Results for 'Nonmonotonic reasoning'

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  1.  33
    For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Isaac Levi - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  2.  44
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense.Gerhard Brewka (ed.) - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book the author gives a broad overview of different areas of research in nonmonotonic reasoning, and presents some new results and ideas based on his research. The guiding principles are: clarification of the different research activities in the area, which have sometimes been undertaken independently of each other; and appreciation of the fact that these research activities often represent different means to the same ends, namely sound theoretical foundations and efficient computation. The book begins with a (...)
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  3.  65
    Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Hans Rott - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Change, Choice and Inference develops logical theories that are necessary both for the understanding of adaptable human reasoning and for the design of intelligent systems. The book shows that reasoning processes - the drawing on inferences and changing one's beliefs - can be viewed as belonging to the realm of practical reason by embedding logical theories into the broader context of the theory of rational choice. The book unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, philosophy, economics (...)
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  4.  13
    On Nonmonotonic Reasoning with the Method of Sweeping Presumptions.Steven O. Kimbrough & Hua Hua - 1991 - Minds and Machines 1 (4):393-416.
    Reasoning almost always occurs in the face of incomplete information. Such reasoning is nonmonotonic in the sense that conclusions drawn may later be withdrawn when additional information is obtained. There is an active literature on the problem of modeling such nonmonotonic reasoning, yet no category of method-let alone a single method-has been broadly accepted as the right approach. This paper introduces a new method, called sweeping presumptions, for modeling nonmonotonic reasoning. The main goal (...)
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  5.  6
    The Thirty-Sixth Annual Lecture Series.Whybe Humean & Two Kinds of Nonmonotonic Reasoning - 1995 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 26:411-412.
  6. Nonmonotonic Reasoning: An Overview.Gerhard Brewka, Jurgen Dix & Kurt Konolige - 1997 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
     
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  7.  17
    Reasoning About Minimal Knowledge in Nonmonotonic Modal Logics.Riccardo Rosati - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):187-203.
    We study the problem of embedding Halpern and Moses's modal logic of minimal knowledge states into two families of modal formalism for nonmonotonic reasoning, McDermott and Doyle's nonmonotonic modal logics and ground nonmonotonic modal logics. First, we prove that Halpern and Moses's logic can be embedded into all ground logics; moreover, the translation employed allows for establishing a lower bound (3p) for the problem of skeptical reasoning in all ground logics. Then, we show a translation (...)
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  8.  14
    Review of Isaac Levi, For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning[REVIEW]Michael Morreau - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (10):540-546.
  9. Conditionals in Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Belief Revision Considering Conditionals as Agents.Gabriele Kern-Isberner - 2001
     
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  10. Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning 7th International Conference, Lpnmr 2004, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., January 6-8, 2004 : Proceedings. [REVIEW]Vladimir Lifschitz & Ilkka Niemelä - 2004
     
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  11.  15
    Is Human Reasoning Really Nonmonotonic?Piotr Łukowski - 2013 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):63-73.
    It seems that nonmonotonicity of our reasoning is an obvious truth. Almost every logician not even believes, but simply knows very well that a human being thinks in a nonmonotonic way. Moreover, a nonmonotonicity of thinking seems to be a phenomenon parallel to the existence of human beings. Examples allegedly illustrating this phenomenon are not even analyzed today. They are simply quoted. Nowadays, this is a standard approach to nonmonotonicity. However, even simple analysis of those “obvious” examples shows (...)
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  12.  48
    The Nature of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Charles G. Morgan - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (3):321-360.
    Conclusions reached using common sense reasoning from a set of premises are often subsequently revised when additional premises are added. Because we do not always accept previous conclusions in light of subsequent information, common sense reasoning is said to be nonmonotonic. But in the standard formal systems usually studied by logicians, if a conclusion follows from a set of premises, that same conclusion still follows no matter how the premise set is augmented; that is, the consequence relations (...)
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  13.  10
    Brandom’s Account of Reasoning: Nonmonotonic, But Does Not Allow Entitlement Recovery.Reiner Schaefer - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Research.
    In most everyday instances of reasoning, reasoners can gain, lose, and reacquire entitlement to (or justification for) a possible commitment (or belief) as a result of their consecutively acquiring new commitments. For example, we might initially conclude that ‘Tweety can fly’ from ‘Tweety is a bird,’ but later have to reject this conclusion as a result of our coming to learn that Tweety is a penguin. We could, even later, reacquire entitlement to ‘Tweety can fly’ if we became committed (...)
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  14.  47
    Inference on the Low Level: An Investigation Into Deduction, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Philosophy of Cognition.Hannes Leitgeb - 2004 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This monograph provides a new account of justified inference as a cognitive process. In contrast to the prevailing tradition in epistemology, the focus is on low-level inferences, i.e., those inferences that we are usually not consciously aware of and that we share with the cat nearby which infers that the bird which she sees picking grains from the dirt, is able to fly. Presumably, such inferences are not generated by explicit logical reasoning, but logical methods can be used to (...)
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  15.  35
    Human Nonmonotonic Reasoning: The Importance of Seeing the Logical Strength of Arguments.Marilyn Ford - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):71-92.
    Three studies of human nonmonotonic reasoning are described. The results show that people find such reasoning quite difficult, although being given problems with known subclass-superclass relationships is helpful. The results also show that recognizing differences in the logical strengths of arguments is important for the nonmonotonic problems studied. For some of these problems, specificity – which is traditionally considered paramount in drawing appropriate conclusions – was irrelevant and so should have lead to a “can’t tell” response; (...)
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  16.  3
    A Formalism for Nonmonotonic Reasoning Encoded Generics.Yi Mao - 2003 - Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin
    This dissertation is intended to provide a formalism for those generics that trigger nonmonotonic inferences. The formalism is to reflect intentionality and exception-tolerating features of generics, and has an emphasis on the axiomatization of generic reasoning that encodes nonmonotonicity. ;A modal conditional approach is taken to formalize the nonmonotonic reasoning in general at the level of object language. A serial of logic systems---MN, NID, NCUM, N STCUM---are constructed in an increasing strength of the characterized nonmonotonic (...)
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  17. Experiments on Nonmonotonic Reasoning. The Coherence of Human Probability Judgments.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2002 - In H. Leitgeb & G. Schurz (eds.), Pre-Proceedings of the 1 s T Salzburg Workshop on Paradigms of Cognition.
    Nonmonotonic reasoning is often claimed to mimic human common sense reasoning. Only a few studies, though, investigated this claim empirically. In the present paper four psychological experiments are reported, that investigate three rules of system p, namely the and, the left logical equivalence, and the or rule. The actual inferences of the subjects are compared with the coherent normative upper and lower probability bounds derived from a non-infinitesimal probability semantics of system p. We found a relatively good (...)
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  18.  15
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning , Argumentation and Machine Learning 1 Introduction.Peter Clark - 1990 - Argumentation:1-11.
    Machine learning and nonmonotonic reasoning are closely related, both concerned with making plausible as well as certain inferences based on available data. In this document a brief overview of different approaches to nonmonotonic reasoning is presented, and it is shown how the concept of argumentation systems arises. The relationship with machine learning work is also discussed. The document aims to highlight the links between nonmonotonic reasoning, argumentation and machine learning and as a result propose (...)
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  19.  11
    Belief Revision, Conditional Logic and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Wayne Wobcke - 1995 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):55-103.
    We consider the connections between belief revision, conditional logic and nonmonotonic reasoning, using as a foundation the approach to theory change developed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (the AGM approach). This is first generalized to allow the iteration of theory change operations to capture the dynamics of epistemic states according to a principle of minimal change of entrenchment. The iterative operations of expansion, contraction and revision are characterized both by a set of postulates and by Grove's construction based (...)
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  20.  8
    General Patterns for Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Basic Entailments to Plausible Relations.O. Arieli & A. Avron - 2000 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 8 (2):119-148.
    This paper has two goals. First, we develop frameworks for logical systems which are able to reflect not only non-monotonic patterns of reasoning, but also paraconsistent reasoning. Our second goal is to have a better understanding of the conditions that a useful relation for nonmonotonic reasoning should satisfy. For this we consider a sequence of generalizations of the pioneering works of Gabbay, Kraus, Lehmann, Magidor and Makinson. These generalizations allow the use of monotonic nonclassical logics as (...)
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  21. For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Isaac Levi - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
     
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  22. Nonmonotonic Reasoning From Theoretical Foundation Towards Efficient Computation.Gerhard Brewka - 1989 - [S.N.].
     
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  23.  39
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Finitary Relations to Infinitary Inference Operations.Michael Freund & Daniel Lehmann - 1994 - Studia Logica 53 (2):161 - 201.
    A. Tarski [22] proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering defeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary inference (...)
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  24.  61
    Classical Logic, Conditionals and “NonmonotonicReasoning.Nicholas Allott & Hiroyuki Uchida - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):85-85.
    Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
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  25. General Patterns in Nonmonotonic Reasoning.David Makinson - 1994 - In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence Nad Logic Programming, Vol. Iii. Clarendon Press.
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  26.  1
    Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning.Dov M. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, J. A. Robinson & D. Nute - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
  27. Change, Choice and Inference. A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Hans Rott - 2004 - Studia Logica 77 (1):145-147.
     
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  28.  9
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation.Yoav Shoham - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (2):213-252.
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  29. Is Human Reasoning About Nonmonotonic Conditionals Probabilistically Coherent?Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2006 - In Proceedings of the 7 T H Workshop on Uncertainty Processing. pp. 138--150.
    Nonmonotonic conditionals (A |∼ B) are formalizations of common sense expressions of the form “if A, normally B”. The nonmonotonic conditional is interpreted by a “high” coherent conditional probability, P(B|A) > .5. Two important properties are closely related to the nonmonotonic conditional: First, A |∼ B allows for exceptions. Second, the rules of the nonmonotonic system p guiding A |∼ B allow for withdrawing conclusions in the light of new premises. This study reports a series of (...)
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  30.  26
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning Based on Incomplete Logic.Tuan-Fang Fan, I. -Peng Lin & Churn-Jung Liau - 1997 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (4):375-395.
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  31.  19
    Levels of Belief in Nonmonotonic Reasoning.David Makinson - 2009 - In Franz Huber & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer. pp. 341--354.
  32.  6
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation: Comment.Herbert A. Simon - 1991 - Cognitive Science 15 (2):293-300.
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  33.  10
    Review of Hans Rott, Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning[REVIEW]Sven Ove Hansson - 2004 - Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic 77:145-147.
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  34.  1
    Formal Nonmonotonic Theories and Properties of Human Defeasible Reasoning.Marco Ragni, Christian Eichhorn, Tanja Bock, Gabriele Kern-Isberner & Alice Ping Ping Tse - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):79-117.
    The knowledge representation and reasoning of both humans and artificial systems often involves conditionals. A conditional connects a consequence which holds given a precondition. It can be easily recognized in natural languages with certain key words, like “if” in English. A vast amount of literature in both fields, both artificial intelligence and psychology, deals with the questions of how such conditionals can be best represented and how these conditionals can model human reasoning. On the other hand, findings in (...)
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  35. Review of Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning[REVIEW]Donald Nute - 1989 - Philosophical Psychology 2:351-355.
  36.  6
    Mental Models and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Nick Chater - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):340.
  37.  5
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Modal Logic, From Negation as Failure to Default Logic.Philippe Balbiani - 1991 - In B. Bouchon-Meunier, R. R. Yager & L. A. Zadeh (eds.), Uncertainty in Knowledge Bases. Springer. pp. 223--231.
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  38.  18
    Hannes Leitgeb, Inference on the Low Level: An Investigation Into Deduction, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Philosophy of Cognition. [REVIEW]Gerhard Schurz - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):393-395.
  39.  7
    Normic Laws, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Unity of Science.Gerhard Schurz - 2004 - In S. Rahman (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 181-211.
    Normic laws have the form "if A, then normally B". This paper attempts to show that if a philosophical analysis of normic laws (1, 4) is combined with certain developments in nonmono- tonic logic (2, 3), the following problems in philosophy of science can be seen in a new pers- pective which, at least in many cases, allows to improve their received analysis: explanation and individual case understanding in the humanities (1, 2), an evolution-theoretic foundation of normic laws which explains (...)
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  40.  6
    Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Joeri Engelfriet & Jan Treur - 2012 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 10 (1):7-26.
  41.  4
    On the Impact of Stratification on the Complexity of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Ilkka Niemelä & Jussi Rintanen - 1994 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 4 (2):141-179.
  42.  3
    Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning, Edited by Gabbay Dov M., Hogger CJ, and Robinson JA, with Nute D., Handbooks of Logic in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Etc., 1994, Xix+ 529 Pp.–. [REVIEW]G. Aldo Antonelli - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
  43.  10
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Grigoris Antoniou.Wiebe van der Hoek - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (1):125-128.
  44.  3
    Review of G. Antoniou Nonmonotonic Reasoning[REVIEW]K. Tanaka - 2001 - Studia Logica 67:144-146.
  45.  3
    Review: Grigoris Antoniou, Nonmonotonic Reasoning[REVIEW]Marek A. Suchenek - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):484-490.
  46. Isaac Levi, For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Reviewed By.William Seager - 1997 - Philosophy in Review 17 (3):181-183.
     
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  47.  2
    Review: Dov M. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, J. A. Robinson, D. Nute, Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning[REVIEW]G. Aldo Antonelli - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
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  48.  3
    Book Review:For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Isaac Levi. [REVIEW]Joseph Mendola - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (4):725-.
  49.  1
    Review: Gerhard Brewka, Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. [REVIEW]Heinrich Herre - 1993 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1079-1080.
  50. REVIEWS-Nonmonotonic Reasoning.G. Antoniou & Marek A. Suchenek - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):484-489.
     
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