A drastic resolution of the quantum paradoxes is proposed, combining (I) von Neumann's postulate that collapse of the state vector is due to the act of observation, and (II) my reinterpretation of von Neumann's quantal irreversibility as an equivalence between wave retardation and entropy increase, both being “factlike” rather than “lawlike” (Mehlberg). This entails a coupling of the two de jure symmetries between (I) retarded and (II) advanced waves, and between Aristotle's information as (I) learning and (II) willing awareness. Symmetric (...) acceptance of cognizance as a source of retarted waves, and of will as a sink of advanced waves, is submitted as a central “paradox” of the Copernican or Einsteinian sort, out of which new light is shed upon previously known paradoxes, such as the EPR paradox, Schrödinger's cat, and Wigner's friend. Parapsychology is thus found to creep into the picture. (shrink)
It is argued that the so‐called correlation paradoxes of Einstein‐Podolsky‐Rosen1 and of Schrödinger2 imply that individual quantum processes are connected in time in a way that is symmetric with retarded and advanced actions; a · fatalistic · character of the course of events is thus advocated, similar to the one occuring in the so‐called · Heisenberg picture · in hyperquanitized field theory.
Quite often the compatibility of the EPR correlations with the relativity theory has been questioned; it has been stated that “the first in time of two correlated measurements instantaneously collapses the other subsystem”; it has been suggested that a causal asymmetry is built into the Feynman propagator. However, the EPR transition amplitude, as derived from the S matrix, is Lorentz andCPT invariant; the correlation formula is symmetric in the two measurements irrespective of their time ordering, so that the link of (...) the correlations is the Feynman zigzag, and that causality isCPT invariant at the microlevel; finally, although the Feynman propagator has theP andCT symmetries, no causal asymmetry follows from that. As for Stapp's views concerning “process” and “becoming,” and his Whiteheadean concept of an advancing front, I object that they belong to “factlike macrophysics,” and are refuted at the microlevel by the EPR phenomenology, which displays direct Fokker-like space-time connections. The reason for this is a radical one. The very blending of a space-time picture and of a probability calculus is a paradox. The only adequate paradigm is one denying objectivity to space-time—but this, of course, is also required by the complementary of the x and the k pictures, which only “look” compatible at the macrolevel. Therefore, the classical “objectivity” must yield in favor of “intersubjectivity.” Only the macroscopic preparing and measuring devices have “factlike” objectivity; the “transition” of the “quantal system” takes place beyond both thex and thek 4-spaces. Then, the intrinsic symmetries between retarded and advanced waves, and statistical prediction and retrodiction, entails that the future has no less (but no more) existence than the past. It is the future that is significant in “creative process,” the “elementary” forms of which should be termed “precognition” or “psychokinesis”—respectively symmetric to the factlike taboos that “we can neither know into the future nor act into the past.” It is gratifying that Robert Jahn, at the Engineering School of Princeton University, is conducting (after others) conclusive experiments demonstrating “low level psychokinesis”—a phenomenon implied by the very symmetry of the negentropy-information transition. So, what pierces the veil of “maya” is the (rare) occurrence of “paranormal phenomena.” The essential severance between “act” and “potentia” is not a spacelike advancing front, but the “out of” and the “into” factlike space-time. Finally, I do not feel that an adequate understanding of the EPR phenomenology requires going beyond the present status of relativistic quantum mechanics. Rather, I believe that the potentialities of this formalism have not yet been fully exploited. (shrink)
This paper is a sequel to various papers by the author devoted to the EPR correlation. The leading idea remains that the EPR correlation (either in its well-known form of nonseparability of future measurements, or in its less well-known time-reversed form of nonseparability of past preparations) displays the intrinsic time symmetry existing in almost all physical theories at the elementary level. But, as explicit Lorentz invariance has been an essential requirement in both the formalization and the conceptualization of my papers, (...) the noninvariant concept ofT symmetry has to yield in favor of the invariant concept ofPT symmetry, or even (asC symmetry is not universally valid) to that ofCPT invariance. A distinction is then drawn between “macro” special relativity, defined by invariance under the orthochronous Lorentz group and submission to the retarded causality concept, and “micro” special relativity, defined by invariance under the full Lorentz group and includingCPT symmetry. TheCPT theorem clearly implies that “micro special relativity”is relativity theory at the quantal level. It is thus of fundamental significance not only in the search of interaction Lagrangians, etc., but also in the basic interpretation of quantum mechanics, including the understanding of the EPR correlation. While the experimental existence of the EPR correlations is manifestly incompatible with macro relativity, it is fully consistent with micro relativity. Going from a retarded concept of causality to one that isCPT invariant has very radical consequences, which are briefly discussed. (shrink)
Einstein's mass-energy equivalence law, argues de Broglie, by fixing the zero of the potential energy of a system,ipso facto selects a gauge in electromagnetism. We examine how this works in electrostatics and in magnetostatics and bring in, as a “trump card,” the familiar, but highly peculiar, system consisting of a toroidal magnet m and a current coil c, where none of the mutual energy W resides in the vacuum. We propose the principle of a crucial test for measuring the fractions (...) of W residing in m and in c; if the latter is nonzero, the (fieldless) vector potential has physicality. Also, using induction for transferring energy from the magnet to a superconducting current, we prove that W is equipartitioned between m and c. (shrink)
The concept of “propagation in time” of Vigier and co-workers (V et al.) implies the idea of a supertime; it is thus alien to most Minkowskian pictures and certainly to mine. From this stems much of Vet al.'s misunderstandings of my position. In steady motion of a classical fluid nobody thinks that “momentum conservation is violated,” or that “momentum is shot upstream without cause” because of the suction from the sinks! Similarly with momentum-energy in space-time and the acceptance of an (...) advanced causality. As for the CT invariance of the Feynman propagator, the causality asymmetry it entails is factlike, not lawlike. The geometrical counterpart of the symmetry between prediction and retrodiction and between retarded and advanced waves, as expressed in the alternative expressions 〈B|UA〉=〈BU|A〉=〈B|U|A〉 for a transition amplitude between a preparation |A〉 and a measurement |B〉, is CPT-invariant, not PT-invariant. These three expressions respectively illustrate the collapse, the retrocollapse, and the symmetric collapse-and-retrocollapse concepts. As for Sutherland's argument, what it “falsifies” is not my retrocausation concept but the hidden-variables assumption he has unwittingly made. (shrink)
Brillouin sees order as generated by tapping negentropy sources existing upstream, while Prigogine sees it as generated by dumping entropy downstream. Joining both ideas yields a picture of the computer closely paralleling that of Carnot's heat engine. The difference is that the one delivers information and the other, work. In either case the irretrievable (that is, by definition) loss occurs at the last step. Bennett and Landauer very rightly emphasize this, but their fixation on the condenser blinds them to the (...) necessity of the furnace; thus they are led to believe in the possibility of “perpetual duplication of the second kind,” which Brillouin explicitly denies. (shrink)
Joseph Bertrand's 1888 evidencing that assignment of a probability depends upon what one chooses to know or not and to control or not, congruent with Grad's 1961 evidencing that statistical entropy depends upon what one deems relevant or not in formalization and measurement, radically undermine common sense realism; mean values are symbols, but symbols of what? For that very reason, recent clever conceptualizations of the quantum measurement process via partial tracing do not restore realism: How could deliberate ignorance generate a (...) reality? Beyond this, Born's and Jordan's quantal wavelike probability calculus, entailing algebraic nonseparability and spacetime nonlocality, blurs “reality” still more radically. Thus information stands out as the master word, with its two reciprocal aspects: knowledge and organization. (shrink)
Electromagnetic gauge as an integration condition was my wording in previous publications. I argue here, on the examples of the Möllenstaedt-Bayh and Tonomura tests of the Ahraronov–Bohm effect, that not only the trapped flux Φ but also, under the integration conditionA ≡ 0 if Φ = 0, the local value of the vector potential is measured.
O Trabalho pretende expor os traços iniciais da fenomenologia hermenêutica de Heidegger a partir da crítica realizada pelo autor ao método crítico-teleológico do neokantismo de Baden na preleção de 1919 A ideia da filosofia e o problema da concepção de mundo.
Bohr's 1930 derivation of the uncertainty relation c 2 δm δt≥h bears a close relationship to Einstein's 1913 derivation of the “gravitational redshift” via the “equivalence principle.” A rewording of Bohr's argument is presented here, not taking the last step of acceleration as “equivalent” to a uniform gravity field, thus yielding a derivation of the formula c 2 δm δt≥h, avoiding Treder's 1971 objection.
The two photon problem defined by Vigier and Garuccio should be treated in the second quantization formalism; it is, thus, seen that the amplitude for finding one photon in the interference region of the two lasers remains the sum of the two interfering amplitudes.
We show that particle-antiparticle exchange and covariant motion reversal are two physically different aspects of the same mathematical transformation, either in the prequantal relativistic equation of motion of a charged point particle, in the general scheme of second quantization, or in the spinning wave equations of Dirac and of Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer. While, classically, charge reversal and rest mass reversal are equivalent operations, in the wave mechanical case mass reversal must be supplemented by exchange of the two adjoint equations, implying ψ ⇄ (...) $\bar \psi$ .Denoting by M the rest mass reversal, P the parity reversal, T the Racah time reversal, and Z the ψ ⇄ $\bar \psi$ exchange, the connection with the usual scheme of charge conjugation, parity reversal, and Wigner motion reversal, is with, of course. (shrink)
Correlation meaning interaction for physical occurrences, the joint probability formalizes this interaction and conceptualizes a stochastic causality. Bayesian reversibility then expresses action-reaction symmetry for spacelike, und cause-effect symmetry for timelike, separations. Information-negeutropy equivalence (that is. reversibility of the twin-faced information concept) extends Mehlberg's “lawlike reversibility” and vindicates Wigner's claim that psychokinesis is reciprocal to gain in knowledge. A covariant axiomatization of probabilities as expressing physical interaction, and displaying the spacetime propagation of information, is proposed. Its correspondence (but essential difference) with (...) the quantum calculation recipe is evidenced. The unfolding paradigm of a twin-faced reality- and- representation universe is stressed, and Pauli's hints in this direction are mentioned. (shrink)
Being formalized inside the S-matrix scheme, the zigzagging causility model of EPR correlations has full Lorentz and CPT invariance. EPR correlations, proper or reversed, and Wheeler's smoky dragon metaphor are respectively pictured in spacetime or in the momentum-energy space, as V-shaped, A-shaped, or C-shaped ABC zigzags, with a summation at B over virtual states |B〉 〈B|. An exact “correspondence” exists between the Born-Jordan-Dirac “wavelike” algebra of transition amplitudes and the 1774 Laplace algebra of conditional probabilities, where the intermediate summations |B) (...) (B| were over “real hidden states.” While the latter used conditional (or transition) probabilities (A|C) = (C|A), the former uses transition (or conditional) amplitudes 〈A|C〉 = 〈C|A〉*. The formal parrallelism breaks down at the level of interpretation because (A|C) = |〈A|C〉|2. CPT invariance implies the Fock and Watanabe principle that, in quantum mechanics, retarded (advanced) waves are used for prediction (retrodiction), an expression of which is 〈Ψ| U |Φ〉 = 〈Ψ| UΦ〉 = 〈ΦU|Φ〉, with |Φ〉 denoting a preparation, |Ψ〉 a measurement, and U the evolution operator. The transformation |Ψ〉 = |UΦ〉 or |Φ〉 = |U−1Ψ〉 exchanges the “preparation representation” and the “measurement representation” of a system and is ancillary in the formalization of the quantum chance game by the “wavelike algebra” of conditional amplitude. In 1935 EPR overlooked that a conditional amplitude 〈A|C〉 = Σ 〈A|B〉〈B|C〉 between the two distant measurements is at stake, and that only measurements actually performed do make sense. The reversibility 〈A|C〉 = 〈C|A〉* implies that causality is CPT-invariant, or arrowless, at the microlevel. Arrowed causality is a macroscopic emergence, corollary to wave retardation and probability increase. Factlike irreversibility states repression, not suppression, of “blind statistical retrodiction”—that is, of “final cause.”. (shrink)
The Wheeler-Feynman (WF) relativistic theory of interacting point particles, generalized by acceptance of an arbitrary spacelike interaction, is shown to possess a privileged status, reminiscent of the “central force” interactions occurring in Newtonian mechanics. This scheme is shown to be isomorphic to the classical one of the statics of interacting flexible current-carrying wires obeying the Ampère-Laplace (AL) formulas: to the tensionT (T 2 =const) of the wire corresponds the momentum-energy pi (pipi=−c2m2) of the particle; to the Laplace linear force density (...) −iH×dr corresponds the Lorentz force QHij drj; to the Laplace potential ir−1 dr corresponds the WF potential Qδ(r2) dri, etc. Among the differences, there is self-action in the AL scheme and no self-action in the WF scheme. A stationary energy principle in the AL scheme is isomorphic to Fokker's stationary action principle in the WF scheme. (shrink)
A derivation by Fröhner of non-relativistic quantum mechanics via Fourier analysis applied to probability theory is not extendable to relativistic quantum mechanics because Schrödinger's positive definite probability density ψ*ψ is lost (Dirac's spin 1/2 case being the exception). The nature of the Fourier link then changes; it points to a redefinition of the probability scheme as an information carrying telegraph, the code of which is Born's as extended by Dirac and by Feynman. Hermitian symmetry of the transition amplitude 〈ϕ∣ψ〉 between (...) Dirac representations expresses reciprocity of preparation and measurement (the quantal coding and decoding), two equally active interventions of the physicist; as “the measurement perturbs the system” retrodiction implies retroaction evidenced in “delayed choice.” Reciprocity of knowledge and organization vindicates Wigner's claim that “reciprocal to the action of matter upon mind there exists a direct action of mind upon matter”: psychokinesis, branded by Jaynes as “a psychiatric disorder of the Copenhagen school.” As for factlike irreversibility, it is expressed by the enormity of the change rate from information to negentropy: while gain in knowledge is normal psychokinesis is paranormal. Stapp's recent discussion of psychokinesis in a quantum context should be resumed in association with an EPR correlation; an experimental test is proposed. (shrink)
Electromagnetic gauge as an integration condition was my wording in previous publications. I argue here, on the examples of the Möllenstaedt-Bayh and Tonomura tests of the Ahraronov–Bohm (AB) effect, that not only the trapped flux Φ but also, under the integration condition A ≡ 0 if Φ = 0, the local value of the vector potential is measured.
Helmholtz’ electrically induced extra mass inside a charged hollow sphere, recently evidenced by Mikhailov, is analogous to Mach’s inertial mass. Existence of a corresponding magnetically induced extra mass in an electron flying around an “autistic magnet” is derived. The overall electro-magnetic effect can be covariantly expressed.
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