Results for 'Norman E. Spear'

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  1.  10
    Retrieval of Memory in Animals.Norman E. Spear - 1973 - Psychological Review 80 (3):163-194.
  2.  9
    Acquisition and Extinction After Initial Trials Without Reward.Norman E. Spear, Winfred F. Hill & Denis J. O'Sullivan - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):25.
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  3.  8
    Retention of Reinforcer Magnitude.Norman E. Spear - 1967 - Psychological Review 74 (3):216-234.
  4.  19
    State-Dependent Retention in Humans Induced by Alterations in Affective State.Michael L. Macht, Norman E. Spear & Donald J. Levis - 1977 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 10 (5):415-418.
  5.  7
    Association by Contiguity.Norman E. Spear, Bruce R. Ekstrand & Benton J. Underwood - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (2):151.
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  6.  13
    Effect of Reactivation of a Previously Acquired Memory on the Interaction Between Memories in the Rat.William C. Gordon & Norman E. Spear - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):349-355.
  7.  7
    Ontogeny of Memory.Byron A. Campbell & Norman E. Spear - 1972 - Psychological Review 79 (3):215-236.
  8.  3
    Effect of Initial Nonrewarded Trials: Factors Responsible for Increased Resistance to Extinction.Norman E. Spear & Joseph H. Spitzner - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):525-537.
  9.  7
    Adjustment to New Reward: Simultaneous- and Successive-Contrast Effects.Norman E. Spear & Winfred F. Hill - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (5):510.
  10.  6
    Choice Between Magnitude and Percentage or Reinforcement.Norman E. Spear - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (1):44.
  11.  11
    Conscious Constraints on Episodic Memory.Norman E. Spear - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):572-573.
  12.  9
    Pre in a T-Maze Brightness Discrimination Within and Between Subjects.Norman E. Spear & Joseph H. Spitzner - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):320.
  13.  66
    Percentage of Reinforcement and Reward Magnitude Effects in a T Maze: Between and Within Subjects.Norman E. Spear & William B. Pavlik - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):521.
  14.  2
    Residual Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude.Norman E. Spear & Joseph H. Spitzner - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (1):135.
  15.  1
    Transfer as a Function of Time to Mediate.Norman E. Spear, Peter J. Mikulka & Marvin Podd - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):40.
  16.  21
    A Replication of Overlearning and Reversal in a T Maze.Winfred F. Hill & Norman E. Spear - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (3):317.
  17.  17
    Extinction in a Runway as a Function of Acquisition Level and Reinforcement Percentage.Winfred F. Hill & Norman E. Spear - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (5):495.
  18.  17
    Resistance to Extinction as a Joint Function of Reward Magnitude and the Spacing of Extinction Trials.Winfred F. Hill & Norman E. Spear - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (6):636.
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  19.  10
    T Maze Reversal Learning After Several Different Overtraining Procedures.Winfred F. Hill, Norman E. Spear & Keith N. Clayton - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (5):533.
  20.  14
    Effect of Interpolated Extinction and Level of Training on the "Depression Effect.".John R. Vogel, Peter J. Mikulka & Norman E. Spear - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):51.
  21.  6
    Coding Processes in Verbal Learning as a Function of Response Pronounciability.William E. Forrester & Norman E. Spear - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):586-588.
  22.  11
    Reminiscence and Forgetting in a Runway.Winfred F. Hill, Albert Erlebacher & Norman E. Spear - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (2):201.
  23.  26
    Retention of T-Maze Learning After Varying Intervals Following Partial and Continuous Reinforcement.Winfred F. Hill, John W. Cotton, Norman E. Spear & Carl P. Duncan - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):584.
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  24.  11
    Repeated Isolation Experience During the Preweanling Period: Effects on Behavioral Ontogeny.Patricia A. Caza, W. Douglas Tynan, Gayle Solheim & Norman E. Spear - 1982 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 20 (2):115-118.
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  25. Business Ethics: A Kantian Perspective.Norman E. Bowie - 1999 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book provides essential reading for anyone with an academic or professional interest in business ethics today.
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  26.  13
    Ethical Theory and Business.Tom L. Beauchamp, Norman E. Bowie & Denis Gordon Arnold (eds.) - 2008 - Pearson/Prentice Hall.
    For forty years, successive editions of Ethical Theory and Business have helped to define the field of business ethics. The 10th edition reflects the current, multidisciplinary nature of the field by explicitly embracing a variety of perspectives on business ethics, including philosophy, management, and legal studies. Chapters integrate theoretical readings, case studies, and summaries of key legal cases to guide students to a rich understanding of business ethics, corporate responsibility, and sustainability. The 10th edition has been entirely updated, ensuring that (...)
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  27. A Kantian Theory of Meaningful Work.Norman E. Bowie - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (9-10):1083 - 1092.
    In this article I use Kantian moral philosophy to develop a concept of meaningful work. Specifically, a Kantian would argue that work is meaningful if (1) it is freely entered into, (2) it allows the worker to exercise her autonomy and independence, (3) it enables the worker to develop her rational capacities, (4) it provides a wage sufficient for physical welfare, (5) it supports the moral development of employees and (6) it is not paternalistic. I then provide examples of contemporary (...)
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  28.  44
    Management Ethics.Norman E. Bowie - 2004 - Blackwell.
    My station and its duties : the function of being a manager -- Stockholder management or stakeholder management -- The ethical treatment of employees -- The ethical treatment of customers -- Supply chain management and other issues -- Corporate social responsibility -- Moral imagination, stakeholder theory and systems thinking : one approach to management decision-making -- Leadership.
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  29.  64
    Confronting Morality in Markets.Norman E. Bowie & Thomas W. Dunfee - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (4):381 - 393.
    When an organization is pressured to respond to moral expressions in capital, consumer and labor markets, it faces a dilemma of how to respond. Should Shell have given in to Greenpeace in deciding how to dispose of the Brent Spar Oil Rig? Should Cracker Barrel give in to pressures to fire homosexual employees? Firms should consider the nature of the moral expressions pressuring them in deciding how to respond. Moral expressions can be divided into three descriptive categories: Benign, Disputed and (...)
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  30.  55
    Respect for Workers in Global Supply Chains: Advancing the Debate Over Sweatshops.Norman E. Bowie - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (1):135-145.
    In “Sweatshops and Respect for Persons” we argued on Kantian grounds that managers of multinational enterprises (MNEs) have the following duties: to adhere to local labor laws, to refrain from coercion, to meet minimum health and safety standards, and to pay workers a living wage. In their commentary on our paper Sollars and Englander challenge some of our conclusions. We argue here that several of their criticisms are based on an inaccurate reading of our paper, and that none of the (...)
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  31.  58
    Challenging the Egoistic Paradigm.Norman E. Bowie - 1991 - Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (1):1-21.
    Most economists are committed to some version of egoism. After distinguishing among the various sorts of egoistic claims, l cite the empirical literature against psychological egoism and show that attempts to account for this data make these economists' previous empirical claims tautological. Moreover, the assumption of egoism has undesirable consequences, especially for students; if people believe that others behave egoistically, they are more likely to behave egoistically themselves. As an alternative to egoism I recommend the commitment model of Robert Frank. (...)
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  32.  58
    A Kantian Perspective on the Characteristics of Ethics Programs.Norman E. Bowie - 2004 - Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (2):275-292.
    The literature contains many recommendations, both explicit and implicit, that suggest how an ethics program ought to be designed.While we recognize the contributions of these works, we also note that these recommendations are typically based on either social scientific theory or data and as a result they tend to discount the moral aspects of ethics programs. To contrast and complement these approaches, we refer to a theory of the right to identify the characteristics of an effective ethics program. We draw (...)
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  33.  18
    Ethics and Agency Theory: An Introduction.Norman E. Bowie & R. Edward Freeman (eds.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Agency theory involves what is known as the principal-agent problem, a topic widely discussed in economics, management, and business ethics today. It is a characteristic of nearly all modern business firms that the principals (the owners and shareholders) are not the same people as the agents (the managers who run the firms for the principals). This creates situations in which the goals of the principals may not be the same as the agents--the principals will want growth in profits and stock (...)
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  34.  57
    Respect for Workers in Global Supply Chains: Advancing the Debate Over Sweatshops.Denis G. Arnold & Norman E. Bowie - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (1):135-145.
    In “Sweatshops and Respect for Persons” we argued on Kantian grounds that managers of multinational enterprises have the following duties: to adhere to local labor laws, to refrain from coercion, to meet minimum health and safety standards, and to pay workers a living wage. In their commentary on our paper Sollars and Englander challenge some of our conclusions. We argue here that several of their criticisms are based on an inaccurate reading of our paper, and that none of the remaining (...)
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  35. Management Ethics.Norman E. Bowie & Patricia H. Werhane - 2004 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Management Ethics_ is a highly accessible and concise introduction to issues and key problems in the area of management ethics. Examines the obligations that managers have to their various stakeholders: employees, customers, shareholders, and the community Looks at topics at the cutting edge of business ethics, including the ethics of supply chain management, as well as dealing with the press and non governmental agencies Considers the concepts of sustainability and triple bottom line accounting Includes chapters on stimulating the manager's moral (...)
     
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  36.  50
    Business Ethics, Philosophy, and the Next 25 Years.Norman E. Bowie - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1):7-20.
    Although BEQ is celebrating its tenth anniversary, business ethics is considerably older than that. Business ethics has been a staple of Catholic thinking on business for most of this century at least. For most philosophers, however, business ethics is about twenty-five years old. Philosophers became active in the field in the mid-1970s. I have chosen as my topic for this essay the role that the discipline of philosophy could play in the future.
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  37. A Kantian Theory of Capitalism.Norman E. Bowie - 1998 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998:37-60.
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  38.  90
    Privacy Rights on the Internet: Self-Regulation or Government Regulation?Norman E. Bowie & Karim Jamal - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (3):323-342.
    Abstract: Consumer surveys indicate that concerns about privacy are a principal factor discouraging consumers from shopping online. The key public policy issue regarding privacy is whether the US should follow its current self-regulation course (where the FTC encourages websites to obtain private “privacy web-seals”), or whether a European style formal legal regulation approach should be adopted in the US. We conclude that the use of assurance seals has worked reasonably well and websites should be free to decide whether they have (...)
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  39.  46
    Sweatshops and Respect for Persons.Denis G. Arnold & Norman E. Bowie - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (9999):165-188.
    Most shoppers like bargains. Do bargains come at the expense of workers in sweatshops around the world? The authors argue that many large multinational corporations are running the moral equivalents of sweatshops and are not properly respecting the rights of persons. They list a set of minimum standards of safety and decency that they claim all corporations should meet. Finally, they defend their call for improved working conditions by replying to objections that meeting improved conditions will cause greater harm than (...)
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  40.  10
    Student Teachers in Primary Schools: The Views of Mentors and Headteachers.Norman D. Lock & Margaret Spear - 1997 - Educational Studies 23 (2):253-261.
    Four year initial teacher education courses have recently undergone radical reform, in particular in relation to the time that students spend in schools. Through the introduction of mentorship programmes, teachers have become very much more involved in training the students whilst they are in school. How do teachers view the changes that have been introduced? Do they agree with the principles and models that guided the developments? Headteachers and class teachers who acted as mentors for students from the University of (...)
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  41.  44
    Fair Markets.Norman E. Bowie - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (1-2):89 - 98.
    The paper challenges a minimalist strategy in business ethics that maintains if it's legal, it's moral. In hard cases, judges decide legal issues by appealing to moral ideals. Investigation shows that the bedrock concept is fairness. Often judges define fairness in terms of non-coerciveness or equality of bargaining power. The prudent manager must look beyond the legal department to the ethical notion of fairness. Moreover, if the courts were to consistently appeal to non-coerciveness and equality of bargaining power, some practices (...)
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  42.  81
    How Empirical Research in Human Cognition Does and Does Not Affect Philosophical Ethics.Norman E. Bowie - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):635 - 643.
    In this essay, I consider the implications for traditional philosophical ethics posed by discoveries in brain research or neurocognition as well as psychological discoveries concerning human biases and cognitive limitations presented in behavioral economics. I conclude that although there still is much for philosophical ethics to do, the empirical research shows that human freedom and responsibility for ethical decisions is somewhat diminished and that choice architecture and nudges through public policy become important for getting people to do the right thing.
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  43.  1
    A Kantian Theory of Capitalism.Norman E. Bowie - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (S1):37-60.
    Some years ago Ed Freeman and William Evan wrote an article offering a Kantian stakeholder theory of corporate responsibility. Ed was kind enough to allow Tom Beauchamp and me to publish that previously unpublished piece in the second edition of Ethical Theory and Business. That article has appeared in every subsequent edition. But a Kantian theory of stakeholder relationships is not, I believe, a complete Kantian theory of the modem corporation. I believe Ed originally intended to expand that paper into (...)
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  44.  25
    Privacy Rights On The Internet: Self-Regulation Or Government Regulation?Norman E. Bowie & Karim Jamal - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (3):323-342.
    Consumer surveys indicate that concerns about privacy are a principal factor discouraging consumers from shopping online. The keypublic policy issue regarding privacy is whether the US should follow its current self-regulation course, or whether a European style formal legal regulation approach should be adopted in the US.We conclude that the use of assurance seals has worked reasonably well and websites should be free to decide whether they have aprivacy seal or not. Given the narrow scope and the wide variety among (...)
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  45. Sweatshops and Respect for Persons.Denis G. Arnold & Norman E. Bowie - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):221-242.
    This article applies the Kantian doctrine of respect for persons to the problem of sweatshops. We argue that multinational enterprises are properly regarded as responsible for the practices of their subcontractors and suppliers. We then argue that multinationalenterprises have the following duties in their off-shore manufacturing facilities: to ensure that local labor laws are followed; to refrain from coercion; to meet minimum safety standards; and to provide a living wage for employees. Finally, we consider and reply to the objection that (...)
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  46.  16
    Moral Decision Making and MultinationalsThe Ethics of International Business.Norman E. Bowie & Thomas Donaldson - 1991 - Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (2):223.
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  47. The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics.Norman E. Bowie (ed.) - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _ The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics, _written by international experts in the field, acquaints the reader with theoretical and pedagogical issues, ethical issues in the practice of business and exciting new directions in the field.
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  48.  42
    Should Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations Be Less Adversarial?Norman E. Bowie - 1985 - Journal of Business Ethics 4 (4):283 - 291.
    In this paper I argue that the poker analogy is unsuitable as a model for collective bargaining negotiations. Using the poker game analogy is imprudent, its use undermines trust and ignores the cooperative features of business, and its use fails to take into account the values of dignity and fairness which should characterize labor-management negotiations. I propose and defend a model of ideal family decision-making as a superior model to the poker game.
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  49.  30
    Moral Decision Making and Multinationals.Norman E. Bowie - 1991 - Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (2):223-232.
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  50.  9
    University-Business Partnerships: An Assessment.Norman E. Bowie - 1994 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This work assesses the ethical issues arising from the proliferation of university-business partnerships. Bowie pays special attention to the question of whether such partnerships are consistent with the values of higher education, and examines procedures for protecting university values. The work concludes with an extensive section of readings, including articles by David Noble, Nicholas Wade, and Albert Gore, Jr.; copies of historical documents and case studies; and copies of conflict of interest statements from leading universities.
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