Results for 'Novel ecosystems'

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  1.  18
    The Ethics of Novel Ecosystems: An Introduction.Allen Thompson - 2016 - Routledge.
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  2.  34
    The value of and in novel ecosystem.Carlos Gray Santana - 2022 - Biology and Philosophy 37 (2):1-18.
    The very idea of novel ecosystems has been controversial in ecology. Critics have complained about its imprecision, and that it illicitly smuggles problematic ethical and political values into the science. By labelling a human-modified system a ‘novel ecosystem,‘ they worry, we give policymakers a “license to trash nature.“ The critics are right to be suspicious. I show that proponents of the novel ecosystem concept have been unable to make it both value-free and precise enough to allow (...)
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  3. wake for ‘the Passions of this Earth’: Extinction and the Absurd ‘Ethics’ of Novel Ecosystems.Michael Smith - 2019 - Cultural Studies Review 25 (1).
    Drawing on the work of Albert Camus this paper offers a critique of certain discourses around ‘novel ecosystems’. These new species ‘assemblages’ are frequently defended, or even celebrated, as exemplifying resilience and adaptability to the environmental repercussions of a global situation inaccurately glossed as ‘The Anthropocene’. Here the increasing prevalence of economically generated changes, including the accelerating translocations of species, are set against earlier conservation values emphasizing protection of ‘natural’ and ‘native’ ecologies. The proliferation of novel (...), together with an instrumental emphasis on their functional, ‘pragmatic’, and economic benefits, appears to make environmentalists’ ethical concerns about the loss of endangered others seem ‘absurd’ and frames conservation as a Sisyphean task. Yet Camus early work provides arguments for ethical / political resistance in just such absurd and extreme circumstances. (shrink)
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  4.  15
    Moral-Material Ontologies of Nature Conservation: Exploring the Discord Between Ecological Restoration and Novel Ecosystems.Mick Lennon - 2017 - Environmental Values 26 (1):5-29.
    Recent years have witnessed growing concerns about how we should conduct conservation activities in a world of human-altered biophysical conditions. The 'novel ecosystems' perspective has emerged as a way to meet this challenge. Yet its focus on accepting 'new natures' as the 'new normal' has drawn much criticism from those wedded to conventional forms of conservation, such as 'ecological restoration'. This paper: 1) provides a much needed review of this dispute; 2) formulates and deploys an original analytical framework, (...)
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  5. The human influence : moral responsibility for novel ecosystems.Allen Thompson & Stephen Jackson - 2013 - In Ronald L. Sandler & John Basl (eds.), Designer Biology: The Ethics of Intensively Engineering Biological and Ecological Systems. Lexington Books.
  6. Ecomindsponge: A Novel Perspective on Human Psychology and Behavior in the Ecosystem.Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Tam-Tri Le & Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2023 - Urban Science 7 (1):31.
    Modern society faces major environmental problems, but there are many difficulties in studying the nature–human relationship from an integral psychosocial perspective. We propose the ecomind sponge conceptual framework, based on the mindsponge theory of information processing. We present a systematic method to examine the nature–human relationship with conceptual frameworks of system boundaries, selective exchange, and adaptive optimization. The theoretical mechanisms were constructed based on principles and new evidence in natural sciences. The core mechanism of ecomindsponge is the subjective sphere of (...)
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  7.  63
    Climate Change and Ecosystem Management.Ronald L. Sandler - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (1):1-15.
    This article addresses the implications of rapid and uncertain ecological change, and global climate change in particular, for reserve oriented and restoration oriented ecosystem management. I argue for the following conclusions: (1) rapid and uncertain ecological change undermines traditional justifications for reserve oriented and restoration oriented ecosystem management strategies; (2) it requires rethinking ecosystem management goals, not just developing novel strategies (such as assisted colonization) to accomplish traditional goals; (3) species preservation ought to be deemphasized as an ecosystem management (...)
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  8.  11
    A Novel Modeling Technique for the Forecasting of Multiple-Asset Trading Volumes: Innovative Initial-Value-Problem Differential Equation Algorithms for Reinforcement Machine Learning.Mazin A. M. Al Janabi - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-16.
    Liquidity risk arises from the inability to unwind or hedge trading positions at the prevailing market prices. The risk of liquidity is a wide and complex topic as it depends on several factors and causes. While much has been written on the subject, there exists no clear-cut mathematical description of the phenomena and typical market risk modeling methods fail to identify the effect of illiquidity risk. In this paper, we do not propose a definitive one either, but we attempt to (...)
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  9.  39
    Leopold's Novel: The Land Ethic in Barbara Kingsolver's Prodigal Summer.Peter S. Wenz - 2003 - Ethics and the Environment 8 (2):106 - 125.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Ethics & the Environment 8.2 (2003) 106-125 [Access article in PDF] Leopold's NovelThe Land Ethic in Barbara Kingsolver's Prodigal Summer Peter S. Wenz Introduction Like many good novels, Prodigal Summer's 1 account of love, tragedy, conflict, and choice in human relationships conveys an overall message about how life should be lived. In this case the message corresponds to Aldo Leopold's call for "a land ethic [that] changes the role (...)
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  10.  25
    Leopold's Novel: The Land Ethic in Barbara Kingsolver's Prodigal Summer.Peter S. Wenz - 2003 - Ethics and the Environment 8 (2):106-125.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Ethics & the Environment 8.2 (2003) 106-125 [Access article in PDF] Leopold's NovelThe Land Ethic in Barbara Kingsolver's Prodigal Summer Peter S. Wenz Introduction Like many good novels, Prodigal Summer's 1 account of love, tragedy, conflict, and choice in human relationships conveys an overall message about how life should be lived. In this case the message corresponds to Aldo Leopold's call for "a land ethic [that] changes the role (...)
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  11.  27
    Leopold's novel: The land ethic in Barbara kingsolver's.Peter S. Wenz - 2003 - Ethics and the Environment 8 (2):106-125.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Ethics & the Environment 8.2 (2003) 106-125 [Access article in PDF] Leopold's NovelThe Land Ethic in Barbara Kingsolver's Prodigal Summer Peter S. Wenz Introduction Like many good novels, Prodigal Summer's 1 account of love, tragedy, conflict, and choice in human relationships conveys an overall message about how life should be lived. In this case the message corresponds to Aldo Leopold's call for "a land ethic [that] changes the role (...)
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  12.  28
    Proxies of Trustworthiness: A Novel Framework to Support the Performance of Trust in Human Health Research.Kate Harvey & Graeme Laurie - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-21.
    Without trust there is no credible human health research (HHR). This article accepts this truism and addresses a crucial question that arises: how can trust continually be promoted in an ever-changing and uncertain HHR environment? The article analyses long-standing mechanisms that are designed to elicit trust—such as consent, anonymization, and transparency—and argues that these are best understood as trust represented by proxies of trustworthiness, i.e., regulatory attempts to convey the trustworthiness of the HHR system and/or its actors. Often, such proxies (...)
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  13.  12
    Sustaining Action and Optimizing Entropy: Coupling Efficiency for Energy and the Sustainability of Global Ecosystems.Ivan R. Kennedy, Angus N. Crossan & Michael T. Rose - 2008 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 28 (3):260-272.
    Consideration of the property of action is proposed to provide a more meaningful definition of efficient energy use and sustainable production in ecosystems. Action has physical dimensions similar to angular momentum, its magnitude varying with mass, spatial configuration and relative motion. In this article, the relationship of action to thermodynamic processes such as the spontaneous increase in entropy of the second law is explained and the utility of action for measuring changes in energy and material distribution is promoted. In (...)
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  14.  15
    An Exploration of the Contribution of Embodied, Situated Research Strategies to Cultural Ecosystem Services and Landscape Assessment Frameworks: An Environmental Empathy Case Study.Klara Łucznik, Joane V. Serrano & John Martin - 2022 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 13 (1).
    Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005, interest has increased in cultural ecosystem services (CESs) research to understand the complexity of the non-material benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. The intangible and interactive characteristics of CESs present many challenges regarding how to approach, quantify and even define CESs. In this paper, we suggest looking at CESs through the lens of embodied and situated cognition theories. We advocate that such an approach should be applied to the development stage of CES (...)
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  15.  18
    Distinguishing regeneration from degradation in coral ecosystems: the role of value.Elis Jones - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):5225-5253.
    In this paper I argue that the value attributed to coral reefs drives the characterisation of evidence for their regeneration or degradation. I observe that regeneration and degradation depend on an understanding of what an ecosystem looks like when undegraded (a baseline), and that many mutually exclusive baselines can be given for any single case. Consequently, facts about ecological processes are insufficient to usefully and non-arbitrarily characterise changes to ecosystems. By examining how baselines and the value of reefs interact (...)
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  16.  25
    Species are the Building Blocks of Ecosystem Services and Environmental Sustainability.Ashish Sharma, Frank Bouchard, Sean Ryan, Derrick Parker & Jessica J. Hellmann - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (1):29-32.
    Rather than advance novel strategies for achieving the objectives of conservation, Sandler suggests that we change the goals of conservation itself, emphasizing ecological processes through...
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  17.  88
    Ecological Historicity, Functional Goals, and Novelty in the Anthropocene.Justin Donhauser, Eric Desjardins & Gillian Barker - 2018 - Environmental Values.
    While many recognize that rigid historical and compositional goals are inadequate in a world where climate and other global systems are undergoing unprecedented changes, others contend that promoting ecosystem services and functions encourages practices that can ultimately lower the bar of ecological management. These worries are foregrounded in discussions about Novel Ecosystems (NEs); where some researchers and conservationists claim that NEs provide a license to trash nature as long as some ecosystem services are provided. This criticism arises from (...)
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  18.  16
    Genetically Engineered Oil Seed Crops and Novel Terrestrial Nutrients: Ethical Considerations.Chris MacDonald, Stefanie Colombo & Michael T. Arts - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1485-1497.
    Genetically engineered organisms have been at the center of ethical debates among the public and regulators over their potential risks and benefits to the environment and society. Unlike the currently commercial GE crops that express resistance or tolerance to pesticides or herbicides, a new GE crop produces two bioactive nutrients and docosahexaenoic acid ) that heretofore have largely been produced only in aquatic environments. This represents a novel category of risk to ecosystem functioning. The present paper describes why growing (...)
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  19.  4
    Tracing the Anthropocene and Entangled Trauma in Yashar Kemal's Novels: More-Than-Human Lives in the Post-Ottoman World.Deniz Gündoǧan Ibrişim - 2023 - Intertexts 27 (2):32-51.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Tracing the Anthropocene and Entangled Trauma in Yashar Kemal's NovelsMore-Than-Human Lives in the Post-Ottoman WorldDeniz Gündoǧan Ibrişim (bio)Yashar Kemal (1923–2015), one of Turkey's most prominent Kurdish-Turkish novelists and human rights activists, largely engages with the southern Turkish countryside, which the author himself had known well in his early life.1 Kemal is commonly recognized as the writer of Çukurova or the Clician Plain (Cilicia Pedias in antiquity), a large fertile (...)
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  20. Inversion's Histories I History's Inversions.Novelizing Fin-de-Siecle Homosexualiry - 1997 - In Vernon A. Rosario (ed.), Science and Homosexualities. Routledge.
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  21.  58
    Ecological Historicity, Novelty and Functionality in the Anthropocene.Eric Desjardins, Justin Donhauser & Gillian Barker - 2019 - Environmental Values 28 (3):275-303.
    While many recognise that rigid historical and compositional goals are inadequate in a world where climate and other global systems are undergoing unprecedented changes, others contend that promoting ecosystem services and functions encourages practices that can ultimately lower the bar of ecological management. These worries are foregrounded in discussions about 'novel ecosystems' (NEs), where some researchers and conservationists claim that NEs provide a license to trash nature as long as certain ecosystem services are provided. This criticism arises from (...)
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  22. Revolutions of 1989 and their Aftermath (Budapest, Hungary: CEU Press.S. Y. Agnon & Only Yesterday A. Novel - 2001 - The European Legacy 6 (4):573-575.
     
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  23.  17
    Free recall from unilingual and trilingual lists.P. D. McCormack & JosÉ A. Novell - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (2):173-174.
  24.  14
    Good Ecological Work.Andrew R. H. Thompson - 2017 - Environmental Ethics 39 (4):395-411.
    Novel ecosystems represent the challenge of the Anthropocene epoch on a local scale. In an age where human agency is the defining ecological factor, ecological discourse and practice finds itself in its own “non-analog” conditions. In this context, good work can be an important place for developing answers to these questions. The fields of ecological practice, such as restoration and management, with their characteristic orientation toward objectives, lack a substantive understanding of what good work entails. Consequently, these fields (...)
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  25. Lean Cables – A Step towards Competitive, Sustainable and Profitable Processes.Parminder Singh Kang, A. P. Duffy, Nigel Shires, Trevor Smith & Mike Novels - unknown
    In the business world, one of the key challenges is how to survive in ever changing business environments and outperforming the competitors, while keeping the operational cost at minimum and profits at maximum level. In other words, this can be described as the problem of improving operational efficiency and reducing cost. Over the past few years due to global financial challenges, it has become even more important to improve the operational efficiency and reduce costs to survive through these tough conditions. (...)
     
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  26.  23
    Clowning Around with Conservation: Adaptation, Reparation and the New Substitution Problem.Benjamin Hale, Alexander Lee & Adam Hermans - 2014 - Environmental Values 23 (2):181-198.
    In this paper we introduce the 'New Substitution Problem' which, on its face, presents a problem for adaptation proposals that are justified by appeal to obligations of reparation. In contrast to the standard view, which is that obligations of reparation require that one restore lost value, we propose instead that obligations to aid and assist species and ecosystems in adaptation, in particular, follow from a failure to adequately justify - either by absence, neglect, omission or malice - actions that (...)
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  27.  18
    Age of Man Environmentalism and Respect for an Independent Nature.Ned Hettinger - 2021 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 24 (1):75-87.
    The debate about a new geological epoch ‘The Anthropocene’ has helped spawn ‘Age of Man Environmentalism’ (AME). According to AME, humans’ planetary impact indicates that respect for independent nature can no longer serve as a guiding value for environmentalism. Traditional goals of nature preservation and restoration are grounded in the illusory ideal of pristine nature. Humans are now fully integrated into nature and must become responsible managers of an earth we have created, governing it by our ideals. This essay repudiates (...)
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  28.  27
    De-extinction and Conservation Genetics in the Anthropocene.Ronald Sandler - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (S2):S43-S47.
    One interesting feature of de‐extinction—particularly with respect to long‐extinct species such as the passenger pigeon, thylacine, and mammoth—is that it does not fit neatly into the primary rationales for adopting novel ecosystem‐management and species‐conservation technologies and strategies: efficiency and necessity. The efficiency rationale is that the new technology or strategy enables conservation biologists to do what they already do more effectively. Why should researchers embrace novel information technologies? Because they allow scientists to better track, monitor, map, aggregate, and (...)
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  29.  26
    Logical fallacies persist in invasion biology and blaming the messengers will not improve accountability in this field: a response to Frank et al.Christopher W. Tindale & Radu Cornel Guiaşu - 2023 - Biology and Philosophy 38 (1):1-18.
    We analyze the “Logical fallacies and reasonable debates in invasion biology: a response to Guiaşu and Tindale” article by Frank et al., and also discuss this work in the context of recent intense debates in invasion biology, and reactions by leading invasion biologists to critics of aspects of their field. While we acknowledge the attempt by Frank et al., at least in the second half of their paper, to take into account more diverse points of view about non-native species and (...)
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  30.  21
    The Routledge Companion to Environmental Ethics.Benjamin Hale & Andrew Light (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    _The Routledge Companion to Environmental Ethics_ is comprised of sixty original essays, which focus on how ethical questions intersect with real and pressing policy issues. Rather than overviewing abstract conceptual categories, the authors focus on specific controversies involving the environment. Clearly written contributions on Fossil Fuels, Urban Sustainability, Novel Ecosystems, and many other subjects make accessible these issues‘ empirical and political dimensions as well as their theoretical underpinnings. Written to be accessible for undergraduates and general readers, but comprehensive (...)
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  31. Fostering circular economy through open innovation: Insights from multiple case study.Francesco Antonio Perotti, Augusto Bargoni, Paola De Bernardi & Zoltan Rozsa - forthcoming - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility.
    This study represents an empirical, comprehensive investigation of two different inter-organisational collaborative approaches, offering a novel perspective on collaborative circular business models in the modern economy. In this vein, we explore how open innovation strategies foster the implementation of circular economy practices within a circular supply chain and a circular ecosystem. In addition, we identify and characterise stakeholders' roles in facilitating the translation of circular principles into a viable business. An inductive theorising approach was employed, leveraging an explorative multiple (...)
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  32.  31
    Synthetic Biology and the Goals of Conservation.Christopher Hunter Lean - 2024 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 27 (2):250-270.
    The introduction of new genetic material into wild populations, using novel biotechnology, has the potential to fortify populations against existential threats, and, controversially, create wild genetically modified populations. The introduction of new genetic variation into populations, which will have an ongoing future in areas of conservation interest, complicates long-held values in conservation science and park management. I discuss and problematize, in light of genetic intervention, what I consider the three core goals of conservation science: biodiversity, ecosystem services, and wilderness. (...)
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  33.  1
    Susceptibility and Resilience, a Fig Tree and a Scream.Rebecca Saunders - 2024 - Philosophies 9 (3):68.
    Analyzing two key figures in Elif Shafak’s novel The Island of Missing Trees—a schoolgirl’s scream and a narrating fig tree—this essay analyzes the intersection between susceptibility and resilience, particularly as these terms are developed in psychology, trauma studies, and ecology. I argue that the novel’s resonant scream critiques the discourse of psychological resilience on multiple counts: its inadequacy as a response to complex trauma, its focus on autonomous individuals, its assumption that responsibility for resilience rests on victims rather (...)
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  34.  48
    Loving the mess : navigating diversity and conflict in social values for sustainability.Jasper O. Kenter, Christopher M. Raymond, Carena J. van Riper, Elaine Azzopardi, Michelle R. Brear, Fulvia Calcagni, Ian Christie, Michael Christie, Anne Fordham, Rachelle K. Gould, Christopher D. Ives, Adam P. Hejnowicz, Richard Gunton, Andra‑Ioana Horcea-Milcu, Dave Kendal, Jakub Kronenberg, Julian R. Massenberg, Seb O'Connor, Neil Ravenscroft, Andrea Rawluk, Ivan J. Raymond, Jorge Rodríguez-Morales & Samarthia Thankappan - 2019 - Sustainability Science 14 (5):1439-1461.
    This paper concludes a special feature of Sustainability Science that explores a broad range of social value theoretical traditions, such as religious studies, social psychology, indigenous knowledge, economics, sociology, and philosophy. We introduce a novel transdisciplinary conceptual framework that revolves around concepts of 'lenses' and 'tensions' to help navigate value diversity. First, we consider the notion of lenses: perspectives on value and valuation along diverse dimensions that describe what values focus on, how their sociality is envisioned, and what epistemic (...)
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  35.  27
    Loving the mess: navigating diversity and conflict in social values for sustainability.Jasper O. Kenter, Christopher M. Raymond, Carena J. van Riper, Elaine Azzopardi, Michelle R. Brear, Fulvia Calcagni, Ian Christie, Michael Christie, Anne Fordham, Rachelle K. Gould, Christopher D. Ives, Adam P. Hejnowicz, Richard Gunton, Andra Ioana Horcea-Milcu, Dave Kendal, Jakub Kronenberg, Julian R. Massenberg, Seb O’Connor, Neil Ravenscroft, Andrea Rawluk, Ivan J. Raymond, Jorge Rodríguez-Morales & Samarthia Thankappan - unknown
    This paper concludes a special feature of Sustainability Science that explores a broad range of social value theoretical traditions, such as religious studies, social psychology, indigenous knowledge, economics, sociology, and philosophy. We introduce a novel transdisciplinary conceptual framework that revolves around concepts of ‘lenses’ and ‘tensions’ to help navigate value diversity. First, we consider the notion of lenses: perspectives on value and valuation along diverse dimensions that describe what values focus on, how their sociality is envisioned, and what epistemic (...)
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  36.  23
    Who Should We Be Online?: A Social Epistemology for the Internet.Karen Frost-Arnold - 2023 - New York, US: OUP Usa.
    From social media to search engines to Wikipedia, the internet is thoroughly embedded in how we produce, locate, and share knowledge around the world. Who Should We Be Online? provides an account of online knowledge that takes seriously the role of sexist, racist, transphobic, colonial, and capitalist forms of oppression. Frost-Arnold argues against analyzing internet users as a collection of identical generic people with smartphones. The novel epistemology developed in this book recognizes that we are differently embodied beings interacting (...)
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  37.  28
    Gut Health in the era of the Human Gut Microbiota: from metaphor to biovalue.Vincent Baty, Bruno Mougin, Catherine Dekeuwer & Gérard Carret - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):579-597.
    The human intestinal ecosystem, previously called the gut microflora is now known as the Human Gut Microbiota. Microbiome research has emphasized the potential role of this ecosystem in human homeostasis, offering unexpected opportunities in therapeutics, far beyond digestive diseases. It has also highlighted ethical, social and commercial concerns related to the gut microbiota. As diet factors are accepted to be the major regulator of the gut microbiota, the modulation of its composition, either by antibiotics or by food intake, should be (...)
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  38. No entailing laws, but enablement in the evolution of the biosphere.G. Longo, M. Montévil & S. Kauffman - 2012 - In G. Longo, M. Montévil & S. Kauffman (eds.), Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Acm. pp. 1379 -1392.
    Biological evolution is a complex blend of ever changing structural stability, variability and emergence of new phe- notypes, niches, ecosystems. We wish to argue that the evo- lution of life marks the end of a physics world view of law entailed dynamics. Our considerations depend upon dis- cussing the variability of the very ”contexts of life”: the in- teractions between organisms, biological niches and ecosys- tems. These are ever changing, intrinsically indeterminate and even unprestatable: we do not know ahead (...)
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  39.  80
    Who Should We Be Online? A Social Epistemology for the Internet.Karen Frost-Arnold - 2023 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    From social media to search engines to Wikipedia, the internet is thoroughly embedded in how we produce, locate, and share knowledge around the world. Who Should We Be Online? provides an account of online knowledge that takes seriously the role of sexist, racist, transphobic, colonial, and capitalist forms of oppression. Frost-Arnold argues against analyzing internet users as a collection of identical generic people with smartphones. The novel epistemology developed in this book recognizes that we are differently embodied beings interacting (...)
  40.  25
    Social Values in Economic Environmental Valuation: A Conceptual Framework.Julian R. Massenberg, Bernd Hansjürgens & Nele Lienhoop - 2023 - Environmental Values 32 (5):611-643.
    Economic environmental valuation remains a much debated and contested issue. Concerns have been voiced that it is unable to capture the manifold immaterial values of ecosystems due to conceptual and methodological issues. Thus, additional value categories (social values) as well as novel valuation approaches like deliberative (monetary) valuation are areas of growing interest, yet the theoretical foundations are rather weak. Against this background, this article aims to develop a consistent conceptual framework for making sense of social values in (...)
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  41.  16
    The Dawning of the Ethics of Environmental Robots.Justin Donhauser & Aimee Wynsberghe - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1777-1800.
    Environmental scientists and engineers have been exploring research and monitoring applications of robotics, as well as exploring ways of integrating robotics into ecosystems to aid in responses to accelerating environmental, climatic, and biodiversity changes. These emerging applications of robots and other autonomous technologies present novel ethical and practical challenges. Yet, the critical applications of robots for environmental research, engineering, protection and remediation have received next to no attention in the ethics of robotics literature to date. This paper seeks (...)
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  42.  11
    Do microenvironmental changes disrupt multicellular organisation with ageing, enacting and favouring the cancer cell phenotype?Simon P. Castillo, Juan E. Keymer & Pablo A. Marquet - 2021 - Bioessays 43 (2):2000126.
    Cancer is a singular cellular state, the emergence of which destabilises the homeostasis reached through the evolution to multicellularity. We present the idea that the onset of the cellular disobedience to the metazoan functional and structural architecture, known as the cancer phenotype, is triggered by changes in the cell's external environment that occur with ageing: what ensues is a breach of the social contract of multicellular life characteristic of metazoans. By integrating old ideas with new evidence, we propose that with (...)
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  43.  24
    Functions: selection and mechanisms.Philippe Huneman (ed.) - 2013 - Springer.
    This volume handles in various perspectives the concept of function and the nature of functional explanations, topics much discussed since two major and conflicting accounts have been raised by Larry Wright and Robert Cummins’s papers in the 1970s. Here, both Wright’s ”etiological theory of functions’ and Cummins’s ”systemic’ conception of functions are refined and elaborated in the light of current scientific practice, with papers showing how the ”etiological’ theory faces several objections and may in reply be revisited, while its counterpart (...)
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  44.  49
    One Health and Culling as a Public Health Measure.Zohar Lederman - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):5-23.
    One of most pertinent and acute risks that the world is now facing is emerging or re-emerging zoonotic diseases. This article focuses on culling as a measure for zoonotic disease control, specifically the culling of 11,000 badgers as part of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial in the UK and the culling exercises in Singapore. The independent expert panel that devised the UK study concluded that reactive culling was ineffective in reducing the cases of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. The panel also (...)
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  45.  24
    The COVID-19 Infodemic: Twitter versus Facebook.Filippo Menczer, John Bryden, Christopher Torres-Lugo, David Axelrod, Pik-Mai Hui, Francesco Pierri & Kai-Cheng Yang - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    The global spread of the novel coronavirus is affected by the spread of related misinformation—the so-called COVID-19 Infodemic—that makes populations more vulnerable to the disease through resistance to mitigation efforts. Here, we analyze the prevalence and diffusion of links to low-credibility content about the pandemic across two major social media platforms, Twitter and Facebook. We characterize cross-platform similarities and differences in popular sources, diffusion patterns, influencers, coordination, and automation. Comparing the two platforms, we find divergence among the prevalence of (...)
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  46. Mapping the foundationalist debate in computer ethics.Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (1):1-9.
    The paper provides a critical review of the debate on the foundations of Computer Ethics (CE). Starting from a discussion of Moor’s classic interpretation of the need for CE caused by a policy and conceptual vacuum, five positions in the literature are identified and discussed: the “no resolution approach”, according to which CE can have no foundation; the professional approach, according to which CE is solely a professional ethics; the radical approach, according to which CE deals with absolutely unique issues, (...)
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  47.  84
    Promoting Biodiversity.Christopher Gyngell & Julian Savulescu - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (4):413-426.
    Advances in biotechnology mean that it may soon be possible to recreate previously extinct species. This has led to an emerging debate within bioethics about whether we ought to reintroduce extinct species into our ecosystems. In this paper, we discuss the role that biodiversity could play in this debate. Many believe that biodiversity is a good that should be protected. We argue that if biodiversity is a good, then this suggests it should also be promoted, including by reintroducing previously (...)
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  48.  30
    Values gone wild.I. I. I. Rolston - 1983 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):181 – 207.
    Wilderness valued as mere resource for human?interest satisfaction is challenged in favor of wilderness as a productive source, in which humans have roots, but which also yields wild neighbors and aliens with intrinsic value. Wild value is storied achievement in an evolutionary ecosystem, with instrumental and intrinsic, organismic and systemic values intermeshed. Survival value is reconsidered in this light. Changing cultural appreciations of values in wilderness can transform and relativize our judgments about appropriate conduct there. A final valued element in (...)
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  49.  91
    From molecules to dynamic biological communities.Daniel McDonald, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, William A. Walters, J. Gregory Caporaso & Rob Knight - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):241-259.
    Microbial ecology is flourishing, and in the process, is making contributions to how the ecology and biology of large organisms is understood. Ongoing advances in sequencing technology and computational methods have enabled the collection and analysis of vast amounts of molecular data from diverse biological communities. While early studies focused on cataloguing microbial biodiversity in environments ranging from simple marine ecosystems to complex soil ecologies, more recent research is concerned with community functions and their dynamics over time. Models and (...)
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  50.  62
    The Dawning of the Ethics of Environmental Robots.Justin Donhauser & Aimee van Wynsberghe - Online First - 2 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1777-1800.
    Environmental scientists and engineers have been exploring research and monitoring applications of robotics, as well as exploring ways of integrating robotics into ecosystems to aid in responses to accelerating environmental, climatic, and biodiversity changes. These emerging applications of robots and other autonomous technologies present novel ethical and practical challenges. Yet, the critical applications of robots for environmental research, engineering, protection and remediation have received next to no attention in the ethics of robotics literature to date. This paper seeks (...)
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