Results for 'Non-human animals'

995 found
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  1.  6
    African Communalism, Persons, and the Case of Non-Human Animals.Kai Horsthemke - 2018 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 7 (2):60-79.
    “I am because we are, and since we are, therefore I am”, generally regarded as the guiding principle of African humanism, expresses the view that a person is a person through other persons and is closely associated but not identical with African communitarianism, or communalism. Against Ifeanyi Menkiti’s “unrestricted or radical or excessive communitarianism” Kwame Gyekye has proposed a “restricted or moderate communitarianism”. Whereas personhood, for Menkiti, is acquired over time, with increasing moral maturation, seniority and agency, Gyekye considers it (...)
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  2.  45
    Rationality and Metacognition in Non-Human Animals.Joëlle Proust - 2006 - In Susan L. Hurley & Matthew Nudds (eds.), Rational Animals? Oxford University Press. pp. 247--274.
    The project of understanding rationality in non-human animals faces a number of conceptual and methodological difficulties. The present chapter defends the view that it is counterproductive to rely on the human folk psychological idiom in animal cognition studies. Instead, it approaches the subject on the basis of dynamic- evolutionary considerations. Concepts from control theory can be used to frame the problem in the most general terms. The specific selective pressures exerted on agents endowed with information-processing capacities are analysed. (...)
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  3.  61
    Collective Intentionality in Non-Human Animals.Robert A. Wilson - 2017 - In Marija Jankovic and Kirk Ludwig (ed.), Routledge Handbook on Collective Intentionality. New York, NY, USA: pp. 420-432.
    I think there is something to be said in a positive and constructive vein about collective intentionality in non-human animals. Doing so involves probing at the concept of collective intentionality fairly directly (Section 2), considering the various forms that collective intentionality might take (Section 3), showing some sensitivity to the history of appeals to that concept and its close relatives (Section 4), and raising some broader questions about the relationships between sociality, cognition, and institutions by discussing two different (...)
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  4. The Role of Moral Values in Evaluation of the Use of Non-Human Animals in Research.Maria Botero - forthcoming - Society and Animals.
    One of the requirements for the formation of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) is that they include someone from the community who embodies the values of the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether community members use moral arguments when deliberating a case of animals used in experimentation. To this end we tested the answers of community members in a situation similar to those confronting members of IACUC. The results show first that the (...)
     
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  5.  9
    Abduction: Can Non-Human Animals Make Discoveries?Mariana Vitti-Rodrigues & Claus Emmeche - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (2):295-313.
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between information and abductive reasoning in the context of problem-solving, focusing on non-human animals. Two questions guide our investigation: What is the relation between information and abductive reasoning in the context of human and non-human animals? Do non-human animals perform discovery based on inferential processes such as abductive reasoning? In order to answer these questions, we discuss the semiotic concept of information in relation to (...)
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  6.  17
    Undetachable Concepts in Non-Human Animals.Laura Danón - 2018 - Philosophies 3 (2):14-0.
    In this paper, I would like to explore the idea that some non-human animals may be incapable of detaching or separating some of their concepts both from other concepts and from the larger thought contents that they are part of. This, in turn, will make it impossible for them to recombine these undetachable concepts with others in every admissible way. I will begin by distinguishing three different ways in which one concept may be undetachable from others, and I (...)
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  7.  26
    Rawlsian Justice and Non-Human Animals.Robert Elliot - 1984 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (1):95-106.
    In his book, A Theory of Justice, John Rawls argues against the inclusion of non-human animals within the scope of the principles of justice developed therein. However, the reasons Rawls, and certain commentators, have advanced in support of this view do not adequately support it. Against Rawls' view that 'we are not required to give strict justice' to creatures lacking the capacity for a sense of justice, it is initially argued that (i) de facto inclusion should be accorded (...)
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  8.  34
    Moral Individualism, Moral Relationalism, and Obligations to Non‐Human Animals.Todd May - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):155-168.
    Moral individualists like Jeff McMahan and Peter Singer argue that our moral obligations to animals, both human and non‐human, are grounded in the morally salient capacities of those animals. By contrast, what might be called moral relationalists argue that our obligations to non‐human animals are grounded in our relationship to them. Moral relationalists are of various kinds, from relationalists regarding assistance to animals, such as Clare Palmer and Elizabeth Anderson, to relationalists grounded in a Wittgensteinian view (...)
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  9.  41
    Prospects for an Inclusive Theory of Justice: The Case of Non‐Human Animals.Brian Berkey - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (5):679-695.
    In this article, I argue that there are three widely accepted views within contemporary theorising about justice that present barriers to accepting that non-human animals possess direct entitlements of justice. These views are that the basis of entitlements of justice is either contribution to a cooperative scheme for mutual advantage or the capacity to so contribute; political liberalism, that is, the view that requirements for coercive state action can be justified only by appeal to the ideal of citizens (...)
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  10.  20
    Non-Human Animals and Process Theodicy.Gary Chartier - 2006 - Religious Studies 42 (1):3-26.
    I argue that that the suffering of non-human animals poses some potentially knotty difficulties for process theodicy. To respond satisfactorily to the problem of evil as it involves animals, process theists will, I argue, need either to defend some form of consequentialism or make a number of potentially plausible but certainly contestable empirical claims. I begin this internal critique by explaining the nature of the process response to the problem of evil. I explain how process thought can (...)
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  11.  12
    Political Agency, Citizenship, and Non-Human Animals.Dan Hooley - 2018 - Res Publica 24 (4):509-530.
    In this essay I challenge the idea that political agency must be central to the concept of citizenship. I consider this question in relation to whether or not domesticated animals can be understood as our fellow citizens. In recent debates on this topic, both proponents and opponents of animal citizenship have taken political agency to be central to this question. I advance two main arguments against this position. First, I argue against the orthodox view that claims political agency is (...)
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  12.  20
    Justice, Non-Human Animals, and the Methodology of Political Philosophy.David Plunkett - 2016 - Jurisprudence 7 (1):1-29.
    One important trend in political philosophy is to hold that non-human animals don't directly place demands of justice on us. Another important trend is to give considerations of justice normative priority in our general normative theorising about social/political institutions. This situation is problematic, given the actual ethical standing of non-human animals. Either we need a theory of justice that gives facts about non-human animals a non-derivative explanatory role in the determination of facts about what (...)
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  13.  5
    Existence and Needs: A Case for the Equal Moral Considerability of Non-Human Animals.Yamikani Ndasauka & Girvas M. Kayange - 2016 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):23-33.
    This paper reflects on the question, Is there a sound justification for the existential view that humans have a higher moral status than other animals? It argues that the existential view that humans have a higher moral status than animals is founded on a weak and inconclusive foundation. While acknowledging various arguments raised for a common foundation between human and non-human animals, the paper attempts to establish a common ground for moral considerability of human and (...) animals. The first common foundation is based on the existential notion of being in the world, which is common for both human and non-human animals. The second idea is based on the common desire to actualize different needs. The paper demonstrates these common foundations by referring to Heidegger and Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs. (shrink)
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  14.  9
    Justice and Non-Human Animals- Part II.Robin Attfield & Rebekah Humphreys - 2017 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):44-57.
    It is widely held that moral obligations to non-human beings do not involve considerations of justice. For such a view, nonhuman interests are always prone to be trumped by human interests. Rawlsian contractarianism comprises an example of such a view. Through analysis of such theories, this essay highlights the problem of reconciling the claim that humans have obligations to non-humans with the claim that our treatment of the latter is not a matter of justice. We argue that if it (...)
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  15.  9
    Justice and Non-Human Animals- Part I.Robin Attfield & Rebekah Humphreys - 2016 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):1-11.
    It is widely held that moral obligations to non-human beings do not involve considerations of justice. For such a view, nonhuman interests are always prone to be trumped by human interests. Rawlsian contractarianism comprises an example of such a view. Through analysis of such theories, this essay highlights the problem of reconciling the claim that humans have obligations to non-humans with the claim that our treatment of the latter is not a matter of justice. We argue that if it (...)
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  16.  26
    Why Keep a Dog and Bark Yourself? Making Choices for Non‐Human Animals.James W. Yeates - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Animals are usually considered to lack the status of autonomous agents. Nevertheless, they do appear to make ostensible choices. This article considers whether, and how, I should respect animals' choices. I propose a concept of volitionality which can be respected if, and insofar as, doing so is in the best interests of the animal. Applying that concept, I will argue that an animals' choices be respected when the relevant human decision maker's capacities to decide are potentially challenged (...)
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  17.  53
    Competing Conceptions of Animal Welfare and Their Ethical Implications for the Treatment of Non-Human Animals.Richard P. Haynes - 2011 - Acta Biotheoretica 59 (2):105-120.
    Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the sentimental account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that (...)
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  18. On the Lack of Evidence That Non-Human Animals Possess Anything Remotely Resembling a 'Theory of Mind'.Derek C. Penn & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2007 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 362 (1480):731-744.
  19. Mind, Space and Objectivity in Non-Human Animals.Joëlle Proust - 1999 - Erkenntnis 51 (1):545-562.
    This article is a summary of two chapters of a book published in French in 1997, entitled Comment L'esprit vient aux Bêtes, Paris, Gallimard. The core idea is that the crucial distinction between internal and external states, often used uncritically by theorists of intentionality, needs to be made on a non-circular basis. The proposal is that objectivity - the capacity to reidentify individuals as the same across places and times depends on the capacity to extract spatial crossmodal invariants, which in (...)
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  20.  72
    The Anthropological Difference: What Can Philosophers Do To Identify the Differences Between Human and Non-Human Animals?Hans-Johann Glock - 2012 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 70:105-131.
    This paper considers the question of whether there is a human-animal or ‘anthropological difference'. It starts with a historical introduction to the project of philosophical anthropology. Section 2 explains the philosophical quest for an anthropological difference. Sections 3-4 are methodological and explain how philosophical anthropology should be pursued in my view, namely as impure conceptual analysis. The following two sections discuss two fundamental objections to the very idea of such a difference, biological continuity and Darwinist anti-essentialism. Section 7 discusses various (...)
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  21.  23
    Entitling Non-Human Animals to Fundamental Legal Rights on the Basis of Practical Autonomy.Steven M. Wise - 2006 - In Jacky Turner & Joyce D'Silva (eds.), Animals, Ethics, and Trade: The Challenge of Animal Sentience. Earthscan. pp. 87.
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  22.  11
    Ecological Inclusion and Non-Human Animals in the Islamic Tradition.Rod Bennison - 2002 - Society and Animals 10 (4):459-460.
  23.  7
    Claiming Rights for Non-Human Animals: Civilization’s Ultimate Challenge.André Krebber - 2015 - Society and Animals 23 (1):101-104.
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  24.  6
    The Anthropological Difference: What Can Philosophers Do to Identify the Differences Between Human and Non-Human Animals?Hans Johann Glock - 2012 - .
    This paper considers the question of whether there is a human-animal or ‘anthropological difference’. It starts with a historical introduction to the project of philosophical anthropology. Section 2 explains the philosophical quest for an anthropological difference. Sections 3–4 are methodological and explain how philosophical anthropology should be pursued in my view, namely as impure conceptual analysis. The following two sections discuss two fundamental objections to the very idea of such a difference, biological continuity and Darwinist anti-essentialism. Section 7 discusses various (...)
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  25.  4
    Ecological Inclusion and Non-Human Animals in the Islamic Tradition.Rod Bennison - 2003 - Society and Animals 11 (1):105-106.
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  26.  3
    On the Interests of Non-Human Animals in Traditional Yorùbá Culture: A Critique of Ọ̀rúnmìlà.Emmanuel Ofuasia - 2019 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):6-21.
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  27.  4
    Revisiting Vocal Perception in Non-Human Animals: A Review of Vowel Discrimination, Speaker Voice Recognition, and Speaker Normalization. [REVIEW]Buddhamas Kriengwatana, Paola Escudero & Carel ten Cate - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  28.  2
    Human Use of Non‐Human Animals–a Biologist's View.David de Pomerai - forthcoming - Bioethics for Scientists.
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  29.  28
    Commentary Responses and Conscious Awareness in Humans: The Implications for Awareness in Non-Human Animals.Lawrence Weiskrantz - 2001 - Animal Welfare. Special Issue 10:41- 46.
  30. Evelyn B. Pluhar. Beyond Prejudice: The Moral Significance of Human and Non-Human Animals.H. Lehman - 1996 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9:187-191.
     
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  31.  54
    Review of Paola Cavalieri, The Animal Question: Why Non-Human Animals Deserve Human Rights[REVIEW]Chris Belshaw - 2002 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (12).
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  32.  59
    Studying the Thinking of Non-Human Animals.William Bechtel - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (2):209-215.
  33.  1
    Existence and Needs: A Case for the Equal Moral Considerability of Non-Human Animals.Yamikani Ndasauka & Grivas M. Kayange - 2017 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):23-33.
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  34.  8
    Human Use of Non‐Human Animals: A Philosopher's Perspective.R. G. Frey - 2002 - In J. A. Bryant, Linda Baggott la Velle & John Searle (eds.), Bioethics for Scientists. Wiley. pp. 101--111.
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  35. Rationality in the Domesticated Dog and Other Non-Human Animals.Kate Osto - 2010 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):135-146.
     
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  36.  6
    The Problem of Non-Human Animals in Levinasian Ethics and a Possible Corrective.Beril İdemen Sözmen - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (4):769-791.
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  37.  6
    Reinforcing Property of Music for Non-Human Animals: Analysis with Pigeons.Shigeru Watanabe, Takako Suzuki & Yumiko Yamazaki - 2009 - In David Papineau (ed.), Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 121--1.
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  38.  7
    Beyond the Special Case: Applying Neural Theories of Consciousness to Non-Human Animals.Ilya Farber - unknown
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  39.  9
    Evolutionary Ethics and the Status of Non-Human Animals.Rosemary Rodd - 1996 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 13 (1):63-72.
  40.  5
    Seeking Information in Non-Human Animals: Weaving a Metacognitive Web.Josep Call - 2012 - In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 62.
  41.  3
    Commentary: Revisiting Vocal Perception in Non-Human Animals: A Review of Vowel Discrimination, Speaker Voice Recognition, and Speaker Normalization. [REVIEW]Linda Polka, Ocke-Schwen Bohn & Daniel J. Weiss - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  42. On the Lack of Evidence That Non-Human Animals Possess Anything Remotely Resembling a 'Theory of Mind'.Derek C. Penn & Povinelli & J. Daniel - 2007 - In Nathan Emery, Nicola Clayton & Chris Frith (eds.), Social Intelligence: From Brain to Culture. Oxford University Press.
     
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  43.  3
    Eating Animals and the Moral Value of Non-Human Suffering.Salim Hirèche & Sandra Villata - 2013 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 88 (1):247-256.
    The purpose of this article, which takes the form of a dialogue between a vegetarian and a meat eater, is twofold. On the one hand, we argue for a general characterisation of moral value in terms of well-being and suffering. On the other hand, on the basis of this characterisation, we argue that, in most cases, the moral value attached to the choice of eating meat is negative; in particular, we defend this claim against a number of objections concerning the (...)
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  44.  27
    Against Anthropocentrism. Non-Human Otherness and the Post-Human Project.Roberto Marchesini - 2015 - NanoEthics 9 (1):75-84.
    Technoscientific progress brings into question both anthropocentric epistemology and anthropocentric/humanistic ontology, which considers the human being as a self-constructing and self-sufficient entity. Even though, Darwinism recomposes the humanistic disjunction between reality and representation: by defining the human being as the result of an adaptive reflection, it reveals the idealistic character of post-Cartesian thought, which is the backbone of philosophical anthropocentrism. The non-human can be a dialogic entity if and only if it is considered not as “animal-by” but “animal-with”, that (...)
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  45.  8
    Introducing the Oxford Vocal Sounds Database: A Validated Set of Non-Acted Affective Sounds From Human Infants, Adults, and Domestic Animals.Christine E. Parsons, Katherine S. Young, Michelle G. Craske, Alan L. Stein & Morten L. Kringelbach - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  46.  10
    Consciousness, Language, and the Possibility of Non-Human Personhood: Reflections on Elephants.Don Ross - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (3-4):227-251.
    I investigate the extent to which there might be, now or in the future, non-human animals that partake in the kind of fully human-style consciousness that has been taken by many philosophers to be the basis of normative personhood. I first sketch a conceptual framework for considering the question, based on a range of philosophical literature on relationships between consciousness, language and personhood. I then review the standard basis for largely a priori skepticism about the possibility that any (...)
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  47.  9
    Naturecultures? Science, Affect and the Non-Human.J. Latimer & M. Miele - 2013 - Theory, Culture and Society 30 (7-8):5-31.
    Rather than focus on effects, the isolatable and measureable outcomes of events and interventions, the papers assembled here offer different perspectives on the affective dimension of the meaning and politics of human/non-human relations. The authors begin by drawing attention to the constructed discontinuity between humans and non-humans, and to the kinds of knowledge and socialities that this discontinuity sustains, including those underpinned by nature-culture, subject-object, body-mind, individual-society polarities. The articles presented track human/non-human relations through different domains, including: humans/non-humans (...)
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  48.  35
    A Human-Animal Relational Aesthetic: Towards a Zoophilic Representation of Animals in Art. [REVIEW]Phillip Pahin & Alyx Macfadyen - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (2):231-243.
    The systematic examination of the visual depiction of nonhuman animals by humans, and the representation of nonhuman animal imagery is an opportunity to observe varying degrees of anthropocentrism in the manner in which the nonhuman animal is represented. The investigation we present ventures beyond the traditional scope of post-modern human alterity and suggests that an Otherness status should be extended to encompass both the human animal and the nonhuman animal. An important motivation for seriously considering nonhuman animal experience is (...)
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  49.  45
    Harm in the Wild: Facing Non-Human Suffering in Nature. [REVIEW]Beril İdemen Sözmen - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (5):1075-1088.
    The paper is concerned with whether the reductio of the natural-harm-argument can be avoided by disvaluing non-human suffering and death. According to the natural-harm-argument, alleviating the suffering of non-human animals is not a moral obligation for human beings because such an obligation would also morally prescribe human intervention in nature for the protection of non-human animal interests which, it claims, is absurd. It is possible to avoid the reductio by formulating the moral obligation to alleviate (...) suffering and death with two constraints: The first concerns the practicability of intervention and establishes a moral obligation to intervene only in cases where this is humanly possible. The other constraint acknowledges that lack of competence in humans can risk producing more harm than good by intervening. A third way of avoiding the problematic version of the natural-harm-argument considers whether human and non-human suffering and death are sufficiently different to allow different types of responses. I argue that the attempt to avoid the reductio of the natural-harm-argument by disvaluing non-human death can only work with an anthropocentric bias, which accords to non-human suffering and death a fundamentally different value and that it fails to dismiss the moral obligation created by the harm that non-human animals face in the wild. (shrink)
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  50. Differences in the Evaluation of Generic Statements About Human and Non‐Human Categories.Arber Tasimi, Susan Gelman, Andrei Cimpian & Joshua Knobe - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (7):1934-1957.
    Generic statements express generalizations about categories. Current theories suggest that people should be especially inclined to accept generics that involve threatening information. However, previous tests of this claim have focused on generics about non-human categories, which raises the question of whether this effect applies as readily to human categories. In Experiment 1, adults were more likely to accept generics involving a threatening property for artifacts, but this negativity bias did not also apply to human categories. Experiment 2 examined an (...)
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