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Nir Eyal
Harvard University
  1.  48
    Reframing Consent for Clinical Research: A Function-Based Approach.Scott Y. H. Kim, David Wendler, Kevin P. Weinfurt, Robert Silbergleit, Rebecca D. Pentz, Franklin G. Miller, Bernard Lo, Steven Joffe, Christine Grady, Sara F. Goldkind, Nir Eyal & Neal W. Dickert - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (12):3-11.
    Although informed consent is important in clinical research, questions persist regarding when it is necessary, what it requires, and how it should be obtained. The standard view in research ethics is that the function of informed consent is to respect individual autonomy. However, consent processes are multidimensional and serve other ethical functions as well. These functions deserve particular attention when barriers to consent exist. We argue that consent serves seven ethically important and conceptually distinct functions. The first four functions pertain (...)
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  2. ‘Perhaps the Most Important Primary Good’: Self-Respect and Rawls’s Principles of Justice.Nir Eyal - 2005 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):195-219.
    The article begins by reconstructing the just distribution of the social bases of self-respect, a principle of justice that is covert in Rawls’s writing. I argue that, for Rawls, justice mandates that each social basis for self-respect be equalized. Curiously, for Rawls, that principle ranks higher than Rawls’s two more famous principles of justice - equal liberty and the difference principle. I then recall Rawls’s well-known confusion between self-respect and another form of self-appraisal, namely, confidence in one’s determinate plans and (...)
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  3.  53
    Using Informed Consent to Save Trust.Nir Eyal - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (7):437-444.
    Increasingly, bioethicists defend informed consent as a safeguard for trust in caretakers and medical institutions. This paper discusses an ‘ideal type’ of that move. What I call the trust-promotion argument for informed consent states:1. Social trust, especially trust in caretakers and medical institutions, is necessary so that, for example, people seek medical advice, comply with it, and participate in medical research.2. Therefore, it is usually wrong to jeopardise that trust.3. Coercion, deception, manipulation and other violations of standard informed consent requirements (...)
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  4.  28
    The Diverse Ethics of Translational Research.Neema Sofaer & Nir Eyal - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):19-30.
    Commentators on the ethics of translational research find it morally problematic. Types of translational research are said to involve questionable benefits, special risks, additional barriers to informed consent, and severe conflicts of interest. Translational research conducted on the global poor is thought to exploit them and increase international disparities. Some commentators support especially stringent ethical review. However, such concerns are grounded only in pre-approval translational research (now called T1 ). Whether or not T1 has these features, translational research beyond approval (...)
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  5.  16
    How to Keep High-Risk Studies Ethical: Classifying Candidate Solutions.Nir Eyal - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (2):74-77.
  6. Is the Body Special? Review of Cécile Fabre, Whose Body is It Anyway? Justice and the Integrity of the Person: Nir Eyal.Nir Eyal - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (2):233-245.
    Both left libertarians, who support the redistribution of income and wealth through taxation, and right libertarians, who oppose redistributive taxation, share an important view: that, looming catastrophes aside, the state must never redistribute any part of our body or our person without our consent. Cécile Fabre rejects that view. For her, just as the undeservedly poor have a just claim to money from their fellow citizens in order to lead a minimally flourishing life, the undeservedly ‘medically poor’ have a just (...)
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  7. Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Frehiwot Defaye, Alex Voorhoeve & Alicia Yamin - 2014 - World Health Organisation.
    This report by the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage addresses how countries can make fair progress towards the goal of universal coverage. It explains the relevant tradeoffs between different desirable ends and offers guidance on how to make these tradeoffs.
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  8.  80
    Egalitarian Justice and Innocent Choice.Nir Eyal - 2006 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (1):1-19.
    This article argues that, in its standard formulation, luck-egalitarianism is false. In particular, I show that disadvantages that result from perfectly free choice can constitute egalitarian injustice. I also propose a modified formulation of luck-egalitarianism that would withstand my criticism. One merit of the modification is that it helps us to reconcile widespread intuitions about distributive justice with equally widespread intuitions about punitive justice.
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  9. Three Case Studies in Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage.Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa Edejer, Kapiriri Lydia, Ole Frithjof Norheim, James Snowden, Olivier Basenya, Dorjsuren Bayarsaikhan, Ikram Chentaf, Nir Eyal, Amanda Folsom, Rozita Halina Tun Hussein, Cristian Morales, Florian Ostmann, Trygve Ottersen, Phusit Prakongsai & Carla Saenz - 2016 - Health and Human Rights 18 (2):11-22.
    The goal of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) can generally be realized only in stages. Moreover, resource, capacity and political constraints mean governments often face difficult trade-offs on the path to UHC. In a 2014 report, Making fair choices on the path to UHC, the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage articulated principles for making such trade-offs in an equitable manner. We present three case studies which illustrate how these principles can guide practical decision-making. These case studies (...)
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  10.  14
    Precommitting to Serve the Underserved.Nir Eyal & Till Bärnighausen - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (5):23-34.
    In many countries worldwide, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, a shortage of physicians limits the provision of lifesaving interventions. One existing strategy to increase the number of physicians in areas of critical shortage is conditioning medical school scholarships on a precommitment to work in medically underserved areas later. Current practice is usually to demand only one year of service for each year of funded studies. We show the effectiveness of scholarships conditional on such precommitment for increasing physician supplies in underserved areas. (...)
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  11.  10
    Vaccine Testing for Emerging Infections: The Case for Individual Randomisation.Nir Eyal & Marc Lipsitch - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (9):625-631.
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  12.  18
    Dependence on Digital Medicine in Resource-Limited Settings.Jeffrey I. Campbell, Jessica Haberer, Angella Musiimenta & Nir Eyal - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):54-56.
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  13.  62
    Physician Brain Drain: Can Nothing Be Done?Nir Eyal & Samia A. Hurst - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (2):180-192.
    Next SectionAccess to medicines, vaccination and care in resource-poor settings is threatened by the emigration of physicians and other health workers. In entire regions of the developing world, low physician density exacerbates child and maternal mortality and hinders treatment of HIV/AIDS. This article invites philosophers to help identify ethical and effective responses to medical brain drain. It reviews existing proposals and their limitations. It makes a case that, in resource-poor countries, ’locally relevant medical training’—teaching primarily locally endemic diseases and practice (...)
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  14.  18
    Can Rationing Through Inconvenience Be Ethical?Nir Eyal, Paul L. Romain & Christopher Robertson - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (1):10-22.
    In this article, we provide a comprehensive analysis and a normative assessment of rationing through inconvenience as a form of rationing. By “rationing through inconvenience” in the health sphere, we refer to a nonfinancial burden that is either intended to cause or has the effect of causing patients or clinicians to choose an option for health-related consumption that is preferred by the health system for its fairness, efficiency, or other distributive desiderata beyond assisting the immediate patient. We argue that under (...)
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  15.  7
    What Can the Lived Experience of Participating in Risky HIV Cure-Related Studies Establish?Nir Eyal - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104593.
    This response to Gail Henderson et al argues that they were right that interviewees’ appraisals of cure study participation should inform protocol review decisions, but wrong to take these appraisals at face value.
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  16.  31
    Nudges and Noodges: The Ethics of Health Promotion—New York Style.Daniel Wikler & Nir Eyal - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (3):pht033.
    Michael Bloomberg's three terms in New York City's mayoral office are coming to a close. His model of governance for public health influenced cities and governments around the world. What should we make of that model? This essay introduces a symposium in which ethicists Sarah Conly, Roger Brownsword and Alex Rajczi discuss that legacy.
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  17. Cómo tomar decisiones justas en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana, Carla Saenz, Alicia Yamin & Daniel Wikler - 2015 - Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO).
    La cobertura universal de salud está en el centro de la acción actual para fortalecer los sistemas de salud y mejorar el nivel y la distribución de la salud y los servicios de salud. Este documento es el informe fi nal del Grupo Consultivo de la OMS sobre la Equidad y Cobertura Universal de Salud. Aquí se abordan los temas clave de la justicia (fairness) y la equidad que surgen en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud. Por lo (...)
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  18.  38
    Inequalities in HIV Care: Chances Versus Outcomes.Nir Eyal & Alex Voorhoeve - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (12):42-44.
    We analyse three moral dilemmas involving resource allocation in care for HIV-positive patients. Ole Norheim and Kjell Arne Johansson have argued that these cases reveal a tension between egalitarian concerns and concerns for better population health. We argue, by contrast, that these cases reveal a tension between, on the one hand, a concern for equal *chances*, and, on the other hand, both a concern for better health and an egalitarian concern for equal *outcomes*. We conclude that, in these cases, there (...)
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  19.  24
    Inequality in Political Philosophy and in Epidemiology: A Remarriage.Nir Eyal - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    In political philosophy and in economics, unfair inequality is usually assessed between individuals, nowadays often on luck-egalitarian grounds. You have more than I do and that's unfair. By contrast, in epidemiology and sociology, unfair inequality is traditionally assessed between groups. More is concentrated among people of your class or race than among people of mine, and that's unfair. I shall call this difference the egalitarian ‘divorce’. Epidemiologists, and their ‘divorce lawyers’ Paula Braveman, Norman Daniels, and Iris Marion Young, explain that (...)
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  20.  22
    Informed Consent, the Value of Trust, and Hedons.Nir Eyal - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (7):447-447.
    Sissela Bok's1 and Torbjörn Tännsjö's2 writings on trust and informed consent were sources of inspiration for my article.3 It is gratifying to have a chance to respond to their thoughtful comments.Bok concurs with my scepticism that the ‘trust-promotion argument for informed consent’ can successfully generate commonsense morality's full set of informed consent norms. But she finds that argument even more wanting, perhaps so wanting as to be unworthy of critical attention. What she seems to find particularly objectionable is the fact (...)
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  21.  18
    Paternalism, French Fries and the Weak-Willed Witness.Nir Eyal - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (5):353-354.
    Most books on ethics are boring. Against Autonomy 1 is fun to read because its helpful and profound points are made without a fuss. Author Sarah Conly is right that “when individuals engage in behavior that undercuts their own chances of happiness, state interference may be justified”.In what follows I argue that Conly misinterprets that thesis in three ways. First, she says that her paternalism seeks to “help people get where they want to go... live the lives they truly want (...)
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  22. Coercion in the Fight Against Medical Brain Drain.Nir Eyal & Samia Hurst - unknown
    Several contributions in this book tell of doctors’ increasing emigration from developing countries where they are in critical shortage, especially from the underserved rural and public sectors of countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. They point out the severe harm from that migration to some of the world’s poorest and sickest populations who have no other doctors to turn to, and gain little from their emigration. Since significant harm to the badly off is bad, decline in that migration is (...)
     
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  23.  15
    Non-Consequentialist Utilitarianism.Nir Eyal - 2014 - Ethics and Economics 11 (2).
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  24.  25
    Incommensurability and Trade.Nir Eyal & Emma Tieffenbach - 2016 - The Monist 99 (4):387-405.
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  25.  7
    Adding Lithium to Drinking Water for Suicide Prevention—The Ethics.Jared Ng, Manne Sjöstrand & Nir Eyal - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (3):274-286.
    Recent observations associate naturally occurring trace levels of Lithium in ground water with significantly lower suicide rates. It has been suggested that adding trace Lithium to drinking water could be a safe and effective way to reduce suicide. This article discusses the many ethical implications of such population-wide Lithium medication. It compares this policy to more targeted solutions that introduce trace amounts of Lithium to groups at higher risk of suicide or lower risk of adverse effects. The question of mass (...)
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  26.  20
    Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage: Applying Principles to Difficult Cases.Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T.-T. Edejer, Lydia Kapiriri, Ole Frithjof Norheim, James Snowden, Olivier Basenya, Dorjsuren Bayarsaikhan, Ikram Chentaf, Nir Eyal, Amanda Folsom, Rozita Halina Tun Hussein, Cristian Morales, Florian Ostmann, Trygve Ottersen, Phusit Prakongsai & Carla Saenz - 2017 - Health Systems and Reform 3 (4):1-12.
    Progress towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) requires making difficult trade-offs. In this journal, Dr. Margaret Chan, the WHO Director-General, has endorsed the principles for making such decisions put forward by the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and UHC. These principles include maximizing population health, priority for the worse off, and shielding people from health-related financial risks. But how should one apply these principles in particular cases and how should one adjudicate between them when their demands conflict? This paper by some (...)
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  27.  61
    Justice, Luck, and Knowledge, by Susan L. Hurley. Harvard University Press, 2003. VIII + 341 Pages. [REVIEW]Nir Eyal - 2005 - Economics and Philosophy 21 (1):164-171.
  28.  15
    Afterword: Returning to Philosophical Foundations in Research Ethics.Nir Eyal - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (2):132-133.
  29.  29
    Translational Research Beyond Approval: A Two-Stage Ethics Review.Neema Sofaer & Nir Eyal - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):W1-W3.
    Commentators on the ethics of translational research find it morally problematic. Types of translational research are said to involve questionable benefits, special risks, additional barriers to informed consent, and severe conflicts of interest. Translational research conducted on the global poor is thought to exploit them and increase international disparities. Some commentators support especially stringent ethical review. However, such concerns are grounded only in pre-approval translational research. Whether or not T1 has these features, translational research beyond approval is unlikely to and, (...)
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  30.  17
    Obamacare and Conscientious Objection.Nir Eyal & Axel Gosseries - 2013 - Ethical Perspectives 20 (1):109-117.
  31.  5
    Paying for Antiretroviral Adherence: Is It Unethical When the Patient is an Adolescent?Justin Healy, Rebecca Hope, Jacqueline Bhabha & Nir Eyal - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (3):145-149.
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  32.  11
    Two Kinds of To-Kind Benefits and Other Reasons Why Shared Vulnerability Can Keep Clinical Studies Ethical.Nir Eyal - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (12):22-24.
  33. What is It Like to Be a Bird? : Wikler and Brock on the Ethics of Population Health.Nir Eyal - 2008 - In Ronald Michael Green, Aine Donovan & Steven A. Jauss (eds.), Global Bioethics: Issues of Conscience for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press.
     
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  34.  2
    Book Review. [REVIEW]Nir Eyal - 2005 - Economics and Philosophy 21 (1):164-171.
  35. Shlomi Segall.Dan Brock, Eric Cavallero, Norman Daniels, Nir Eyal, Iwao Hirose, Adi Koplovitz, Martin McIvor, David Miller, Ole Norheim & Daniel Schwartz - 2011 - In Carl Knight & Zofia Stemplowska (eds.), Responsibility and Distributive Justice. Oxford University Press.
     
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  36.  48
    Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions.Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst, Christopher Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.) - forthcoming - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is one of the largest-scale research collaborations in global health, distilling a wide range of health information to provide estimates and projections for more than 350 diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 195 countries. Its results are a critical tool informing researchers, policy-makers, and others working to promote health around the globe. A study like the GBD is, of course, extremely complex from an empirical perspective. But it also raises a large number of (...)
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  37. Poverty : Poverty-Reduction, Incentives, and the Brighter Side of False Needs.Nir Eyal - 2007 - In Jesper Ryberg, Thomas S. Petersen & Clark Wolf (eds.), New Waves in Applied Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  38. Faire Des Choix Justes Pour Une Couverture Sanitaire Universelle.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Daniel Wikler, Alicia Yamin, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana & Carla Saenz - 2015 - World Health Organization.
    This report from the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage offers advice on how to make progress fairly towards universal health coverage.
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  39. Measuring and Evaluating Health Inequalities.Ole Norheim, Samia Hurst, Nir Eyal & Dan Wikler (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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