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Norbert Paulo
University of Salzburg
  1.  15
    Moral Consistency Reasoning Reconsidered.Norbert Paulo - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (1):107-123.
    Many contemporary ethicists use case-based reasoning to reach consistent beliefs about ethical matters. The idea is that particular cases elicit moral intuitions, which provide defeasible reasons to believe in their content. However, most proponents of case-based moral reasoning are not very explicit about how they resolve inconsistencies and how they abstract principles from judgments about particular cases. The aim of this article is to outline a methodology—called Consistency Reasoning Casuistry—for case-based reasoning in ethics. This methodology draws on Richmond Campbell and (...)
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  2.  24
    Power to the People? Voter Manipulation, Legitimacy, and the Relevance of Moral Psychology for Democratic Theory.Norbert Paulo & Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):55-71.
    What should we do if climate change or global injustice require radical policy changes not supported by the majority of citizens? And what if science shows that the lacking support is largely due to shortcomings in citizens’ individual psychology such as cognitive biases that lead to temporal and geographical parochialism? Could then a plausible case for enhancing the morality of the electorate—even against their will –be made? But can a democratic government manipulate the will of the people without losing democratic (...)
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  3.  43
    In Search of Greene's Argument.Norbert Paulo - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (1):38-58.
    The moral psychologist Joshua Greene has proposed a number of arguments for the normative significance of empirical research and for the unreliability of deontological intuitions. For these arguments, much hinges on the combination of various components of Greene's research – namely the dual-process theory of moral judgement, ‘personalness’ as a factor in moral decision-making, and his functional understanding of deontology and consequentialism. Incorporating these components, I reconstruct three distinct arguments and show that the Personalness Argument for the claim that empirical (...)
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  4.  53
    Casuistry as Common Law Morality.Norbert Paulo - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (6):373-389.
    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin’s version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of (...)
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  5.  4
    X-Phi and Impartiality Thought Experiments: Investigating the Veil of Ignorance.Norbert Paulo & Thomas Pölzler - forthcoming - Diametros:1-18.
    This paper discusses “impartiality thought experiments”, i.e., thought experiments that attempt to generate intuitions which are unaffected by personal characteristics such as age, gender or race. We focus on the most prominent impartiality thought experiment, the Veil of Ignorance, and show that both in its original Rawlsian version and in a more generic version, empirical investigations can be normatively relevant in two ways: First, on the assumption that the VOI is effective and robust, if subjects dominantly favor a certain normative (...)
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  6.  6
    The Unreliable Intuitions Objection Against Reflective Equilibrium.Norbert Paulo - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics:1-21.
    Reflective equilibrium has been criticized for various reasons ever since the publication of Rawls’ A Theory of Justice. Recent empirical research into moral decision-making poses new challenges to RE because it questions the reliability of moral intuitions. This research might discredit moral intuitionism in general and RE in particular insofar as it ascribes epistemic value to moral intuitions. These findings suggest, for instance, that moral intuitions vary with cultural background, gender or framing. If it could be shown that all or (...)
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  7.  12
    Specifying Specification.Norbert Paulo - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):1-28.
    As late as 1984, five years after the first edition of the seminal Principles of Biomedical Ethics appeared, Tom Beauchamp lamented that applied ethics is not taken seriously as a distinct field of philosophy. In order to change that attitude he argued for effacing the distinction between applied and classical ethics. After all, philosophers of applied ethics do the same as all other philosophers: they analyze concepts, use certain strategies to test or justify beliefs, and explicate hidden premises in arguments. (...)
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  8.  41
    The Bite of Rights in Paternalism.Norbert Paulo - 2015 - In Thomas Schramme (ed.), New Perspectives on Paternalism and Health Care. Springer Verlag.
    This paper scrutinizes the tension between individuals’ rights and paternalism. I will argue that no normative account that includes rights of individuals can justify hard paternalism since the infringement of a right can only be justified with the right or interest of another person, which is never the case in hard paternalism. Justifications of hard paternalistic actions generally include a deviation from the very idea of having rights. The paper first introduces Tom Beauchamp as the most famous contemporary hard paternalist (...)
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  9.  21
    Moral-Epistemic Enhancement.Norbert Paulo - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:165-188.
    The idea of using biomedical means to make people more likely to behave morally may have a certain appeal. However, it is very hard to find two persons – let alone two moral philosophers – who agree on what it means to be moral or to act morally. After discussing some of the proposals for moral enhancements that all ethicists could agree on, I engage more closely with the recent idea of “procedural moral enhancement” that aims at improving deliberative processes (...)
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  10.  29
    How (Not) to Argue For Moral Enhancement: Reflections on a Decade of Debate.Norbert Paulo & Jan Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):95-109.
    The controversy over moral bioenhancement has fallen into a stalemate between advocates and critics. We wish to overcome this stalemate by addressing some of the key challenges any moral enhancement project has to meet. In particular, we shall argue that current proposals are unpersuasive as they, first, fail to diagnose the often complex causes of contemporary moral maladies and, second, are premised on methodological individualism. Focusing on brains and minds neglects social and environmental factors. Solving the mega-problems of today very (...)
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  11.  19
    Introduction: Political Implications of Moral Enhancement.Norbert Paulo & Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):1-3.
    What should we do if climate change or global injustice require radical policy changes not supported by the majority of citizens? And what if science shows that the lacking support is largely due to shortcomings in citizens’ individual psychology such as cognitive biases that lead to temporal and geographical parochialism? Could then a plausible case for enhancing the morality of the electorate—even against their will –be made? But can a democratic government manipulate the will of the people without losing democratic (...)
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  12.  16
    Eine Kritik der kommunitaristischen Moralphilosophie: Offene Gesellschaft—geschlossene Gemeinschaft, written by Harald Stelzer.Norbert Paulo - 2017 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (1-2):289-295.
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  13.  1
    Einleitung: Demokratie in der Krise – rechts- und sozialphilosophische Aspekte.Norbert Paulo & Stephan Kirste - 2019 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 6 (2):107-112.
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  14.  10
    Erratum To: How (Not) to Argue For Moral Enhancement: Reflections on a Decade of Debate.Norbert Paulo & Jan Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):111-111.
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  15.  19
    The Confluence of Philosophy and Law in Applied Ethics.Norbert Paulo - 2016 - Palgrave.
    The law serves functions that are not often taken seriously enough by ethicists, namely feasibility and practicability. A consequence of feasibility is that most laws do not meet the demands of ideal ethical theory. A consequence of practicability is that law requires elaborated and explicit methodologies that determine how to do things with norms. These two consequences form the core idea behind this book, which employs methods from legal theory to inform and examine debates on methodology in applied ethics, particularly (...)
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