In this paper I discuss the nature of consent in general, and as it applies to Carlos Nino’s consensual theory of punishment. For Nino the criminal’s consent to change her legal-normative status is a form of implied consent. I distinguish three types of implied consent: 1) implied consent which is based on an operative convention (i.e. tacit consent); 2) implied consent where there is no operative convention; 3) “direct consent” to the legal-normative consequences of a proscribed act – (...) this is the consent which Nino employs. I argue that Nino’s conception of consent in crime exhibits many common features of “everyday” consent, which justify that it be classed as a form of (implied) consent. h us, Nino is right to claim that the consent in crime is similar to the consent in contracts and to the consent to assume a risk in tort law. (shrink)
Metafizik, felsefenin en temel disiplinlerinden birini oluşturmaktadır. Genellikle Aristoteles’ten itibaren onun konusu “varlık olması bakımından varlık” şeklinde kabul görmüştür. Ancak İslam düşünce tarihinde zaman zaman metafiziğin yerine kelamın üst bilim olarak kabul edilmesi gerektiğini düşünenler olmuştur. Dolayısıyla metafiziğin konusu kabul edilen “varlık olması bakımından varlığı” kelamın konusu olarak ifade etmişlerdir. Bu çalışmada söz konusu iddianın doğru olduğunu düşünen ve bu fikri oluşum çerçevesinde şekillenen filozof kelamcıların oluşturduğu felsefî kelam ekolüne mensup olan Kadı Siraceddin el-Urmevî’nin metafizik ilmine ve metafizik kavramlara yaklaşımı (...) ele alınacaktır. Dolayısıyla bu çalışma Urmevî’ye göre metafizik ve metafizik kavramlar ile sınırlı olacaktır. Urmevî üzerine yapılan bu çalışmayla, Urmevî’ye göre metafizik ilminin asli konumunun ve metafizik kavramların onun düşüncesindeki anlamlarının neler olduğunun belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Söz konusu meselelerin felsefî kelam ekolüne mensup olan bir düşünür tarafından ele alınış şeklinin belirlenmesi felsefî düşüncenin gelişim seyri açısından önem arz etmektedir. Fahreddîn er-Râzî çizgisinde yazılan Metaliû’l-Envâr ve Beyânû’l-Hakk adlı eserlerini onun felsefesini ortaya koyması ve metafizik kavramları geniş bir şekilde ele alması bakımından son derece dikkat çekicidir. Ayrıca metafizik ilminin on üçüncü yüzyıldaki konumunun anlaşılmasına da katkı sunacak olan bu çalışma ile Urmevî nazarında metafiziğin üst ilim olduğu görülmektedir. Ancak metafizik kavramlara yaklaşımı metafizik ilmine yaklaşımından farklıdır. Nitekim metafizik kavramlar hususunda İbn Sînâ’nın görüşlerine yer vermekle birlikte Fahreddin er-Râzî çizgisi ağır basmaktadır. (shrink)
The Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber (GRW) theory of spontaneous wave function collapse is known to provide a quantum theory without observers, in fact two different ones by using either the matter density ontology (GRWm) or the flash ontology (GRWf). Both theories are known to make predictions different from those of quantum mechanics, but the difference is so small that no decisive experiment can as yet be performed. While some testable deviations from quantum mechanics have long been known, we provide here something that has (...) until now been missing: a formalism that succinctly summarizes the empirical predictions of GRWm and GRWf. We call it the GRW formalism. Its structure is similar to that of the quantum formalism but involves different operators. In other words, we establish the validity of a general algorithm for directly computing the testable predictions of GRWm and GRWf. We further show that some well-defined quantities cannot be measured in a GRW world, for example the number of collapses in a system during a chosen time interval. (shrink)
La mayoría de los derechos reconocidos tanto a nivel constitucional como en el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos están destinados a la protección de bienes privados. A diferencia de ellos, el derecho al ambiente sano asegura a los individuos el disfrute de un bien público. Las características propias de los bienes públicos generan profundos problemas de arquitectura jurídica para un sistema de derechos fundamentales que históricamente fue concebido para la protección de bienes privados y han dado lugar a discusiones (...) sobre la titularidad de este derecho. Este trabajo analiza la posición de Carlos S. Nino a favor de considerar el derecho a un ambiente sano como derecho colectivo y señala los problemas que esta postura genera para el ejercicio y contenido del derecho. Most of the rights that have been recognized both at the constitutional level and in international human rights laws entitle individuals to the protection of private goods. In contrast, the right to a healthy environment ensures individuals the enjoyment of a public good. The characteristics of public goods have created significant problems related to the legal architecture for a system of fundamental rights that historically was conceived for the protection of private goods, and have generated considerable debate over whether the right to a healthy environment should be considered an individual right. This paper analyzes Carlos S. Nino’s position, who advocates in favor of considering the right to a healthy environment as a collective right; and it points out the problems that such a position generates for the content of the right and its exercise. (shrink)
The most puzzling issue in the foundations of quantum mechanics is perhaps that of the status of the wave function of a system in a quantum universe. Is the wave function objective or subjective? Does it represent the physical state of the system or merely our information about the system? And if the former, does it provide a complete description of the system or only a partial description? We shall address these questions here mainly from a Bohmian perspective, and shall (...) argue that part of the difficulty in ascertaining the status of the wave function in quantum mechanics arises from the fact that there are two different sorts of wave functions involved. The most fundamental wave function is that of the universe. From it, together with the configuration of the universe, one can define the wave function of a subsystem. We argue that the fundamental wave function, the wave function of the universe, has a law-like character. (shrink)
Most of us spend a significant portion of our lives learning, practising, and performing a wide range of skills. Many of us also have a great amount of control over which skills we learn and develop. From choices as significant as career pursuits to those as minor as how we spend our weeknight leisure time, we exercise a great amount of agency over what we know and what we can do. In this paper we argue, using a framework first developed (...) by Carbonell (2013) that in many real-world circumstances we have moral obligations to develop some skills rather than others. (shrink)
Some proponents of global justice question that opening borders is an effective strategy to alleviate global poverty and reduce inequalities between countries. This article goes a step further and asks whether an open borders policy is compatible with the objectives of global distributive justice. The latter, it will be argued, entails the ordering of needs, the assignment of priorities and the preference or subordination of some interests over others. In other words, global justice requires the establishment of conditions and restrictions (...) on mobility. On the contrary, open borders claim an unrestricted and unconditional (not unqualified) freedom of movement, limited only by public health considerations, serious threats to national security or democratic institutions, but not by an aspiration for maximizing global redistributive utility. The main point is that not only would freedom of movement be instrumentalized, losing its presumptive moral force, but ultimately open borders as a remedy of global justice are an oxymoron. The article concludes with an alternative defence of freedom of international movement. (shrink)
Pure type systems arise as a generalisation of simply typed lambda calculus. The contemporary development of mathematics has renewed the interest in type theories, as they are not just the object of mere historical research, but have an active role in the development of computational science and core mathematics. It is worth exploring some of them in depth, particularly predicative Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic type theory and impredicative Coquand’s calculus of constructions. The logical and philosophical differences and similarities between them will be (...) studied, showing the relationship between these type theories and other fields of logic. (shrink)
Russell's involuted path in the development of his theory of logical types from 1903 to 1910-13 is examined and explained in terms of the development in his early philosophy of the notion of a logical subject vis-a-vis the problem of the one and many; i.e., the problem for russell, first, of a class-as-one as a logical subject as opposed to a class as many, and, secondly, of a propositional function as a single and separate logical subject as opposed to existing (...) only in the many propositions that are its values. (shrink)
In this paper, I address the grounding problem for contemporary Russellian panpsychism, or the question of how consciousness as an intrinsic nature is connected to dispositions or powers of objects. I claim that Russellian panpsychists cannot offer an adequate solution to the grounding problem and that they should reject the claim that consciousness, as an intrinsic nature, grounds the powers of objects. Instead, I argue that they should favour the identity theory of powers, where categorical and dispositional properties are identified. (...) I maintain that the identity theory serves as a better ontological basis for panpsychism since it avoids the grounding problem. Apart from that, I also argue that identity theory panpsychism is a position more parsimonious than Russellian panpsychism since it introduces fewer entities while successfully avoiding the grounding problem. Based on these considerations, I conclude that identity theory panpsychism is an option worth considering. (shrink)
A minimal second order modal logic of natural kinds is formulated. Concepts are distinguished from properties and relations in the conceptual-logistic background of the logic through a distinction between free and bound predicate variables. Not all concepts (as indicated by free predicate variables) need have a property or relation corresponding to them (as values of bound predicate variables). Issues pertaining to identity and existence as impredicative concepts are examined and an analysis of mass terms as nominalized predicates for kinds of (...) stuff is proposed. The minimal logic is extendible through a summum genus, an infima species or a partition principle for natural kinds. (shrink)
Algunos de los más relevantes filósofos del derecho de los últimos años, como Carlos S. Nino y Ronald Dworkin, han defendido que hay una pluralidad de conceptos de Derecho. Scott Shapiro ha sostenido una posición especialmente relevante acerca de ello: la palabra ‘Derecho’ es sistemáticamente ambigua, pues a veces designa un conjunto de normas y otras veces una organización social. Esta es precisamente la tesis criticada en el trabajo. Se argumenta, basándose en determinada literatura filosófica acerca de los conceptos, (...) que los conceptos de objetos sociales de carácter intencional contienen una dimensión social y una dimensión significativa, normativa en el caso del derecho. El mismo concepto de Derecho expresa una dimensión social y una normativa imbricadas entre sí. Some of the most relevant legal philosophers in the last decades, as Carlos S. Nino and Ronald Dworkin, have defended the idea that there is a plurality of concepts of law. Scott Shapiro has sustained this account in a particularly relevant way: the word ‘law’ displays a ubiquitous ambiguity, sometimes designates a set of norms and other a social organization. This is precisely the thesis which is criticized in the paper. It is argued, from a certain philosophical literature about the concepts, that concepts of social objects of intentional character contain a social dimension and a meaning dimension, normative in the case of the law. That is to say, the concept of law expresses a social dimension and a normative dimension intertwined. (shrink)
This book explores human possibility at the end of the twentieth century. It takes the form of discussion between an eminent philosopher and a skilled journalist about “the human measure” as it engages false absolutes and their accompanying utopias. The book proposes a “third way” between capitalism and socialism, and it concludes with comments on end-of-century phenomena, including democracy, intellectuals, and terrorism.
Bohmian mechanics is a theory about point particles moving along trajectories. It has the property that in a world governed by Bohmian mechanics, observers see the same statistics for experimental results as predicted by quantum mechanics. Bohmian mechanics thus provides an explanation of quantum mechanics. Moreover, the Bohmian trajectories are defined in a non-conspiratorial way by a few simple laws.