У статті розглядається підхід до ефективного пошуку, планування, використання й моніторингу інвестицій підприємства, яке характеризується розгалуженістю зв'язків як усередині підприємства, так і з зовнішніми контрагентами. Як інструмент пропонується система бюджетування підприємства. Виділено ключові напрями діяльності в рамках інвестиційного стимулювання підприємства, визначено завдання системи бюджетування, наведено основні джерела інвестування, сформульовано основні принципи, яким повинна задовольняти система бюджетування. Класифіковано й розглянуто елементи системи бюджетування підприємства.
The matter of enterprise labor resource management explaining the enterprise's staff potential increase or reduction is considered. That is to say the problem of efficiency of staff potential employment is researched. The author determines a general aim of the enterprise staff potential management in current terms of functioning, which refers to the purposeful performance of certain steps resulting in effective appliance. Factors of degree of staff potential and its effective appliance are determined as followed: qualified staff development; involvement of qualified (...) professionals; optimal conditions for staff operation support. The mechanism of unit staff potential management being able to adjust to changes in a structure of interrelated elements, production and the technological interaction organization, terms of working, the performance of professional competiveness and the staff rotation within the branches as well as between them is suggested. Criteria of effective realization of the mechanism of staff potential management by the working efficiency increase, the staff and manager competiveness increase, the rotations possibility, the produced goods and services quality increase. A procedure of enterprise staff rating is considered. To motivate qualified workers of organizational and functional units of an enterprise and to stimulate them for better further working, the monitoring of their activity compensation by certain bonuses is proposed. A model of premium distribution between co-workers of functional units of an enterprise, based on the Kohonen self-organized maps method implementation, is represented. Characteristics of informational and analytical systems of the enterprise staff potential management functioning in the unified informational environment are determined. The implementation of proposed mechanism provides high level of the enterprise staff potential realization as well as the permanent development of labor resources during a business activity process. (shrink)
Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, (...) facts and descriptions found in Wikipedia, and organizes the work into four broad categories: applying Wikipedia to natural language processing; using it to facilitate information retrieval and information extraction; and as a resource for ontology building. The article addresses how Wikipedia is being used as is, how it is being improved and adapted, and how it is being combined with other structures to create entirely new resources. We identify the research groups and individuals involved, and how their work has developed in the last few years. We provide a comprehensive list of the open-source software they have produced. (shrink)
Source: Author: Olena Znanetska In the current article the problem of foreign communicative competence of higher school students has been considered. The notion, the main point and the components of higher school students` foreign competence have been analyzed. The scientific works under the problem have been investigated. ]]>.
The method of evaluation of technical and economic indicators for the development of gas condensate field tested in the branch system of enterprises of PJSC "Ukrgazvydobuvannya" is considered, which is supplemented and simplified for obtaining approximate estimates in the case of annual natural or artificial changes in the gas condensate factor and thermobaric states of the extracted fluid during the operational period of the late stage. Targeted changes in the algorithms of calculations of basic technical and economic indicators, especially for (...) partially exhausted deposits, which have become permanent in operation with compressed compressor stations and fixed pressure on the wells, are used, dry gas is used for returning to the formation or dehumidification of the hinterland. The main factors of influence on the final results of the technical and economic evaluation are determined. Improvement of the technique of an approximate estimation of technical and economic indicators of the development of the gas condensate deposit facility for the possibility of adaptation of calculations at the late stage, which usually involves the operation of the SCS, the use of PPE technologies, the drying of the faces by high-pressure gas, and artificial adjustment of the working pressures of wells. The changes in the results of technical and economical calculations are taken into account when taking into account the parameters of the DKS, PPD, thermobaric intensification for the possibility of use in production and in the educational process. (shrink)
This paper presents a dialogue system called Lorenzen–Hamblin Natural Dialogue (LHND), in which participants can commit formal fallacies and have a method of both identifying and withdrawing formal fallacies. It therefore provides a tool for the dialectical evaluation of force of argument when players advance reasons which are deductively incorrect. The system is inspired by Hamblin’s formal dialectic and Lorenzen’s dialogical logic. It offers uniform protocols for Hamblin’s and Lorenzen’s dialogues and adds a protocol for embedding them. This unification required (...) a reformulation of the original description of Lorenzen’s system to distinguish “between different stances that a person might take in the discussion”, as suggested by Hodges. The LHND system is compared to Walton and Krabbe’s Complex Persuasion Dialogue using an example of a dialogue. (shrink)
In this article we report the findings of a randomised control clinical trial that assessed the impact of a Philosophy for Children program and replicated a previous study conducted in Scotland by Topping and Trickey. A Cognitive Abilities Test was administered as a pretest and a posttest to randomly selected experimental groups and control groups. The students in the experimental group engaged in philosophy lessons in a setting of structured, collaborative inquiry in their language arts classes for one hour per (...) week for a number of weeks. The control group received the standard language arts curriculum in that one hour. The study found that the seventh grade students who had experienced the P4C program showed significant gains relative to those in the seventh grade control group at a high level of statistical significance, but the eighth grade students in the experimental group did not show such gains over the eighth grade control group. It was discovered that the seventh grade teachers started the program early in the school year and continued it for a period of 22 to 26 weeks, while the eighth grade teachers started much later and used the program for only 4 to 10 weeks. Our findings suggest that the P4C program must involve students in activities for a significant period of time before the program shows results, but that a meaningful impact on students’ cognitive abilities can be achieved in about 24 weeks of lessons, less than half the time evidenced by the study by Topping and Trickey. (shrink)
This article compares the ethical attitudes of Ukrainian business professionals with those of United States business professionals. A widely used survey instrument consisting of 16 hypothetical situations involving ethical dilemmas was employed to gather information on ethical attitudes in the two countries. On 13 of 16 vignettes, Ukrainian respondents demonstrated less stringent ethical attitudes than did their United States counterparts. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, with primary emphasis on the transition from one economic system to another that is (...) underway in Ukraine. Comments from Ukrainian respondents are presented so as to give an indication of the thought processes behind the questionnaire responses. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to reconstruct the classical Sāṁkhya view on the relationship between a word and its meaning. The study embraces all the extant texts of classical Sāṁkhya, but it is based mainly on the Yuktidīpikā, since this commentary contains most of the fragments which are directly related to the topic of our research. The textual analysis has led me to the following conclusion. It is possible to reconstruct two different and conflicting views on the relationship between (...) a word and its meaning from the classical Sāṁkhya texts. The first view, the source of which is the Yuktidīpikā, is that all words are conventional in their origin. It resembles the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika theory of the primary linguistic convention and the conventional origin of all words. The second view, which is the implication of the Sāṁkhya idea of the authorless Vedas we can reconstruct on the basis of the majority of the classical Sāṁkhya commentaries, is that the relationship between a word and its meaning is natural. This view is probably influenced by Mīmāṁsā. Both of these views are hardly compatible with the Sāṁkhya teaching. It seems like classical Sāṁkhya, not having created its own detailed theory, oscillated between different conceptions. (shrink)
Building on our diverse research traditions in the study of reasoning, language and communication, the Polish School of Argumentation integrates various disciplines and institutions across Poland in which scholars are dedicated to understanding the phenomenon of the force of argument. Our primary goal is to craft a methodological programme and establish organisational infrastructure: this is the first key step in facilitating and fostering our research movement, which joins people with a common research focus, complementary skills and an enthusiasm to work (...) together. This statement—the Manifesto—lays the foundations for the research programme of the Polish School of Argumentation. (shrink)
Предметом дослідження у статті є концептуальні підходи до формування механізмів антикризової політики держави. Доведено, що в сучасній Україні антикризова політика має ґрунтуватися на використанні податкових механізмів і важелів.
The features of becoming and specific of functioning of corporate associations of the USA, Japan, South Korea and Germany are explored in the article. On the basis of the conducted research signs which are fixed in basis of determination of model of corporate sector are systematized.
Approaches to global ethics have drawn on a number of diverse theoretical traditions, such as Kantianism and utilitarianism. While emerging frameworks contribute to a growing awareness of and interest in ethics within a global society, the values that they prioritize are not adequate for realizing a just, equitable and fair system of global governance. This article considers the possibilities of an alternative ethic - a feminist ethic of care - and explores how it can bear on present circumstances, including global (...) inequity and injustice. This care ethic has been put forward as a viable normative approach to politics and policy. Little attention, however, has been paid to the potential of a care ethic within the globalization and ethics debate. This article illustrates how the values and corresponding principles of care, grounded in relationships and responsibilities, are essential to responding adequately to the current challenges of globalization. By examining the relevance of care in this context, the article seeks to broaden dominant ethical worldviews and contribute to the articulation of normative tools for examining globalization while at the same time avoiding the trappings of conventional universality - the abstract and a priori thinking typically associated with conceptions of global ethics. (shrink)
The question as to whether the Vedas have an author is the topic of vivid polemics in Indian philosophy. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the classical Sāṁkhya view on the authorship of the Vedas. The research is based chiefly on the commentaries to the Sāṁkhyakārikā definition of authoritative verbal testimony given by the classical Sāṁkhya writers, for these fragments provide the main evidence (both direct and indirect) for the reconstruction of this view. The textual analysis presented in (...) this paper leads to the following conclusion. According to most classical Sāṁkhya commentaries, the Vedas have no author. Two commentators state directly that the Vedas have no author, and four commentators allude to the authorlessness of the Vedas. Only one commentator seems to hold the opposite view, stating that all the authoritative utterances are based on perception or inference of imperceptible objects by authoritative persons, from which it follows that the Vedas too have an author or authors. (shrink)
Integration of ontologies begins with establishing mappings between their concept entries. We map categories from the largest manually-built ontology, Cyc, onto Wikipedia articles describing corresponding concepts. Our method draws both on Wikipedia’s rich but chaotic hyperlink structure and Cyc’s carefully defined taxonomic and common-sense knowledge. On 9,333 manual alignments by one person, we achieve an F-measure of 90%; on 100 alignments by six human subjects the average agreement of the method with the subject is close to their agreement with each (...) other. We cover 62.8% of Cyc categories relating to common-sense knowledge and discuss what further information might be added to Cyc given this substantial new alignment. (shrink)
У статті запропоновано новий аналітико-алгоритмічний підхід до оцінки техніко-економічних показників варіанту розробки нафтогазового родовища з урахуванням ефекту отримання економічних зисків за рахунок впливу технологічних інновацій інтенсифікації видобування вуглеводнів та супутньої продукції. При цьому під технологічними інноваціями розуміють змішаний комплекс нових засобів праці, техніки, технологічних вузлів, нових режимних та сировинних карт, логістики, інших загальних позитивних технологічних змін. Наголошується потреба зміни алгоритмів при техніко-економічних розрахунках варіантів розробки нафтогазових родовищ для врахування продажу результатів супутньої видобуванню вуглеводнів генерації та зберігання енергоносіїв, забору цінних порід (...) або мінералів, води. Рекомендується розроблена аналітика та алгоритмічна схема для наближеної оцінки дисконтованого приведеного вільного грошового потоку на кожному розрахунковому кроці при обраній тривалості звітного хронологічного періоду, обраному комплексі фактажу параметричних змін від інновацій, урахуванні прямого прогнозування та залежності вихідних даних одне від іншого. Наукова новизна роботи полягає в одночасному врахуванні динаміки локального та загального економічного ефекту, що створює адаптаційний вплив остаточного економічного результату від попередніх прогнозів і результатів за періоди, зокрема, у контрольно-розрахункових точках. (shrink)
The proposed article provides an overview of European and North American states’ legislation, which regulates the procedure for pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products, as well as responsibility for its violation, analysis of the problems and prospects of adaptation of the national legislation to European legal space, particularly in the field of criminal and legal regulation of relations in the sphere of pre-clinical trials, clinical trials and state registration of medicine. The emphasis is put on the (...) matter that inclusion of Article 321-2 into the Criminal Code of Ukraine leads to a false concurrence with other provisions of the Code. The author proposes to introduce recent EU legislation (Acquis Communautaire) on legal regulation of clinical trials and circulation of medicine into the law of Ukraine, clarify terminology related to Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Health Protection and the Special Part of criminal law, introduce criminal liability for legal entities that will provide effective control over negative effects of research centers’ activity. It is suggested to develop legislative proposals to improve the provisions of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, which provide legal protection of relations arising in connection with pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products. (shrink)
Using a comprehensive sample of U.S. non-profit hospitals from 2011 to 2015, we examine the effects of state community benefits regulation on the amount of charity care provided by and the operational efficiency of U.S. non-profit hospitals. First, we document that, under such regulations, non-profit hospitals provide more charity care and less compensated care as a proportion of net revenue. We infer from these findings that CBR has the potential to increase both non-profit hospitals’ amount of charity care and their (...) efficiency of operations. Second, by examining variation in CBR types, we find no differences between having provision or having reporting requirements on the amount of charity care offered. Moreover, when we consider CBR with both provision and reporting requirements, the combination of these two requirements does not incrementally enhance charity care offerings, suggesting that the requirements may serve as substitutes with comparable effect. Lastly, we show that several state-level characteristics influence the relationship between CBR and charity care: CBRs in states with a higher gross domestic product and percentage of revenue received in taxes have incrementally lower associations with charity care, while hospitals in states where populations have, on average, higher household incomes have greater associations between CBR and charity care. Our findings highlight the effects that state-enacted regulation can have on socially beneficial behavior by non-profits. (shrink)
Three recent research reports by Topping and Trickey, by Fair and colleagues, and by Gorard, Siddiqui and Huat See have produced data that support the conclusion that a Philosophy for Children program of one-hour-per-week structured discussions has a marked positive impact on students. This article presents data from a follow up study done three years after the completion of the study reported in Fair et al.. The data show that the positive gains in scores on the Cognitive Abilities Test were (...) still present and had not faded after three years. Given the strength of these confirmations of the positive durable impact of the P4C program of structured discussions and given the relatively low cost of implementing the P4C program, it is recommended that it become a standard part of the school curriculum. (shrink)
Стаття висвітлює важливий аспект різнобічної діяльності митрополита Андрея Шептицького - охорону природи Галичини. Автор доводить, що природоохоронна діяльність митрополита була спрямована на посилення процесів національного відродження в краї, мала неабияке значення для утвердження власної гідності галичан, вела до неухильного розширення їх духовного світогляду. У статті наведено ряд архівних документів, що засвідчують факти природоохоронної діяльності митрополита на теренах Галичини в 1930-1940 рр.
Interdisciplinarity is one of the features of modern science, defined as blurring the boundaries of disciplines and overcoming their limitations or excessive specialization by borrowing methods from one discipline into another, integrating different theoretical assumptions, and using the same concepts and terms. Often, theoretical knowledge of one discipline and technological advances of another are combined within an interdisciplinary science, and new branches or disciplines may also emerge. Biosemiotics, a field that arose at the crossroads of biology, semiotics, linguistics, and philosophy, (...) enables scientists to borrow theoretical assumptions from semiotics and extend them to different biological theories. The latter applies especially to extended synthesis, wherein culture is viewed as one of the factors influencing evolution. In the present research, the semiotic system of Ukrainian folk ornament is analyzed through the theory of fractals, key features of which are recursion and self-similarity. As a result, an assumption is made about the fractal structure of culture and social life on a conceptual level. What follows is a discussion of how this assumption can contribute to the multilevel selection theory, one of the foundations of extended synthesis, which employs the concept of self-similarity at all levels of the biological hierarchy. (shrink)
The article notes that the activities of industrial enterprises in modern conditions should be based on a high level of human resources. The model of estimation of personnel potential of industrial enterprises as one of the most important factors of influence on economic and financial results of enterprise activity is offered. The conclusion is made on the necessity of attracting, in order to increase the level of personnel potential of enterprises, to the staff of graduates of higher educational institutions, able (...) to give optimal solutions for innovation and investment development of Ukrainian enterprises. (shrink)
An effective mechanism of personnel production behavior management in the system of enterprise's management to ensure the high performance indexes and enterprise's goals achievement is developed. The results obtained on the basic of: structural and logical analysis - to construct the general logic of staff's production behavior model; method of generalization - to develop the classification of employees' motivation and potential factors; methods of analysis and synthesis - to determine the ratio of factors of potential and motivation factors in the (...) employees' production behavior management. The implemented classification of motivate factors and of the potential as well as developed model of staff's production behavior management allows to determine the dependents between those variables and to propose the practical managerial tools that ensures attainment of company's goals. Based on the proposed model within further research it is advisable to develop a mechanism that takes into account the specific quantitative parameters of the components of the production behavior and is built on using identified at this stage dependencies. The model can be used in the formation of an effective personnel policy that will ensure the achievement of social and economic goals of the company. Implementation of the developed model in practice highlights the social responsibility of the enterprise, shifts the emphasis from a purely economic governance towards better integration of existing needs of employees. (shrink)
Based on the analysis of theoretical and philosophical orientation of philosophical and educational thought at the end of XIX - beginning of the twentieth century, established mechanisms for determining the socio-cultural and specific historical features of the formation of personality in the educational space of Modernity.
У статті розглядаються питання реалізації фіскального механізму держави, здатного забезпечити достатнє фінансове наповнення державного й місцевого бюджетів, а також сприяти досягненню стратегічних пріоритетів сталого розвитку держави та її регіонів шляхом раціонального та обґрунтованого використання матеріальних, соціальних та природних ресурсів. Особлива увага приділена ролі податкових елементів фіскального механізму в забезпеченні екологічного, економічного та соціального імперативу суспільного розвитку України.
In article the role of strategy of the enterprise in foreign trade activities has been defined and proved, practical recommendations concerning working out of strategy of an exit on the international commodity markets for the cake and by-product process are given the industry which are inherent for branch specialisation of east region.
In the research investigated the present state, conditions and possibilities on introduction the free circulation of agricultural land in Ukraine, highlighted the main problems of its development, analyzed experience of sale and lease of agricultural land in European countries. It is demonstrated the survey results of shareholders and agricultural producers in the two districts - Bila Tserkva, Kyiv region and Uman, Cherkassy region. The model of the agricultural land market should meet not only economic efficiency and expediency, but also contribute (...) to the sustainable development of rural areas, where the circulation of agricultural land should be preceded by the introduction of fuses and restrictions. In order to prevent landlessness of peasants and the formation of latifundists, the free circulation of land can be implemented in two stages. 1 stage: land inventory, cadaster and land management system, which includes four subsystems: 1) land rights ; 3) land use ; 4) infrastructure development. Second stage of the market opening for state and communal property land. The priorities on purchase to be provided for the local communities, restriction on access the market for the legal entities, foreigners, introduction of other restrictions on the sale of agricultural land, the application the taxes differentiations on land sales, fees, etc. (shrink)
У статті обґрунтована необхідність залучення біографічного матеріалу для уведення в історію українського гуманітарного дискурсу імен представників педагогічного Відродження України - просвітителів, які презентують Україну світові. Автор статті основним арсеналом дослідницького пошуку використовує вперше як об'єкт дослідження системи нотацій та агіографій видатних просвітителів українського Відродження. Розглядається діяльність і творча спадщина видатних представників педагогічного компендіуму часів України XIV-XV століть у системах нотацій і агіографій: Павла Русина, Юрія Котермака та ін. Автор статті реалізує біографічний метод для вивчення колективних біографій представників видатних просвітителів українського (...) Відродження в історії української наукової думки. Творчість кожного діяча розглянута як унікальне явище й у той самий час розуміється як складова всього процесу розвитку історичної наукової думки України. Узагальнюється в такому випадку не тільки результат виявлення понять "доля", "життєвий шлях", "модель світу", "зовнішня і внутрішня детермінація", а також "власне середовище", "суб'єктивна картина життєвого світу", але й моменти взаємозв'язку дії всіх понять у життєписі персоналій освітян. У статті відстежується походження терміна "агіографія" через поняття "колективна біографія". Охарактеризовано ідею міждисциплінарного підходу в дослідженні "життя людини" на матеріалі праць, які існують у філософському, культурологічному, психологічному та історичному дискурсі сучасної наукової думки на пострадянському просторі. Запропоновано подальшу перспективу в застосуванні описаного інструментарію в науці. (shrink)
The article focuses on reconstructing the structures of implicit criticism on postmodern understanding of music, found within the discourse of a dispute between Alain Badiou and Philip Lacou-Labar the concerning philosophical interpretation of Richard Wagner's musical works. It was revealed that A. Badiou proposes a program to overcome the characteristic deconstructivist reduction of art to politics that brings the former to another by-product of ideology. Negative conceptual apparatus of deconstruction is opposed by A. Badiou with a hermeneutics, characterized by affirmative (...) morphology and syntax constituted onto the pragmatics of a lesson, teaching action, open gesture of involvement. Badiou si an approach marks a good possibility of overcoming the methodological and ideological deadlock of postmodernity. This new wave of philosophical debates around Richard Wagner responds to the revival of grand epical genres in mass culture. Consequently a new dialectical thinking must be taught in order to continue the tradition of critical approach to culture. This is the key implication of A. Badiou's lessons on how it is possible to rethink the works of art and historically determined approaches to understanding them besides the clich?s of the recent postmodernist legacy. Although Badiou's critique itself can be seen as a kind of postmodernist interpreting technique, the French philosopher manages to escape the overt radicalism of postmodernist claims against Wagner by means of true radicalityof affirmative interpretation inspired not by suspicion of a concealed truth but rather a commitment to a truth to come. (shrink)
The aim of this study is to clarify the meaning of the term saṁketa, which is usually translated as ‘ convention’, in the Yogasūtrabhāṣya, the first and the most authoritative commentary to the Yogasūtras. This paper is a contribution to the reconstruction of the classical Yoga view on the relation between word and its meaning, for saṁketa is a key term used by this darśana in discussing this relation. The textual analysis of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya has led me to the conclusion (...) that its author’s understanding of the linguistic convention is different from the notion of the linguistic convention of the Vaiśeṣikas and Naiyāyikas and similar to the notion of the linguistic convention of the Grammarians. These are interpretations of the term saṁketa which reflect Yogasūtrabhāṣya’s understanding of the linguistic convention: the tradition of the usage of words, established usage of words. Saṁketa of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya, unlike saṁketa/samaya of the Vaiśeṣikas and Naiyāyikas, is not an agreement established by anyone, but an agreement in the sense of tradition, established practice, or established custom. Unlike the saṁketa/samaya of these philosophers, the saṁketa of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya, having neither beginning nor end, is not re-created, but only made known at the beginning of each cycle of existence of the world. (shrink)
In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. (...) We describe methods used to add 35K new concepts mined from Wikipedia to collections in ResearchCyc entirely automatically. Evaluation with 22 human subjects shows high precision both for the new concepts’ categorization, and their assignment as individuals or collections. Most importantly we show how Cyc itself can be leveraged for ontological quality control by ‘feeding’ it assertions one by one, enabling it to reject those that contradict its other knowledge. (shrink)
The article highlights the issues of nature protection in Halychyna region that have been arising since ancient times till1939. Inthe 20-30s of the XXth century the solution of this problem was considered in the search of separate valuable objects of nature, their expropriation from the sphere of economic usage and complete protection. In the hard interwar period, the Polish government, scientists and some land owners were doing their best to protect nature. This intense activity had a significant public basis, as (...) the main legislative basis of Poland of that time facilitated development and distribution of nature-protective activity in Halychyna region. Poland had a significant public legislative foundation for environmental protection and isolation of valuable natural areas/objects. First of all, since 1852 Halychyna had the valid Austrian law on forest conservation, according to which all forests, regardless of ownership form, had to be supervised by the State Forest Administration. In 1900 the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture issued the Circular concerning conservation of natural tracts and old trees. Later on, in 1927 the President of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth issued the Decision on the protection of forests that were not owned by the state; in1934 anew public law about monuments of nature was adopted in Halychyna, which greatly simplified and facilitated the procedure of conserving valuable natural objects in the country. In addition, Poland had a number of other valid laws on nature usage with the elements of environmental protection. In the 1920-1930s, nature conservation and isolation of national parks in Halychyna were performed by both the government authorities of Poland and numerous Polish academic-social entities, such as the State Council for Nature Conservation of Poland, Polish Committee for Nature Protection in Lviv city, the Polish League for Nature Protection, Department of Reserves of the Research Institute of State Forests, Nature Conservation Commission of the State Geological Institute. Apart from that, Poland also had various public nature protection societies of local history and natural sciences, such as the Copernicus Society of Naturalists, Society of Tree-Lovers, Society of Planting Local Hylads, Zoological and Botanical Society, Society for Animal Protection, 'Stowarzyszenia c.k. straznikow lasowych i dozorcow skladow', 'Straz Lesna w Kosowie', "Akademickiego kola Przyrodnikow wszechnicy Lwowskiej' and others. A number of protected state reserves have been created. In addition to the public ones, there were a lot of community nature reserves, which were bought by the Polish scientific-cultural societies and organizations, as well as private reserves, created on private lands by some land owners. Thus, in Halychyna region the issue of nature conservation was developing very actively in those years, yet under the auspices of the Austrian environmental organizations. Correspondingly, the new protected objects became Austrian or Polish state property. No Ukrainian natural reserves existed, and no national societies for nature protection. Therefore, the problem of nature protection in the 1920-1930s in the society turned from the purely ecological problem into the ecological-national one. Ukrainian patriots, uniting around their spiritual leader - the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, started a broad nature protection activity in Halychyna, focusing at conserving and multiplying the natural resources. First of all, they founded the Permanent Commission for Nature Conservation at the Taras Shevchenko Scientific Society, which was carrying out an active nature conservation activity in the given region. (shrink)
This article is the analysis of the content of the Ukrainian periodicals for womenfolk, including the literary-publicistic almanac "Pershyi vinok", the periodical "Meta", the newspaper "Zhinoche dilo" which was a free supplement to the daily social and political narodovskyi publication "Dilo". They were published with the support of the public organizations of Galicia in late 19th and early 20th century and of the activists of the Ukrainian women's movement of the region - Nataliia Kobrynska, Olena Kysilevska, Dariia Starosolska, Iryna (...) Sichynska and others. These periodical and non-periodical publications familiarized Ukrainian women with the best works of Foreign and Ukrainian literature, highlighted the women's movement and the events of political life both in Austria-Hungary and abroad, as well as various aspects of the activities of public organizations where women were involved, published a lot of useful information etc. We believe that the almanac "Pershyi vinok", the newspapers "Meta", "Zhinoche dilo" contributed not only to raising cultural and educational levels of women and spreading among them the ideas of gender equality, but also are valuable sources for the study of the Ukrainian national and cultural movement of Galicia in late 19th and early 20th century. They contain quite a few important facts necessary for a researcher to reconstruct the events of national and cultural life in the region during the above-mentioned period of time. However, a relatively short period of publishing of the said periodicals does not make it possible to get a coherent picture of the Ukrainian women's movement as one of the important components of the national and cultural movement in Galicia in late 19th and early 20th century, thus requiring additional study of both archival and other published sources. (shrink)
Development and strengthening of private pension funds market is impossible without a thorough analysis of its current state, identify unresolved problems in operation. Given the results of the analysis of investment of a fund can be identified difficulties in development funds: - negative impact of the crisis on the financial system as a whole, so that was undermined public confidence in all financial institutions; - reduce solvency population as rising prices, utility costs, and wages almost "frozen", save for retirement is (...) becoming increasingly difficult; - coagulation participation of employers in pension programs for their employees, because in times of crisis, many companies find themselves in dire financial straits and limited amounts of pension contributions; - negative signal to the scheme as slowed down compared to the pre-crisis period of growth by pension funds; - need to improve pension schemes and improving the investment of pension funds; - data reporting of private pension funds show a decrease yields of most funds. Private pension funds should be able to use options, but only to hedge risks on stocks, as most other assets, placing the premiums of private pension funds - a fixed income. Application options would allow private pension funds to hedge against decline in the market value of the shares. Of course, the use of options will decrease the yield of pension funds, but they will be no significant damage. (shrink)