Sahlin & Sören Halldén (eds.) - 1983 - C.W.K. Gleerups.
     
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  20.  24
    Introduction : Bayesian Decision Theory, Foundations and Problems.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  21.  38
    Reply to Levi.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):433 - 438.
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  22.  3
    A New Challenge for Objective Uncertainties and The Propensity Theorist.Robin Stenwall, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2018 - Metaphysica 19 (2):219-224.
    The paper is concerned with the existence of objective uncertainties. What would it take for objective uncertainties to exist, and what would be the consequences for our understanding of the world we live in? We approach these questions by considering two common theories on how we are to understand the being of propensities and how it pertains to possible outcomes that remain unmanifested. It is argued that both or these theories should be rejected, and be replaced with a theory we (...)
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  23. Ramsey Sentences: An Observation.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Martin Kaså - 2005 - Metaphysica (3):109-117.
    Ramsey argued that the best way to understand how the theoretical terms of a theory function is to picture them as existentially bound variables. We explore the ontological ramifications of Ramsey's idea by developing a new type of dynamic model-theoretical semantics, based on the concept of an experimental logic.
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  24.  5
    On Second Order Probabilities and the Notion of Epistemic Risk.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    Second or higher order probabilities have commonly been viewed with scepticism by those working within the realm of probability and decision theory. The aim of the present note is to show how the notion of second order probabilities can add to our understanding of judgmental and decision processes and how the traditional framework of Bayesian decision theory can be extended in a fruitful way by taking such entities into account. Section one consists of a brief account of arguments put forth (...)
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  25.  8
    Science and Proven Experience : A Swedish Variety of Evidence-Based Medicine?Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman, Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    A key question for evidence-based medicine is how best to model the way in which EBM should “[integrate] individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence”. We argue that the formulations and models available in the literature today are modest variations on a common theme and face very similar problems. For example, both the early and updated models of evidence-based clinical decisions presented in Haynes, Devereaux and Guyatt assume that EBM consists of, among other things, evidence from clinical research and (...)
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  26.  28
    How to Be 100% Certain 99.5% of the Time.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):91-111.
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  27.  2
    Three Decision Rules for Generalized Probability Representations.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):751.
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  28.  17
    The Risks of Ignorance.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  29. Some Ontological Speculations: Ramsey on Particulars, Universals and Facts.Anna-Sofia Maurin & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2005 - Metaphysica 3 (3):7-28.
  30.  2
    The Evidentiary Value Model.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Wlodek Rabinowicz - unknown
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  31.  12
    On the Philosophical Relations Between Ramsey and Wittgenstein.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  32.  2
    Science and Proven Experience : A Swedish Variety of Evidence Based Medicine and a Way to Better Risk Analysis?Johannes Persson, Niklas Vareman, Annika Wallin, Lena Wahlberg & Nils-Eric Sahlin - forthcoming - Journal of Risk Research.
    A key question for evidence-based medicine is how best to model the way in which EBM should‘[integrate] individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence’. We argue that the formulations and models available in the literature today are modest variations on a common theme and face very similar problems when it comes to risk analysis, which is here understood as a decision procedure comprising a factual assessment of risk, the risk assessment, and the decision what to do based on this (...)
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  33.  2
    Levels of Aspiration and Risk.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  34.  10
    Some Ontological Speculations: Ramsey on Universals, Particulars and Facts.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2005 - Metaphysica 3:7-28.
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  35.  8
    Morally Robust Decisions.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  36.  8
    On Higher Order Beliefs.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1993 - In J. Dubucs (ed.), Philosophy of Probability. Kluwer, Dordrecht. pp. 13--34.
  37.  7
    Informational Economy and Creativity.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2004 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Springer. pp. 247.
    We all know that Ramsey argued that the best way to understand how the theoretical entities of a theory function is to picture them as existentially bound variables. If the entities of our theory are a, ß, and y, the best way to write our theory, he tells us, is: 3 a,ß,γ . The theory’s ‘Ramsey sentence’, the existentially bound variables are the carriers of ontological commitment. If the Ramsey sentence is true, they tell us what there is.
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  38.  5
    F.P. Ramsey.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  39.  5
    Value-Changes, and Creativity.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  40.  4
    On Knowledge and Evidence.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  41.  11
    Review. [REVIEW]Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1993 - Erkenntnis 39 (1):123-126.
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  42.  2
    Informational Economy and Creativity.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 2004 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 11:247-249.
    We all know that Ramsey argued that the best way to understand how the theoretical entities of a theory function is to picture them as existentially bound variables. If the entities of our theory are a, ß, and y, the best way to write our theory, he tells us, is: 3 a,ß,γ. The theory’s ‘Ramsey sentence’, the existentially bound variables are the carriers of ontological commitment. If the Ramsey sentence is true, they tell us what there is.
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  43.  3
    Secondary Levels in Decision Making.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  44.  2
    How to Be 100% Certain 99.5% of the Time.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):91-111.
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  45.  1
    Review of F.P. Ramsey Notes on Philosophy, Probability and Mathematics. [REVIEW]Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  46.  1
    Ethical Aspects of Valuing Lives.Nils-Eric Sahlin, Göran Hermerén & Jonas Josefsson - unknown
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  47. Huvudinnehåll Tolv Filosofiska Uppsatser.Åke E. Andersson & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1993
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  48. Om hur man bör förhålla sig till Ludwig Wittgenstein.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1994 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 4.
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  49. The Philosophy of F. P. Ramsey.Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    F. P. Ramsey was a remarkably creative and subtle philosopher who in the briefest of academic careers made significant contributions to logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language and decision theory. His few published papers reveal him to be a figure or comparable importance to Russell, Carnap and Wittgenstein in the history of analytical philosophy. This book was the first critical study of Ramsey's work, offering a thorough exposition and interpretation of his ideas, setting the ideas in their historical context, (...)
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  50. Three Types of Decision Theory.Nils-Eric Sahlin & Niklas Vareman - 2008 - In Maria-Carla Galavotti (ed.), Reasoning, Rationality and Probability. CSLI Publications. pp. 37--59.
     
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