Results for 'Non-existence'

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  1. What is the Problem of Non-Existence?Tim Crane - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (3):417-434.
    It is widely held that there is a problem of talking about or otherwise representing things that not exist. But what exactly is this problem? This paper presents a formulation of the problem in terms of the conflict between the fact that there are truths about non-existent things and the fact that truths must be answerable to reality, how things are. Given this, the problem of singular negative existential statements is no longer the central or most difficult aspect of the (...)
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  2. Past and Future Non-Existence.Jens Johansson - 2013 - The Journal of Ethics 17 (1-2):51-64.
    According to the “deprivation approach,” a person’s death is bad for her to the extent that it deprives her of goods. This approach faces the Lucretian problem that prenatal non-existence deprives us of goods just as much as death does, but does not seem bad at all. The two most prominent responses to this challenge—one of which is provided by Frederik Kaufman (inspired by Thomas Nagel) and the other by Anthony Brueckner and John Martin Fischer—claim that prenatal non-existence (...)
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  3.  56
    Prenatal and Posthumous Non-Existence: A Reply to Johansson.John Martin Fischer & Anthony L. Brueckner - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (1):1-9.
    We have argued that it is rational to have asymmetric attitudes toward prenatal and posthumous non-existence insofar as this asymmetry is a special case of a more general (and arguably rational) asymmetry in our attitudes toward past and future pleasures. Here we respond to an interesting critique of our view by Jens Johansson. We contend that his critique involves a crucial and illicit switch in temporal perspectives in the process of considering modal claims (sending us to other possible worlds).
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  4.  66
    ‘Neptune’ Between ‘Hesperus’ and ‘Vulcan’: On Descriptive Names and Non-Existence[REVIEW]Agustin Arrieta Urtizberea - 2005 - Acta Analytica 20 (3):48-58.
    This work will focus on some aspects of descriptive names. The New Theory of Reference, in line with Kripke, takes descriptive names to be proper names. I will argue in this paper that descriptive names and certain theory in reference to them, even when it disagrees with the New Theory of Reference, can shed light on our understanding of (some) non-existence statements. I define the concept of descriptive name for hypothesised object (DNHO). My thesis being that DNHOs are, as (...)
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  5.  28
    Existence and Non-Existence in Sabzawari’s Ontology.Muhammad Kamal - 2012 - Sophia 51 (3):395-406.
    Sabzawari is one of the greatest Muslim philosophers of the nineteenth century. He belongs to Sadrian Existentialism, which became a dominant philosophical tradition during the Qajar dynasty in Iran. This paper critically analyses Sabzawari’s ontological discussion on the dichotomy of existence and quiddity and the relation between existence and non-existence. It argues against Sabzawari by advocating the idea that ‘Existence’ rather than quiddity is the ground for identity as well as for diversity, and that non-existence, like existence, is (...)
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  6. Frege on Existence and Non‐Existence.Karen Green - 2015 - Theoria 81 (4):293-310.
    Despite its importance for early analytic philosophy, Gottlob Frege's account of existence statements, according to which they classify concepts, has been thought to succumb to a number of well-worn criticisms. This article does two things. First, it argues that, by remaining faithful to the letter of Frege's claim that concepts are functions, the Fregean account can be saved from many of the standard criticisms. Second, it examines the problem that Frege's account fails to generalize to cases which involve definite descriptions (...)
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  7. Fictional Objects, Non-Existence, and the Principle of Characterization.Andrea Sauchelli - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 159 (1):139-146.
    I advance an objection to Graham Priest’s account of fictional entities as nonexistent objects. According to Priest, fictional characters do not have, in our world, the properties they are represented as having; for example, the property of being a bank clerk is possessed by Joseph K. not in our world but in other worlds. Priest claims that, in this way, his theory can include an unrestricted principle of characterization for objects. Now, some representational properties attributed to fictional characters, a kind (...)
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  8.  66
    Hardcore Actualism and Possible Non‐Existence.Samuel Kimpton‐Nye - 2018 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 7 (2):122-131.
    According to hardcore actualism (HA), all modal truths are grounded in the concrete constituents of the actual world. In this paper, I discuss some problems faced by HA when it comes to accounting for certain alleged possibilities of non‐existence. I focus particular attention on Leech (2017)'s dilemma for HA, according to which HA must either sacrifice extensional correctness or admit mere possibilia. I propose a solution to Leech's dilemma, which relies on a distinction between weak and strong possibility. It remains (...)
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  9.  88
    Meinong and Husserl on Existence. Two Solutions of the Paradox of Non-Existence.Giuliano Bacigalupo - 2014 - Philosophia Scientae 18:39-51.
    This paper analyzes and compares the attempts at solving the paradox of non-existence put forward by Alexius Meinong and Edmund Husserl. It will be argued that Meinong’s solution is not convincing since he retreats from the field of predicate logic, in which the paradox arises, to a version of propositional logic. On the other hand, Husserl´s approach is more promising since he moves forward to an extension of predicate logic, in which judgments may be evaluated in relation to different (...)
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  10. Empty Names, Fiction and the Puzzles of Non-Existence.T. Hofweber & A. Everett (eds.) - 2000 - CSLI Publications.
    Philosophers and theorists have long been puzzled by humans' ability to talk about things that do not exist, or to talk about things that they think exist but, in fact, do not. _Empty Names, Fiction, and the Puzzles of Non-Existence_ is a collection of 13 new works concerning the semantic and metaphysical issues arising from empty names, non-existence, and the nature of fiction. The contributors include some of the most important researchers working in these fields. Some of the papers (...)
     
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  11.  64
    On Preferring God's Non-Existence.Klaas J. Kraay & Chris Dragos - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (2):157-178.
    (2013). On preferring God's non-existence. Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 157-178.
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  12.  46
    The Non-Existence of God.Nicholas Everitt - 2003 - Routledge London.
    Is it possible to prove or disprove God's existence? Arguments for the existence of God have taken many different forms over the centuries: in The Non-Existence of God, Nicholas Everitt considers all of the arguments and examines the role that reason and knowledge play in the debate over God's existence. He draws on recent scientific disputes over neo-Darwinism, the implication of 'big bang' cosmology, and the temporal and spatial size of the universe; and discusses some of the most recent (...)
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  13.  61
    The Benefits and Harms of Existence and Non-Existence: Guest Editor’s Introduction.Jens Johansson - 2013 - Journal of Ethics 17 (1-2):1-4.
    According to the “deprivation approach,” a person’s death is bad for her to the extent that it deprives her of goods. This approach faces the Lucretian problem that prenatal non-existence deprives us of goods just as much as death does, but does not seem bad at all. The two most prominent responses to this challenge—one of which is provided by Frederik Kaufman and the other by Anthony Brueckner and John Martin Fischer—claim that prenatal non-existence is relevantly different from (...)
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  14.  44
    The Evolution of Pretence: From Intentional Availability to Intentional Non-Existence.Juan-Carlos Gómez - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (5):586-606.
    Abstract: I address the issue of how pretence emerged in evolution by reviewing the (mostly negative) evidence about pretend behaviour in non-human primates, and proposing a model of the type of information processing abilities that humans had to evolve in order to be able to pretend. Non-human primates do not typically pretend: there are just a few examples of potential pretend actions mostly produced by apes. The best, but still rare, examples are produced by so-called 'enculturated' apes (reared by humans) (...)
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  15.  15
    Selfless Ethics: The Equality of Non-Existence.Vishnu Sridharan - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (2):627-637.
    A number of scholars have attempted to situate the Buddha’s teachings within the primary Western ethical theories, namely consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. One challenge that each has confronted is Buddhism’s emphasis on the ultimate non-existence of the self. In his writings, Charles Goodman has put forward an account of how the realization of the ultimate non-existence of the self would lead a practitioner to consequentialism. The present comment challenges the account offered by Goodman, and argues that an (...)
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  16.  98
    Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence.Petr Hájek - 2008 - Studia Logica 90 (2):257-262.
    Caramuels’ proof of non-existence of God is compared with Gödel’s proof of existence.
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  17.  38
    The Pleasure of Life and the Desire for Non-Existence: Some Medieval Theories.Tobias Hoffmann - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (3):323-346.
    Are there subjective or objective conditions under which human life is not worth living? Or does human life itself contain the conditions that make it worth living? To find answers to these questions, this paper explores Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Richard of Mediavilla, and John Duns Scotus, who discuss whether the damned in hell can, should, and do prefer non-existence over their existence in pain and moral evil. In light of Aristotle’s teaching that there is a certain pleasure inherent to (...)
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  18.  55
    Ockham’s Razor and the Problem of Non-Existence—Modal and “Economic” Aspects.Marek Łagosz - 2008 - Dialogue and Universalism 18 (11-12):219-225.
    In the article I undertake the question of the Ockham’s razor. I consider the basic version of this methodological postulate: entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem. I propose to interpret this postulate as a criterion of non-existence. In this context I analyse the matter of accidental entities as well as the ontological principle of economy.
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  19.  88
    The Moral Argument For The Non-Existence Of God.Thomas Krettek - 1997 - Philosophy and Theology 10 (2):329-352.
    I highlight a dimension of the debate about the problem of evil and the existence of God that has loomed on the periphery and consider how, if at all, a specific consideration of that dimension can move the debate forward. My contention is that there is specific version of moral argument for the non-existence of God that is implicit in the problem of evil. This argument is a strategic but suppressed premise that strengthens or undermines the persuasiveness of arguments (...)
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  20.  39
    Logic and Non-Existence.Czeslaw Lejewski - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):209-234.
    An attempt is made in the present essay to accommodate various senses of the notion of existence and ofthat of non-existence within the framework of logic. With this aim in view a system of Lesniewski's Ontology, referred to as System S, is outlined. Equipped with appropriate definitions and illustrated with a selection of theses it offers a logical theory of existence and non-existence. The usefulness of the theory is then tested by interpreting in its terms some of the (...)
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  21.  40
    Ways of Dealing with Non-Existence.Jan Woleński - 1995 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 50 (1):113-127.
    Non-existence provides big problems for ontology and modest for logic. Logical problems of non-existence consist in licensing inferences in which sentences with empty terms are involved. The standard predicate logic solves this question by presupposing that every individual constant has an object to which it refers. This means that empty domains are excluded from semantics for the first-order logic. However, there is a temptation to consider logic without existential presuppositions.The ontological problem of non-existence leads to the question (...)
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  22.  15
    Logic and Non-Existence.Czeslaw Lejewski - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):209-234.
    An attempt is made in the present essay to accommodate various senses of the notion of existence and ofthat of non-existence within the framework of logic. With this aim in view a system of Lesniewski's Ontology, referred to as System S, is outlined. Equipped with appropriate definitions and illustrated with a selection of theses it offers a logical theory of existence and non-existence. The usefulness of the theory is then tested by interpreting in its terms some of the (...)
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  23.  7
    On the Non-Existence of Mad Families.Haim Horowitz & Saharon Shelah - 2019 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 58 (3-4):325-338.
    We show that the non-existence of mad families is equiconsistent with \, answering an old question of Mathias. We also consider the above result in the general context of maximal independent sets in Borel graphs, and we construct a Borel graph G such that \ “there is no maximal independent set in G” is equiconsistent with \ “there exists an inaccessible cardinal”.
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  24.  28
    Existence and Non-Existence in Haribhadra Sūri's Anekānta-Jaya-Patākā.Frank Van Den Bossche - 1995 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 23 (4):429-468.
    InPart I of my article I have tried to show how the problem of negation has led the Jains to accept Non-existence and Existence as constituents ordharmas of every real object and to formulate their first dialectical principle:sad-asad-rŪpa $$\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\cdot}$}}{m} $$ vastu or ‘Every real object possesses a mode as an existent and as a non-existent’. Their interpretation of negation seems to be based on the ‘primitive’ realistic standpoint that every word in a true proposition, including the word ‘not(-)’, must (...)
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  25.  7
    Ways of Dealing with Non-Existence.Jan Woleński - 1995 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 50 (1):113-127.
    Non-existence provides big problems for ontology and modest for logic. Logical problems of non-existence consist in licensing inferences in which sentences with empty terms are involved. The standard predicate logic solves this question by presupposing that every individual constant has an object to which it refers. This means that empty domains are excluded from semantics for the first-order logic. However, there is a temptation to consider logic without existential presuppositions.The ontological problem of non-existence leads to the question (...)
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  26.  36
    Eliminativism, Objects, and Persons - The Virtues of Non-Existence.Jiri Benovsky - 2018 - Routledge.
    In this book, Jiri Benovsky defends the view that he doesn't exist. In this book, he also defends the view that this book itself doesn't exist. But this did not prevent him to write the book, and although in Benovsky's view you don't exist either, this does not prevent you to read it. Benovsky defends a brand of non-exceptionalist eliminativism. Some eliminativists, typically focusing on ordinary material objects such as chairs and hammers, make exceptions, for instance for blue whales (that (...)
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  27. Kuczynski’s Law of Economics: If It Isn’T Necessary, its Non-Existence Is.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2018 - Madison, WI, USA:
    If It isn’t necessary, its non-existence is.
     
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  28. On Geometric Objects, the Non-Existence of a Gravitational Stress-Energy Tensor, and the Uniqueness of the Einstein Field Equation.Erik Curiel - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 66:90-102.
    The question of the existence of gravitational stress-energy in general relativity has exercised investigators in the field since the inception of the theory. Folklore has it that no adequate definition of a localized gravitational stress-energetic quantity can be given. Most arguments to that effect invoke one version or another of the Principle of Equivalence. I argue that not only are such arguments of necessity vague and hand-waving but, worse, are beside the point and do not address the heart of the (...)
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  29. Beyond Existence and Non-Existence.Lilian Alweiss - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):448-469.
    When Husserl speaks of the so-called ?transcendental reduction? or ?phenomenological epoch?? many believe that he is eschewing the question of truth or existence. Two reasons are given for this: First, Husserl explicitly states that when we perform the reduction, we should no longer naively ?accept [the world] as it presents itself to me as factually existing? (Id I ?30, p. 53) and should suspend our judgement with regard to ?the positing of its actual being? (Id I ?88, p. 182). Second, (...)
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  30.  92
    Existence: Who Needs It? The Non‐Identity Problem and Merely Possible People.Rivka Weinberg - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (9):471-484.
    In formulating procreative principles, it makes sense to begin by thinking about whose interests ought to matter to us. Obviously, we care about those who exist. Less obviously, but still uncontroversially, we care about those who will exist. Ought we to care about those who might possibly, but will not actually, exist? Recently, unusual positions have been taken regarding merely possible people and the non-identity problem. David Velleman argues that what might have happened to you – an existent person – (...)
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  31.  60
    Existence, Non-Existence, and Predication.Herbert Hochberg - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):235-267.
    Two connected themes have been at the core of the old perplexity regarding thinking and speaking about non-existent objects. One involves a question of reference. Can we refer to non-existent objects without, thereby, recognizing, in some sense, non-existent entities as objects of reference? The other involves a question about existence. Is existence a property representable by a predicate in a logically adequate symbohsm? It is argued (1) that existence is not to be construed as an attribute represented by a predicate, (...)
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  32.  5
    Existence, Non-Existence, and Predication.Herbert Hochberg - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):235-267.
    Two connected themes have been at the core of the old perplexity regarding thinking and speaking about non-existent objects. One involves a question of reference. Can we refer to non-existent objects without, thereby, recognizing, in some sense, non-existent entities as objects of reference? The other involves a question about existence. Is existence a property representable by a predicate in a logically adequate symbohsm? It is argued that existence is not to be construed as an attribute represented by a predicate, that (...)
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  33. The Non-Existence of Ontological Categories: A Defence of Lowe.J. T. M. Miller - 2016 - Metaphysica 17 (2).
    This paper addresses the ontological status of the ontological categories as defended within E.J. Lowe’s four-category ontology (kinds, objects, properties/relations, and modes). I consider the arguments in Griffith (2015. “Do Ontological Categories Exist?” Metaphysica 16 (1):25–35) against Lowe’s claim that ontological categories do not exist, and argue that Griffith’s objections to Lowe do not work once we fully take advantage of ontological resources available within Lowe’s four-category ontology. I then argue that the claim that ontological categories do not exist has (...)
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  34.  33
    Logics of Non Existence.Ettore Casari - 2009 - Rivista di Filosofia 100 (1):43-66.
  35.  46
    Future Ontology: Indeterminate Existence or Non-existence?Michael Tze-Sung Longenecker - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (4):1493-1500.
    The Growing Block Theory of time says that the metaphysical openness of the future should be understood in terms of there not being any future objects or events. But in a series of works, Ross Cameron, Elizabeth Barnes, and Robbie Williams have developed a competing view that understands metaphysical openness in terms of it being indeterminate whether there exist future objects or events. I argue that the three reasons they give for preferring their account are not compelling. And since the (...)
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  36.  6
    Empty Representations: Reference and Non-Existence.Manuel García-Carpintero & Genoveva Martí (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The contents of linguistic and mental representations may seem to be individuated by what they are about. But a problem arises with regard to representation of the non-existent - words and thoughts that are about things that don't exist. Fourteen new essays get to grips with this much-debated problem.
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  37.  12
    The Peircean Solution to Non-Existence Problems: Immediate and Dynamical Objects.Aaron Bruce Wilson - 2017 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 53 (4):528.
    Whether in Plato’s Sophist or in Quine’s “Plato’s Beard,”1 the representation of unreal or non-existent objects is usually presented as a puzzle. How is it that we can think and talk coherently about things that do not exist or are not real, given that thinking and talking about such things seem to involve relations between things that exist and things that don’t exist? Uriah Kriegel articulates the problem most generally as the following inconsistent triad:One can think of non-existents.One cannot bear (...)
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  38.  13
    The Non-Existence of God. [REVIEW]A. J. W. - 1970 - Review of Metaphysics 23 (3):553-554.
    Burkle examines various philosophical suggestions that God is not an existing reality. Hegel, Sartre, and Henry Dumery are selected as representative of the position Burkle calls "antitheism." What is common to all of the antitheists is that objective existence is denied to God, or that the category of existence itself is an ambiguous one when ascribed to God. Burkle argues that one cannot divorce the concept of human existence from a concept of the "other," or God, or some notion of (...)
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  39. The Existence (and Non-Existence) of Abstract Objects.Richard Heck - 2011 - In Frege's Theorem. Oxford University Press.
    This paper is concerned with neo-Fregean accounts of reference to abstract objects. It develops an objection to the most familiar such accounts, due to Bob Hale and Crispin Wright, based upon what I call the 'proliferation problem': Hale and Wright's account makes reference to abstract objects seem too easy, as is shown by the fact that any equivalence relation seems as good as any other. The paper then develops a response to this objection, and offers an account of what it (...)
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  40. The Non-Existence of God.Nicholas Everitt - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (221):692-693.
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  41.  75
    The Non-Existence of “Inference Claims”.Gilbert Edward Plumer - 2019 - In Bart Garssen, David Godden, Gordon R. Mitchell & Jean H. M. Wagemans (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (ISSA). [Amsterdam, July 3-6, 2018.]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Sic Sat. pp. 913-918.
    Some believe that all arguments make an implicit “inference claim” that the conclusion is inferable from the premises (e.g., Bermejo-Luque, Grennan, the Groarkes, Hitchcock, Scriven). I try to show that this is confused. An act of arguing arises because an inference can be attributed to us, not a meta-level “inference claim” that would make the argument self-referential and regressive. I develop six (other) possible explanations of the popularity of the doctrine that similarly identify confusions.
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  42. On the Non-Existence of Parallel Universes in Chemistry.Richard F. W. Bader - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):11-37.
    This treatise presents thoughts on the divide that exists in chemistry between those who seek their understanding within a universe wherein the laws of physics apply and those who prefer alternative universes wherein the laws are suspended or ‘bent’ to suit preconceived ideas. The former approach is embodied in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), a theory based upon the properties of a system’s observable distribution of charge. Science is experimental observation followed by appeal to theory that, upon (...)
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  43. The Non-Existence of God.Nicholas Everitt - 2007 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (2):127-129.
     
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  44.  26
    The Sense of Death and Non-Existence in Nihilistic Delusions.Filip Radovic - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (4):679-699.
  45.  37
    “The (Non)-Existence of Molinist Counterfactuals”.William Hasker - 2011 - In Ken Perszyk (ed.), Molinism: The Contemporary Debate. Oxford University Press. pp. 25--37.
  46. Why Is Death Bad and Worse Than Pre-Natal Non-Existence?F. M. Kamm - 1988 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 69 (2):161.
     
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  47.  73
    Pre-Vital and Post-Mortem Non-Existence.Frederik Kaufman - 1999 - American Philosophical Quarterly 36 (1):1 - 19.
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  48.  83
    Asymmetry and Non-Existence.Christopher Belshaw - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 70 (1):103 - 116.
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  49.  64
    The Logic of the ''as If'' and the (Non)Existence of God: An Inquiry Into the Nature of Belief in the Work of Jacques Derrida.Colby Dickinson - 2011 - Derrida Today 4 (1):86-106.
    For Derrida, the ‘‘as if’’, as a regulative principle directly appropriated and modified from its Kantian context, becomes the central lynchpin for understanding, not only Derrida's philosophical system as a whole, but also his numerous seemingly enigmatic references to his ‘‘jewishness’’. Through an analysis of the function of the ‘‘as if’’ within the history of thought, from Greek tragedy to the poetry of Wallace Stevens, I hope to show how Derrida can only appropriate his Judaic roots as an act of (...)
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  50.  93
    The Non-Existence of a Principle of Natural Selection.Abner Shimony - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):255-273.
    The theory of natural selection is a rich systematization of biological knowledge without a first principle. When formulations of a proposed principle of natural selection are examined carefully, each is seen to be exhaustively analyzable into a proposition about sources of fitness and a proposition about consequences of fitness. But whenever the fitness of an organic variety is well defined in a given biological situation, its sources are local contingencies together with the background of laws from disciplines other than the (...)
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