Jacques Derrida's insistence on submitting politics to the test of undecidability elicits the common accusation that an aporetic form of thought can only end in dubious conclusions concerning the pressing matter of politics and that no normative claims can emerge from a thought of radical undecidability. In this paper, I articulate the structural undecidability (aporia) that constitutes politics according to Derrida, the manner in which this structural undecidability elicits judgments, and the importance for critique of not ignoring it. In particular, (...) this structural undecidability is articulated within the event of foundation of any state or set of social relations by way of a declarative act. In addition, the aporetic structure of the political renders visible the essential relationship between (revealed) religion and politics. Ultimately, due to a necessary reference to an ultimate authority at any event of foundation, the political is always already theologico-political in character. (shrink)
The requirement of gauge invariance for the Schwinger-DeWitt equations, interpreted as a manifestly covariant quantum theory for the evolution of a system in spacetime, implies the existence of a five-dimensional pre-Maxwell field on the manifold of spacetime and “proper time” τ. The Maxwell theory is contained in this theory; integration of the field equations over τ restores the Maxwell equations with the usual interpretation of the sources. Following Schwinger's techniques, we study the Green's functions for the five-dimensional hyperbolic field equations (...) for both signatures ± [corresponding to O(4, 1) or O(3, 2) symmetry of the field equations] of the proper time derivative. The classification of the Green's functions follows that of the four-dimensional theory for “massive” fields, for which the “mass” squared may be positive or negative, respectively. The Green's functions for the five-dimensional field are then given by the Fourier transform over the “mass” parameter. We derive the Green's functions corresponding to the principal part ΔP and the homogeneous function Δ 1 ; all of the Green's functions can be expressed in terms of these, as for the usual field equations with definite mass. In the O(3, 2) case, the principal part function has support for x2⩾τ2, corresponding to spacelike propagation, as well as along the light cone x2=0 (for τ=0). There can be no transmission ofinformation in spacelike directions, with this propagator, since the Maxwell field, obtained by integration over τ, does not contain this component of the support. Measurements are characterized by such an integration. The spacelike field therefore can dynamically establish spacelike correlations. (shrink)
Recently, in the framework of a relativistic quantum theory with invariant evolution parameter, solutions have been found for the two-body bound state, whose mass spectrum agrees with the nonrelativistic Schrödinger energy spectrum. In this paper, we study the radiative transitions of these states in the dipole approximation and find that the selection rules are identical with those of the usual nonrelativistic theory, expressed in a manifestly covariant form. In addition to the transverse and longitudinal polarizations of the nonrelativistic theory, we (...) find a “scalar” transition, induced by the relative time coordinate, which is of the same type as the longitudinal transition, expressing the Lorentz covariance of the theory. (shrink)
This paper examines the Stark effect, as a first order perturbation of manifestly covariant hydrogen-like bound states. These bound states are solutions to a relativistic Schrödinger equation with invariant evolution parameter, and represent mass eigenstates whose eigenvalues correspond to the well-known energy spectrum of the nonrelativistic theory. In analogy to the nonrelativistic case, the off-diagonal perturbation leads to a lifting of the degeneracy in the mass spectrum. In the covariant case, not only do the spectral lines split, but they acquire (...) an imaginary part which is linear in the applied electric field, thus revealing induced bound state decay in first order perturbation theory. This imaginary part results from the coupling of the external field to the non-compact boost generator. In order to recover the conventional first order Stark splitting, we must include a scalar potential term. This term may be understood as a fifth gauge potential, which compensates for dependence of gauge transformations on the invariant evolution parameter. (shrink)
Although interesting, the hypotheses proposed by Phillips & Silverstein lack unifying structure both in specific mechanisms and in cited evidence. They provide little to support the notion that low-level sensory processing and high-level cognitive coordination share dynamic grouping by synchrony as a common processing mechanism. We suggest that more realistic large-scale modeling at multiple levels is needed to address these issues.
To assess the impact of selected murals in the Workers’ Hospital in Santiago on different groups of clients, a quantitative and qualitative approach, including a semantic differential scale, was applied. The sample was composed of 120 subjects—40 patients, 40 visitors and 40 hospital staff. Appreciation of the paintings and assessment of the benefit of each painting varied widely. Differences in perceptions according to age, gender and educational level were not significant. Over two-thirds of the sample had a positive appreciation of (...) the murals and considered them beneficial. Differences in perception relate to personal characteristics of the subjects and are also associated with certain characteristics of the murals, such as location, or the structure and style of the work. This study, the first of its kind in Chile, provides grounds for the development of an art-for-health policy in the future, showing that most people are willing to participate by giving their opinions and assessments. (shrink)
This book addresses some basic questions about intrinsic value: What is it? What has it? What justifies our beliefs about it? In the first six chapters the author defends the existence of a plurality of intrinsic goods, the thesis of organic unities, the view that some goods are 'higher' than others, and the view that intrinsic value can be explicated in terms of 'fitting' emotional attitudes. The final three chapters explore the justification of our beliefs about intrinsic value, including coherence (...) theories and the idea that some value beliefs are warranted on the basis of emotional experience. Professor Lemos defends the view that some value beliefs enjoy 'modest' a priori justification. The book is intended primarily for professional philosophers and their graduate students working in ethics, value theory and epistemology. (shrink)
There is a long tradition in moral philosophy which maintains that a necessary condition for moral goodness is that one act from a sense of duty. Kant is perhaps the best known and most discussed representative of this view, but one finds others prior to Kant, such as Butler and Price, and Kant's contemporaries, such as Reid, expressing similar ideas. Price, for example writes, ". . . what I have chiefly insisted on, is, that we characterize as virtuous no actions (...) flowing merely from instinctive desires, or from any principle except a regard to virtue itself.'' In this paper, I shall defend a version of this thesis. (shrink)