Results for 'Normative conflicts'

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  1. Normative Conflicts and the Structure of Normativity.Andrew Reisner - 2015 - In Iwao Hirose & Andrew Reisner (eds.), Weighing and Reasoning: Themes from the Work of John Broome. Oxford University Press.
    This paper considers the relation between the sources of normativity, reasons, and normative conflicts. It argues that common views about how normative reasons relate to their sources have important consequences for how we can understand putative normative conflicts.
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  2. Norm Conflicts and Conditionals.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, David Kellen, Ulrike Hahn & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2019 - Psychological Review (5):611-633.
    Suppose that two competing norms, N1 and N2, can be identified such that a given person’s response can be interpreted as correct according to N1 but incorrect according to N2. Which of these two norms, if any, should one use to interpret such a response? In this paper we seek to address this fundamental problem by studying individual variation in the interpretation of conditionals by establishing individual profiles of the participants based on their case judgments and reflective attitudes. To investigate (...)
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  3. Normative Conflicts and the Logic of 'Ought'.Lou Goble - 2009 - Noûs 43 (3):450-489.
    On the face of it, normative conflicts are commonplace. Yet standard deontic logic declares them to be logically impossible. That prompts the question, What are the proper principles of normative reasoning if such conflicts are possible? This paper examines several alternatives that have been proposed for a logic of 'ought' that can accommodate normative conflicts, and finds all of them unsatisfactory as measured against three criteria of adequacy. It then introduces a new logic that (...)
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  4. The Specter of Normative Conflict: Does Fairness Require Inaccuracy?Rima Basu - forthcoming - In Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva (eds.), An Introduction to Implicit Bias: Knowledge, Justice, and the Social Mind. Routledge.
    A challenge we face in a world that has been shaped by, and continues to be shaped by, racist attitudes and institutions is that the evidence is often stacked in favor of racist beliefs. As a result, we may find ourselves facing the following conflict: what if the evidence we have supports something we morally shouldn’t believe? For example, it is morally wrong to assume, solely on the basis of someone’s skin color, that they’re a staff member. But, what if (...)
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  5.  64
    Normative Conflicts in Legal Reasoning.Giovanni Sartor - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (2-3):209-235.
    This article proposes a formal analysis of a fundamental aspect of legal reasoning: dealing with normative conflicts. Firstly, examples are illustrated concerning the dynamics of legal systems, the application of rules and exceptions, and the semantic indeterminacy of legal sources. Then two approaches to cope with conflicting information are presented: the preferred theories of Brewka, and the belief change functions of Alchourrón, Gärdenfors, and Makinson. The relations between those approaches are closely examined, and some aspects of a model (...)
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  6. Prioritized Imperatives and Normative Conflicts.Fengkui Ju & Fenrong Liu - 2011 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 7 (2):35-58.
    Imperatives occur ubiquitously in natural languages. They produce forces which change the addressee’s cognitive state and regulate her actions accordingly. In real life we often receive conflicting orders, typically, issued by various authorities with different ranks. A new update semantics is proposed in this paper to formalize this idea. The general properties of this semantics, as well as its background ideas are discussed extensively. In addition, we compare our framework with other approaches of deontic logics in the context of (...) conflicts. (shrink)
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  7.  39
    Normative Conflict in the Newsroom: The Case of Digital Photo Manipulation.Wilson Lowrey - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (2):123-142.
    Digital photo manipulation is often treated in the literature as a problem that occurs when individuals stray from a single set of ethical standards. It is proposed in this study that the newsroom comprises various subgroups, each with unique norms and values, and each seeking to shape newsroom decision making. It is expected that photo manipulation should result from subgroups' perceptions of, and reactions to, this plurality of newsroom norms. This expectation is assessed through both in-depth interviews and a national (...)
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  8.  34
    Truthmakers and Normative Conflicts.Albert Anglberger & Johannes Korbmacher - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (1):49-83.
    By building on work by Kit Fine, we develop a sound and complete truthmaker semantics for Lou Goble’s conflict tolerant deontic logic BDL.
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  9.  68
    An Inconsistency-Adaptive Deontic Logic for Normative Conflicts.Mathieu Beirlaen, Christian Straßer & Joke Meheus - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):285-315.
    We present the inconsistency-adaptive deontic logic DP r , a nonmonotonic logic for dealing with conflicts between normative statements. On the one hand, this logic does not lead to explosion in view of normative conflicts such as O A ∧ O ∼A, O A ∧ P ∼A or even O A ∧ ∼O A. On the other hand, DP r still verifies all intuitively reliable inferences valid in Standard Deontic Logic (SDL). DP r interprets a given (...)
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  10.  78
    A Functional Taxonomy of Normative Conflict.H. Hamner Hill - 1987 - Law and Philosophy 6 (2):227-247.
    In this paper I argue for three theses. First, most philosophical analyses of the problem of normative conflict, being based on the impossibility-of-joint-compliance test for conflict, are inadequate. Second, expanding on suggestions made by H. L. A. Hart and Stephen Munzer, I develop an understanding of normative conflict which is not tied to the concept of obedience. Such an understanding of normative conflict is expressly functional: normative conflicts arise when one norm interferes with the intended (...)
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  11.  11
    Deontic Logic for Normative Conflicts.L. Goble - 2014 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (2):206-235.
  12.  11
    Norm Conflict Identification in Contracts.João Paulo Aires, Daniele Pinheiro, Vera Strube de Lima & Felipe Meneguzzi - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 25 (4):397-428.
    The exchange of goods and services between individuals is often formalised by a contract in which the parties establish norms to define what is expected of each one. Norms use deontic statements of obligation, prohibition, and permission, which may be in conflict. The task of manually detecting norm conflicts can be time–consuming and error-prone since contracts can be vast and complex. To automate such tasks, we develop an approach to identify potential conflicts between norms. We show the effectiveness (...)
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  13. Norm Conflicts: Kelsen's View in the Late Period and a Rejoinder.Bruno Celano - 1998 - In Stanley L. Paulson & Bonnie Litschewski Paulson (eds.), Normativity and Norms: Critical Perspectives on Kelsenian Themes. Oxford University Press. pp. 343--361.
     
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  14.  2
    A Realistic View on Normative Conflicts.Daniela Glavaničová & Matteo Pascucci - 2020 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 29 (3):447-462.
    Kulicki and Trypuz (2016) introduced three systems of multivalued deontic action logic to handle normative conflicts. The first system suggests a pessimistic view on normative conflicts, according to which any conflicting option represents something forbidden; the second system suggests an optimistic view, according to which any conflicting option represents something obligatory; finally, the third system suggests a neutral view, according to which any conflicting option represents something that is neither obligatory nor forbidden. The aim of the (...)
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  15.  25
    Surveillance in Ubiquitous Network Societies: Normative Conflicts Related to the Consumer in-Store Supermarket Experience in the Context of the Internet of Things.Jenifer Sunrise Winter - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):27-41.
    The Internet of Things is an emerging global infrastructure that employs wireless sensors to collect, store, and exchange data. Increasingly, applications for marketing and advertising have been articulated as a means to enhance the consumer shopping experience, in addition to improving efficiency. However, privacy advocates have challenged the mass aggregation of personally-identifiable information in databases and geotracking, the use of location-based services to identify one’s precise location over time. This paper employs the framework of contextual integrity related to privacy developed (...)
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  16. Conflicts of Normativity.Andrew Reisner - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    The thesis contains my early work arguing against evidentialism for reasons for belief (chapter 1), my early argument that rationality is not normative (chapter 2), an argument that rationality is not responding reasons, at least understood in one way (chapter 2), a general discussion of how normative conflicts might (appear to) arise in many different ways (chapter 3), a discussion of how to weigh pragmatic and evidential reasons for belief (chapter 4), and a discussion of the general (...)
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  17.  27
    An Inconsistency-Adaptive Deontic Logic for Normative Conflicts.Mathieu Beirlaen, Christian Strasser & Joke Meheus - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic.
  18.  38
    Mediating Difference: Normative Conflict as Opportunity.Ellen Waldman - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):25 – 27.
  19.  2
    Non-Monotonic Reasoning with Normative Conflicts in Multi-Agent Deontic Logic.M. Beirlaen & C. Strasser - 2013 - Journal of Logic and Computation 24 (6):1179–1207.
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  20.  7
    Conflicting Norms, Values, and Interests: A Perspective From Legal Academia.Stefan Oeter - 2019 - Ethics and International Affairs 33 (1):57-66.
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  21.  40
    Potential Conflicts Between Normatively-Responsible Advocacy and Successful Social Influence: Evidence From Persuasion Effects Research. [REVIEW]Daniel J. O’Keefe - 2007 - Argumentation 21 (2):151-163.
    This article approaches the relationship of normative argumentation studies and descriptive persuasion effects research by pointing to several empirical findings that raise questions or puzzles about normatively-proper argumentative conduct. These findings indicate some complications in the analysis of normatively desirable argumentative conduct – including some ways in which practical persuasive success may not be entirely compatible with normatively-desirable advocacy practices.
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  22. How to Solve the Social Norm Conflict Dilemma of Green Consumption: The Moderating Effect of Self-Affirmation.Wanda Ge, Guanghua Sheng & Hongli Zhang - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Social norms are important social factors that affect individual behavioral change. Using social norms to promote green consumption is receiving increasing attention. However, due to the different formation processes and mechanisms of the behavioral influence of the different types of social norms, using social norms to promote green consumption often has social norm conflict situations. Thus, it is difficult to attain the maximum utility of social norms. The present research found that social norm conflict weakens the role of injunctive norms (...)
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    Secessionist Conflict: A Happy Marriage Between Norms and Interests?Rafael Biermann - 2019 - Ethics and International Affairs 33 (1):29-43.
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  24.  9
    ‘The Great Fiasco’ of the 1948 Presidential Election Polls: Status Recognition and Norms Conflict in Social Science.Dominic Lusinchi - 2018 - Annals of Science 75 (2):120-144.
    SUMMARYAll three ‘scientific’ pollsters wrongly predicted incumbent President Harry Truman’s defeat in the 1948 presidential election, and thus faced a potentially serious legitimacy crisis. This ‘fiasco’ occurred at a most inopportune time. Social science was embroiled in a policy debate taking place in the halls of Congress. It was fighting a losing battle to be included, along with the natural sciences, in the National Science Foundation, for which legislation was being drafted. Faced with the failure of the polls, the Social (...)
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    Universal Norms and Conflicting Values.Michael J. Selgelid - 2005 - Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):267-273.
    ABSTRACTWhile UNESCO's Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights highlights appropriate ethical values, its principles are stated in absolute terms and conflict with one another. The Draft Declaration fails to sufficiently address the possibility of conflict between principles, and it provides no real guidance on how to strike a balance between them in cases where conflict occurs. The document's inadequate treatment of conflicting values is revealed by examination of cases where principles aimed at the promotion of autonomy and liberty (...)
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  26.  3
    A Paraconsistent Multi-Agent Framework for Dealing with Normative Conflicts.Mathieu Beirlaen & Christian Straßer - 2011 - In Joao Leite, Paolo Torroni, Thomas Agotnes, Guido Boella & Leon van der Torre (eds.), Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems. CLIMA 2011. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 6814. Berlin, Germany: Springer. pp. 312–329.
  27.  18
    A Unifying Framework for Reasoning About Normative Conflicts.Mathieu Beirlaen - 2011 - In Michal Peliš & Vít Punčochář (eds.), The Logica Yearbook. College Publications. pp. 1--14.
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  28. Conflicts of Norms and the Revision of Normative Systems.Carlos E. Alchourrón - 1991 - Law and Philosophy 10 (4):413 - 425.
  29. Idealism and Realism in Kelsen's Treatment of Norms Conflicts.Ines Weyland - 1986 - In Richard Tur & William L. Twining (eds.), Essays on Kelsen. Clarendon Press. pp. 249--269.
     
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  30.  12
    Competition and Conflict Between Communicative Norms.Michael Hoppmann - 2017 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 6 (2):220-246.
    When engaging with each other, discussants navigate a complex set of communicative norms that aim at very different goals. Within argumentation theory naturally the most studied set of norms are those aiming at reasonableness, of which I take the pragma-dialectical rule set to be a representative example. They are however far from the only norms that guide communicative behavior. This paper offers an analysis of the areas of intersection and potential conflict of reasonableness with other communicative norms in general and (...)
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  31.  4
    Inverting Donaldson’s Framework: A Managerial Approach To International Conflicts Of Cultural And Economic Norms.Andrew Stark - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (4):535-558.
    ABSTRACT:Thomas Donaldson’s framework for dealing with value-conflicts between a manager’s home and host country distinguishes between a “conflict of relative [economic] development”—conflicting norms that arise because home and host are at two different stages of economic development—and a “conflict of culture,” which arises because the home and host’s different cultures generate conflicting norms on the issue the manager faces. My question here is a thought experiment. What different insights might emerge if we flipped Donaldson’s framework around? Specifically: What if (...)
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    Two Women with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers: Conflicting Normative Expectations.Tineke A. Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Guy Am Widdershoven, Minke Goldsteen & Marian A. Verkerk - 2005 - Nursing Ethics 12 (5):479-492.
    It is not uncommon that nurses are unable to meet the normative expectations of chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate Walker’s expressive-collaborative view of morality to interpret the normative expectations of two women with multiple sclerosis. Both women present themselves as autonomous persons who make their own choices, but who also have to rely on others for many aspects of their lives, for example, to find a new balance between work and (...)
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  33.  42
    Collateral Conflicts and Epistemic Norms.J. Adam Carter - 2021 - In Kevin McCain, Scott Stapleford & Matthias Steup (eds.), Epistemic Dilemmas: New Arguments, New Angles. Routledge.
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  34. Conflicting Reasons, Unconflicting ‘Ought's.Shyam Nair - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (3):629-663.
    One of the popular albeit controversial ideas in the last century of moral philosophy is that what we ought to do is explained by our reasons. And one of the central features of reasons that accounts for their popularity among normative theorists is that they can conflict. But I argue that the fact that reasons conflict actually also poses two closely related problems for this popular idea in moral philosophy. The first problem is a generalization of a problem in (...)
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  35. Conflict Between Empiricism and Idealism 277 the Homo Juridicus and the Inadequacy of Law as a Norm of Life.Giorgio Del Vecchio & L. L. Zarrilli - 1938 - In Jerome Hall (ed.), Readings in Jurisprudence. Gaunt.
     
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  36. Conflict of Norms and Conflict of Values in Law.Sandrine Chassagnard-Pinet - 2015 - In Sandrine Chassagnard-Pinet, Patrice Canivez & Matthias Armgardt (eds.), Past and Present Interactions in Legal Reasoning and Logic. Springer Verlag.
     
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  37.  4
    Conflicts and Reasons in Contextual Normative Theory: A Reply to Modood and Thompson.Peter Matthew Hills - 2021 - Res Publica 27 (1):145-150.
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  38.  7
    Universal Norms and Conflicting Values.Phd Michael J. Selgelid - 2005 - Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):267–273.
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  39.  14
    Do Conflicts of Interest Create a New Professional Norm? Physical Therapists and Workers' Compensation.Maude Laliberté & Anne Hudon - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):26 - 28.
  40.  25
    Normative Pluralism Worthy of the Name is False.Spencer Case - 2016 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 11 (1):1-20.
    Normative pluralism is the view that practical reason consists in an irreducible plurality of normative domains, that these domains sometimes issue conflicting recommendations and that, when this happens, there is never any one thing that one ought simpliciter to do. Here I argue against this view, noting that normative pluralism must be either unrestricted or restricted. Unrestricted pluralism maintains that all coherent standards are reason-generating normative domains, whereas restricted pluralism maintains that only some are. Unrestricted pluralism, (...)
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  41.  40
    Conflict, Metacognition, and Analytic Thinking.Valerie A. Thompson & Stephen C. Johnson - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):215-244.
    One hundred and three participants solved conflict and non-conflict versions of four reasoning tasks using a two-response procedure: a base rate task, a causal reasoning task, a denominator neglect task, and a categorical syllogisms task. Participants were asked to give their first, intuitive answer, to make a Feeling of Rightness judgment, and then were given as much time as needed to rethink their answer. They also completed a standardized measure of IQ and the actively open-minded thinking questionnaire. The FORs of (...)
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  42. Two Adaptive Logics of Norm-Propositions.Mathieu Beirlaen & Christian Straßer - 2013 - Journal of Applied Logic 11 (2):147-168.
    We present two defeasible logics of norm-propositions (statements about norms) that (i) consistently allow for the possibility of normative gaps and normative conflicts, and (ii) map each premise set to a sufficiently rich consequence set. In order to meet (i), we define the logic LNP, a conflict- and gap-tolerant logic of norm-propositions capable of formalizing both normative conflicts and normative gaps within the object language. Next, we strengthen LNP within the adaptive logic framework for (...)
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  43.  35
    When Public Health and Genetic Privacy Collide: Positive and Normative Theories Explaining How ACA's Expansion of Corporate Wellness Programs Conflicts with GINA's Privacy Rules.Jennifer S. Bard - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):469-487.
    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) contains many provisions intended to increase access to and lower the cost of health care by adopting public health measures. One of these promotes the use of at-work wellness programs by both providing employers with grants to develop these programs and also increasing their ability to tie the price employees pay for health insurance for participating in these programs and meeting specific health goals. Yet despite ACA's specific alteration of three (...)
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  44. Do Normative Judgements Aim to Represent the World?Bart Streumer - 2013 - Ratio 26 (4):450-470.
    Many philosophers think that normative judgements do not aim to represent the world. In this paper, I argue that this view is incompatible with the thought that when two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of these judgements is correct. I argue that this shows that normative judgements do aim to represent the world.
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  45.  4
    When Public Health and Genetic Privacy Collide: Positive and Normative Theories Explaining How ACA's Expansion of Corporate Wellness Programs Conflicts with GINA's Privacy Rules.Jennifer S. Bard - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):469-487.
    The passing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a triumph for the field of public health. Its inclusion of many provisions intended to prevent illness and promote health endorses the core belief of public health as expressed by Dr. Georges Benjamin, the long-time executive director of the American Public Health Association, in a Washington Post opinion piece praising ACA for “provid[ing] care as far upstream as possible… [in order to] reduce costs by identifying problems early and then (...)
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  46.  73
    What If Ideal Advice Conflicts?: A Dilemma for Idealizing Accounts of Normative Practical Reasons.Eric Sampson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    One of the deepest and longest-lasting debates in ethics concerns a version of the Euthyphro question: are choiceworthy things choiceworthy because agents have certain attitudes toward them or are they choiceworthy independent of any agents’ attitudes? Reasons internalists, such as Bernard Williams, Michael Smith, Mark Schroeder, Sharon Street, Kate Manne, Julia Markovits, and David Sobel answer in the first way. They think that all of an agent’s normative reasons for action are grounded in facts about that agent’s pro-attitudes (e.g., (...)
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  47.  11
    Decision Conflict Drives Reaction Times and Utilitarian Responses in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Alejandro Rosas, Juan Pablo Bermúdez & David Aguilar-Pardo - 2019 - Judgment and Decision Making 14:555-564.
    In the sacrificial moral dilemma task, participants have to morally judge an action that saves several lives at the cost of killing one person. According to the dual process corrective model of moral judgment suggested by Greene and collaborators (2001; 2004; 2008), cognitive control is necessary to override the intuitive, deontological force of the norm against killing and endorse the utilitarian perspective. However, a conflict model has been proposed more recently to account for part of the evidence in favor of (...)
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  48.  16
    Conflicts of Interest, Institutional Corruption, and Pharma: An Agenda for Reform.Marc A. Rodwin - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):511-522.
    Why do physicians have financial conflicts of interest? They arise because society expects physicians to act in their patients’ interest, while simultaneously, financial incentives encourage physicians to practice medicine in ways that promote their own interests or those of third parties. Because physicians’ clinical choices, referrals, and prescriptions affect the fortune of third parties, these third parties may offer physicians financial incentives to make income-driven clinical choices. In the past, physicians and scholars typically conceived of conflicts of interest (...)
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  49. Normative Reasons Contextualism.Tim Henning - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (3):593-624.
    This article argues for the view that statements about normative reasons are context-sensitive. Specifically, they are sensitive to a contextual parameter specifying a relevant person's or group's body of information. The argument for normative reasons contextualism starts from the context-sensitivity of the normative “ought” and the further premise that reasons must be aligned with oughts. It is incoherent, I maintain, to suppose that someone normatively ought to φ but has most reason not to φ. So given that (...)
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  50. Normativity and Practical Judgement.Onora O'Neill - 2007 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (3):393-405.
    Norms are apt for reasoning because they have propositional structure and content; they are practical because they aim to guide action, rather than to describe aspects of the world. These two features hold equally of norms construed sociologically as the norms of specific social groups, and of norms conceived abstractly as principles of action. On either view, norms are indeterminate while acts are particular and determinate. Consequently norms cannot fully specify which particular act is to be done. Are they then (...)
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