Eduardo Davi Oliveira, autor de livros como “Cosmovisão Africana no Brasil” e “Filosofia da Ancestralidade, é professor do Doutorado Multi-Institucional e Multidisciplinar em Difusão do Conhecimento. Ele nos concedeu a presente entrevista durante evento da Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia – UFSB, intitulado “Corpo, Poética e Ancestralidade”, o qual ocorreu de 11 a 17 de Março de 2019, na cidade de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Nossa conversa foi atravessada por temas como epistemologia negra, saberes milenares do povo Bakongo, mitologia (...) dos orixás, a relação do autor com a Universidade e seu processo de escrita poética no livro “Xirê”. Torcendo para que a simpatia, o conhecimento e o gingado com os quais o professor de Filosofia nos atendeu, possam se apresentar aqui, desejamos a todes, boa leitura! À Eduardo, Adupé! (shrink)
Escritos por onze renomados filósofos os ensaios pretendem, de forma acessível e didática, explicitar as principais tendências e perspectivas da reflexão ética contemporânea. Indicado a estudantes e docentes de filosofia ética, teologia, sociologia e interessados em geral. -/- Prefàcio 1.Tendencias neoaristotelicas na etica atual - Sergio Cremaschi 2. Alasdair MacIntyre e o retorno as tradicoes morais de pesquisa racional - Helder Buenos Aires de Carvalho 3. Etica da finitude - Zeljko Loparic 4. Por uma etica ilustrada e progressista: uma defesa (...) do utilitarismo - Maria Cecilia Maringoni de Carvalho 5. A relacao da filosofia analitica com a teologia moral - Terence Kennedy 6. Rawls: uma teoria etico-politica da justica - Sonia T. Felipe 7. Etica do discurso - F. Javier Herrero 8. Hans Jonas: o principio responsabilidade - Oswaldo Giacoia Junior 9. Etica de coerencia dialetica - Carlos Cirne-Lima 10. Etica intencionalista-teleologica em vittorio hosle - Manfredo Araujo de Oliveira. (shrink)
Thomas Kuhn's philosophy of science, which he developed by focusing on physics, was later applied by other authors to virtually all areas or disciplines of culture. What interests me here, however, is the movement in the opposite direction: the role that one of these disciplines, history of art, played in the conception of Kuhn'stheoryof science.In a 1969 article, his only published text concerning science and art, Kuhn makes a brief and intriguing observation about The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He says (...) the book was a belated product of his discovery of the parallels between science and art. This is a retrospective assertion about Structure, as well as that of the... (shrink)
Debate about cognitive science explanations has been formulated in terms of identifying the proper level(s) of explanation. Views range from reductionist, favoring only neuroscience explanations, to mechanist, favoring the integration of multiple levels, to pluralist, favoring the preservation of even the most general, high-level explanations, such as those provided by embodied or dynamical approaches. In this paper, we challenge this framing. We suggest that these are not different levels of explanation at all but, rather, different styles of explanation that capture (...) different, cross-cutting patterns in cognitive phenomena. Which pattern is explanatory depends on both the cognitive phenomenon under investigation and the research interests occasioning the explanation. This reframing changes how we should answer the basic questions of which cognitive science approaches explain and how these explanations relate to one another. On this view, we should expect different approaches to offer independent explanations in terms of their different focal patterns and the value of those explanations to partly derive from the broad patterns they feature. (shrink)
Geological feature: Polygonal faults Seismic appearance: Variable-amplitude plane-parallel horizons without clear discontinuities Features with similar appearance: Seismic noise in stratigraphic sequences without brittle deformation Age: Cenozoic Location: Northern Gulf of Mexico Seismic data: Survey B-01-91-MS obtained by the U.S. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys Analysis tools: Geometric seismic attributes.
O artigo investiga a relação Husserl-Heidegger, para além de suas contribuições à fenomenologia e hermenêutica como novos métodos em filosofia, articulando ontologia e subjetividade, através de um paradigma semânticolingüístico, de forma a delinear qual seria a tarefa hodierna de uma fenomenologia da justiça. The article investigates the Husserl-Heidegger relationship, beyond their historical contributions to both phenomenology and hermeneutics as new methods in philosophy, by articulating ontology and subjectivity through asemantic, linguistic paradigm, so as to delineate the task of a phenomenology (...) of justice. (shrink)
Em “Compreender Hans Jonas”, Jelson Oliveira se propõe a apresentar de maneira clara e objetiva o longo caminho percorrido pelo alemão Hans Jonas em sua jornada filosófica, cujo ápice é a formulação da tão urgente ética da responsabilidade. Por meio de uma ánalise cuidodadosa das obras deixadas por Jonas, Jelson confere inestimável importância a um livro único, que torna prazeroso o conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento intelectual do filósofo do Princípio Responsabilidade.
Jelson Roberto de Oliveira, autor de “Compreender Hans Jonas”, é graduado em Filosofia pela Universidade Federal do Paraná, com especialização em Sociologia Política e mestrado em História da Filosofia Moderna e Contemporânea pela mesma universidade. Atualmente é professor da pós-graduação em Filosofia na PUC-PR, e coordenador do GT Hans Jonas, da Anpof, que reúne vários pesquisadores de nível nacional na área. Ética para a civilização tecnológica e A solidão como virtude moral em Nietzsche são alguns dos diversos títulos que (...) compõem o acervo de obras do autor. (shrink)
Prevention is a pervasive phenomenon. It is about blocking an effect before it happens or stopping it as it unfolds: vaccines prevent (the unfolding of) diseases; seat belts prevent events causing serious injuries; circuit breaks prevent the manifestation of overcurrents. Many disciplines in the information sciences deal with modeling and reasoning about prevention. Examples include risk and security management as well as medical and legal informatics. Having a proper conceptualization of this phenomenon is crucial for devising proper modeling mechanisms and (...) tools to support these disciplines. Forming such a conceptualization is a matter of Formal Ontology. In fact, prevention and related notions have become a topic of interest in this area. In this paper, with the support of Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO), we conduct an ontological analysis of this and other related notions, namely, the notions of countermeasures and countermeasure mechanisms, including the notion of antidotes. As a result of this conceptual clarification process, we propose an ontology-based reusable module extending UFO and capturing the relations between these elements. Finally, we employ this module to address a few cases in risk management. (shrink)
Epistemologia de fronteiras em Walter Mignolo: compreensão, críticas e implicações na pesquisa em educação Resumo: Este artigo objetiva compreender a “Epistemologia de Fronteiras” como uma categoria essencial para a crítica epistemológica do filósofo Walter Mignolo, a partir do pensamento decolonial, e descrever as principais questões e argumentos que problematizam este conceito, refletindo sobre as suas implicações para a pesquisa em educação. Desta forma, explicita-se as concepções fundamentais da Rede Modernidade/Colonialidade, a partir de uma investigação de perfil qualitativo e histórico-conceitual. Considera (...) que a “Epistemologia de Fronteiras” possibilita a reflexão em torno da decolonialidade na produção de conhecimentos, ao mesmo tempo em que estimula a crítica epistemológica e metodológica à colonialidade do poder no âmbito da pesquisa em educação. Palavras-chave: Epistemologia de Fronteiras; Pesquisa em Educação; Walter Mignolo. Border thinking in Walter Mignolo: insight, reviews and implications in educational research: This paper aims to understand “Border Thinking” as a relevant category to the epistemological critique of philosophy Walter Mignolo, from the decolonial thinking and to describe the main issues and arguments that question this concept critically, reflecting about its implications to the educational research. To this aim, analyze the main concepts of Modernity/Coloniality Group’s decolonial thinking, from an investigation of qualitative and historical-conceptual profiles. Consider that the Border Thinking is one of the most significant contributions to the decolonial epistemological critique, that allows critical thinking about the possibility of knowledge, while encourages the criticism and the epistemological and methodological reflection about the coloniality of power at the scope of educational research. Key-words: Border Thinking; Educational Research; Walter Mignolo. Epistemología fronteriza en Walter Mignolo: comprensión y crítica Resumen: Este artículo tiene como objetivo entender la "Epistemología Fronteriza" como una categoría esencial para la crítica epistemológica del filósofo Walter Mignolo, basada en el pensamiento descolonial, y en describir las principales preguntas y argumentos que problematizan este concepto, reflexionando sobre sus implicaciones para la investigación en educación. De esta manera, se explican las concepciones fundamentales de la Red Modernidad /Colonialidad, basadas en una investigación de perfil cualitativo e histórico-conceptual. Considera que la "Epistemología Fronteriza" permite la reflexión sobre la descolonialidad en la producción de conocimiento, al mismo tiempo en que estimula la crítica epistemológica y metodológica de la colonialidad del poder dentro del campo de la investigación educativa. Palabras-clave: Epistemología Fronteriza. Investigación en Educación. Walter Mignolo. Data de registro: 01/06/2020 Data de aceite: 21/10/2021. (shrink)
Pretende-se, neste artigo, analisar a perspectiva segundo a qual Hans Jonas e Andrew Feenberg compreendem a técnica como um poder de nova magnitude no mundo moderno e como, a partir de suas análises, uma na perspectiva ética e outra na perspectiva política, ambos analisam as formas de exercício desse poder, ou seja, as suas potencialidades, os limites, os riscos, as consequências de suas intervenções e as exigências teóricas e éticas do seu uso. Trata-se, então, de compreender a técnica como um (...) poder e, ao mesmo tempo, de perguntar sobre o quanto de poder ela tem ou, em outras palavras, o quanto de poder tem o homem de determiná-la ética e politicamente. O poder, assim, será o fio condutor da reflexão, a fim de demonstrar como Jonas pensa a responsabilidade como exercício do poder ético de controle da técnica, ao tempo em que Feenberg pensa a democratização da técnica como medida de intervenção e como alternativa à tecnocracia reinante, em vista de uma transformação dos interesses que guiam as escolhas técnicas. (shrink)
Multimorbidity, the presence of multiple health conditions that must be addressed, is a particularly difficult situation in patient management raising issues such as the use of multiple drugs and drug-disease interactions. Clinical Guidelines are evidence-based statements which provide recommendations for specific health conditions but are unfit for the management of multiple co-occurring health situations. To leverage these evidence-based documents, it becomes necessary to combine them. In this paper, using a case example, we explore the use of argumentation schemes to reason (...) and combine evidence-based recommendations from clinical guidelines, expected effects, conflicts stemming from said recommendations, and preferences regarding treatment goals. We compare the results of reasoning using the schemes for practical reasoning and argument from negative consequences in the Carneades Argumentation System with those of ASPIC-G, an extension of the artificial intelligence system ASPIC+. (shrink)
Starting from the sensuous perception of what is seen, an attempt is made at re-casting a Husserlian theory of constitution of the object of intuition, as one leaves the natural attitude through a transcendental method, by positing several theses so as to avoid the aporias of philosophical binary oppositions such as rationalism and empiri-cism, realism and idealism, logicism and psychologism, subjectivism and objectivism, transcendentalism and ontologism, metaphysics and positivism. Throughout fifty-five theses on constitution, the Husserlian proposal of continuously reforming philosophizing (...) by transcendental reduction is revisited, leaving the latter incomplete as new conversions are required by noetic-noematic correlations between world and consciousness. (shrink)
Paul Silva has recently argued that doxastic justification does not have a basing requirement. An important part of his argument depends on the assumption that doxastic and moral permissibility have a parallel structure. I here reply to Silva's argument by challenging this assumption. I claim that moral permissibility is an agential notion, while doxastic permissibility is not. I then briefly explore the nature of these notions and briefly consider their implications for praise and blame.
In the visual representation of ontologies, in particular of part-whole relationships, it is customary to use graph theory as the representational background. We claim here that the standard graph-based approach has a number of limitations, and we propose instead a new representation of part-whole structures for ontologies, and describe the results of experiments designed to show the effectiveness of this new proposal especially as concerns reduction of visual complexity. The proposal is developed to serve visualization of ontologies conformant to the (...) Basic Formal Ontology. But it can be used also for more general applications, particularly in the biomedical domain. (shrink)
Trata-se de mostrar em que sentido a concepção normativa de pessoa em John Rawls pressupõe uma transformação semântica da concepção kantiana de subjetividade transcendental, em particular do seu ideal de personalidade. Uma reinterpretação kantiana da concepção normativa de pessoa logra explicar o dispositivo procedimental do equilíbrio reflexivopara responder a críticas comunitaristas em defesa do individualismo inerente ao liberalismo político, concebido não mais como uma doutrina abrangente da auto-identidade mas como um construtivismo, num modelo coerentista dejustificativa epistêmico-moral.The article seeks to show (...) in which sense Rawls’s normative conception of the person does presuppose a semantic transformation of the Kantian conception of transcendental subjectivity, particularly of his ideal of personhood . A Kantian reinterpretation of the normative conception of the person succeeds in accounting for the procedural device of reflective equilibrium so as to address communitarian criticisms in defense of the individualism inherent in political liberalism, conceived no longer as a comprehensive doctrine of self-identity but as a constructivism, within a coherentist model of moral epistemology. (shrink)
Resumen: En la discusión filosófica acerca de la justicia, Amartya Sen, pero también, por ejemplo, Garzón Valdés y el mismo Villoro, sostienen que resulta más urgente alejarnos de la injusticia que concentrarnos en “lo justo”. En este contexto, aquí sostengo que la humillación de la dignidad es precisamente un criterio al que debemos voltear a ver cuando hablamos de lo inaceptable, que es donde se inicia la vía negativa hacia la justicia. Para ello, exploro los argumentos de Luis Villoro, Amartya (...) Sen y Martha Nussbaum. Más adelante clarifico el vínculo entre la humillación y la exclusión, para sugerir que en ciertos contextos, y en específico el de la injusticia, el uso del concepto humillación resulta más útil que el de exclusión.: Among those who discuss about the concept of Justice, Amartya Sen, but also Garzón Valdés and Villoro, claim that it is more urgent to walk away from injustice, than to concentrate our efforts in finding the meaning of Justice. Here I argue that the humiliation of dignity is a good yardstick to use when we talk about the unacceptable, where the negative way towards Justice begins. For that purpose I explore the arguments of Villoro, Sen, and Nussbaum. Finally, I make clear the link between humiliation and exclusion to suggest that in some contexts, and specifically in that of injustice, the use of the concept of humiliation can result more useful than that of exclusion. (shrink)
W.K. Clifford’s famous 1876 essay The Ethics of Belief contains one of the most memorable lines in the history of philosophy: "it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence." The challenge to religious belief stemming from this moralized version of evidentialism is still widely discussed today.
Cumulative technological culture can be defined as the progressive diversification, complexification, and enhancement of technological traits through generations. An outstanding issue is to specify the cognitive bases of this phenomenon. Based on the literature, we identified four potential cognitive factors: namely, theory-of-mind, technical-reasoning, creativity, and fluid-cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to test which of these factors—or a combination thereof—best predicted the cumulative performance in two experimental, micro-society conditions differing in the nature of the interaction allowed between (...) participants. The task was to build the highest possible tower. Participants were also assessed on the four aforementioned cognitive factors in order to predict cumulative performance and attractiveness. Our findings indicate that technical-reasoning skills are the best predictor of cumulative performance, even if their role may be restricted to the specific technological domain. Theory-of-mind skills may have a facilitator role, particularly in the Communication condition. Creativity can also help in the generation of novel ideas, but it is not sufficient to support innovation. Finally, fluid cognition is not involved in cumulative technological culture. Taken together, these findings suggest that domain-specific knowledge remains critical for explaining cumulative technological culture. (shrink)
While previous research has suggested that adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse may be more prone to produce false memories, little is known about the consequences of childhood neglect on basic memory processes. For this reason, the authors investigated how a group of women with a history of childhood emotional neglect and diagnosed with recurrent Major Depressive Disorder performed on the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm in comparison to control groups. The results indicated that women with MDD and CEN were actually (...) less prone to produce false memories relative to both women with MDD but no CEN and healthy women without MDD and any form of childhood maltreatment. These findings were explained in terms of the inability to extract/retrieve gist memories that support false recognition of critical lures, an explanation that seems to fit well with emerging MRI findings linking childhood neglect to reduced volume of brain regions associated to memory function. (shrink)
Deontological evidentialism is the claim that we ought to form and maintain our beliefs in accordance with our evidence. In this paper, I criticize two arguments in its defense. I begin by discussing Berit Broogard’s use of the distinction between narrow-scope and wide-scope requirements against W.K. Clifford’s moral defense of. I then use this very distinction against a defense of inspired by Stephen Grimm’s more recent claims about the moral source of epistemic normativity. I use this distinction once again to (...) argue that Hilary Kornblith’s criticism of Richard Feldman’s defense of is incomplete. Finally, I argue that Feldman’s defense is insensitive to the relation between normative requirements and privileged values: values that have normative authority over us. (shrink)
An intuitive view is that creativity involves bringing together what is already known and familiar in a way that produces something new. In cognitive science, this intuition is typically formalized in terms of computational processes that combine or associate internally represented information. From this computationalist perspective, it is hard to imagine how non-representational approaches in embodied cognitive science could shed light on creativity, especially when it comes to abstract conceptual reasoning of the kind scientists so often engage in. The present (...) article offers an entry point to addressing this challenge. The scientific project of embodied cognitive science is a continuation of work in the functionalist tradition in psychology developed over a century ago by William James and John Dewey, among others. The focus here is on how functionalist views on the nature of mind, thought, and experience offer an alternative starting point for cognitive science in general, and for the cognitive science of scientific creativity in particular. The result may seem paradoxical. On the one hand, the article claims that the functionalist conceptual framework motivates rejecting mainstream cognitive views of creativity as the combination or association of ideas. On the other hand, however, the strategy adopted here—namely, revisiting ideas from functionalist psychology to inform current scientific theorizing—can itself be described as a process of arriving at new, creative ideas from combinations of old ones. As is shown here, a proper understanding of cognition in light of the functionalist tradition resolves the seeming tension between these two claims. (shrink)
A proposta deste ensaio recai em discutir criticamente, por meio do pensamento descolonial biogeográfico fronteiriço, a Arte, a Cultura, a Educação e a pandemia do COVID-19 a fim de evidenciar perspectivas outras de pedagogias e filosofias que promovam a libertação de corpos, almas e das diferenças coloniais exteriorizados pelas lógicas da razão moderna a partir do séc. XVI e/ou pós-moderna séc. XIX que imperam ainda como únicas formas de sobrevivência no Ocidente. A ideia é evidenciar que culturas fronteiriças também produzem (...) arte, cultura e conhecimentos por meio de “pedagogias” e “filosofias” da diferença sendo anthropos. (shrink)
Representationalism—the view that scientific modeling is best understood in representational terms—is the received view in contemporary philosophy of science. Contributions to this literature have focused on a number of puzzles concerning the nature of representation and the epistemic role of misrepresentation, without considering whether these puzzles are the product of an inadequate analytical framework. The goal of this paper is to suggest that this possibility should be taken seriously. The argument has two parts, employing the “can’t have” and “don’t need” (...) tactics drawn from philosophy of mind. On the one hand, I propose that representationalism doesn’t work: different ways to flesh out representationalism create a tension between its ontological and epistemological components and thereby undermine the view. On the other hand, I propose that representationalism is not needed in the first place—a position I articulate based on a pragmatic stance on the success of scientific research and on the feasibility of alternative philosophical frameworks. I conclude that representationalism is untenable and unnecessary, a philosophical dead end. A new way of thinking is called for if we are to make progress in our understanding of scientific modeling. (shrink)
Futsal is a sport that presents alternation of high- and low-intensity moments, which lacks investigations regarding the effects of the organization of the training load on biomotor skills. In this sense, this study aims to verify the monitoring of the training load throughout the season and the behavior of biomotor skills in futsal athletes. Twelve futsal athletes from the adult category, who competed in the first division of the Paulista championship, participated in the study. Throughout the season, the internal training (...) load was calculated, through the relationship between volume and the rate of perceived exertion, monotony, and training strain. The training periods were divided into preparatory, competitive, and competitive II for a total of four moments of evaluation: M1: at the beginning of the preparatory period; M2: 50 week, at the end of the preparatory period; M3: 13th week, in the middle of the competitive period; and M4: at the start of the competitive period II. The tests used were: Power of lower limbs: countermovement jump ; Displacement speed, over the 10-meter distance, and Aerobic power by the Carminatti test. The variables analyzed were compared at different moments of evaluation using the two-way ANOVA completed by the Bonferroni test. For monotony, training strain, and ILT, the ANOVA ONE-WAY test was used between the evaluation periods completed by the Bonferroni test. The significance value adopted was p < 0.05. A significant improvement was observed in the power of lower limbs from M1 to M3, from M2 to M3, and from M1 to M4. Aerobic power showed a significant increase from M1 to M3 and from M1 to M4. The ITL showed a difference between competitive I and II in relation to the preparatory period. In conclusion, the proposed training organization was sufficient to improve the power of the lower limbs and the aerobic power. (shrink)
Summary The Ceará Basin is a deepwater exploration frontier basin that comprises part of the Brazilian equatorial margin. This basin has been receiving renewed attention from the petroleum industry since the discovery of important deepwater oil fields in its African counterpart. However, detailed seismic stratigraphic, depositional, and structural frameworks for the Ceará Basin are still lacking in the literature. We have analyzed a series of 2D seismic data sets and stumbled into the pitfalls of migration artifacts ultimately realizing that reprocessing (...) was the best option to avoid the mistake of interpreting these artifacts as geologic features. Multiples can be difficult to identify in seismic data in which they mimic the true geology of the region, and they often present a pitfall for less experienced interpreters. Indeed, the identification and removal of multiples is crucial because they do not reflect the true geology in the subsurface and may otherwise lead to incorrect business decisions. Geological feature: Stratigraphy of the Ceará Basin, offshore Brazil Seismic appearance: Strong seismic horizons mimicking geological layering Alternative interpretations: Multiples arising from poor seismic migration processing Features with similar appearance: Strong seismic horizons reflecting basement and carbonates Formation: Rift sequence of the Ceará Basin Age: Cretaceous Location: Ceará Basin, offshore Brazil Seismic data: Obtained by the Brazilian National Petroleum Agency and reprocessed by the authors Analysis tool: Reprocessing. (shrink)
Introduction: Motherese, or emotional infant directed speech, is the specific form of speech used by parents to address their infants. The prosody of IDS has affective properties, expresses caregiver involvement, is a marker of caregiver-infant interaction quality. IDS prosodic characteristics can be detected with automatic analysis. We aimed to explore whether pregnant women “speak” to their unborn baby, whether they use motherese while speaking and whether anxio-depressive or obstetrical status impacts speaking to the fetus.Participants and Methods: We conducted an observational (...) study of pregnant women with gestational ages from 26 to 38 weeks. Women were recruited in a university hospital department of obstetrics. Thirty-five women agreed to participate in the study, and 26 audio records were exploitable. We collected obstetrical and sociodemographic data, pregnancy outcomes, anxiety and depressive status using the Covy and Raskin Scales, and life events using the Sensations During Pregnancy and Life Event Questionnaire. Each participant was left alone with an audio recorder with a recommendation to feel free to speak to her fetus as she would have done at home. The recording was stopped after 3 min. Audio recordings were analyzed by two methods: psycholinguist experts' annotation and computational objective automatic analyses.Results: Most mothers reported speaking to their fetuses. We found a correlation between maternal first perceptions of fetal movements and the start of mother's speaking to fetus. Motherese prosody was detected with both annotation and automatic analysis with a significant correlation between the two methods. In this exploratory study, motherese use was not associated with maternal anxiodepressive or obstetrical status. However, the more future mothers were depressed, the less they spoke with their fetuses during the recording.Conclusion: Fetal directed speech can be detected during pregnancy, and it contains a period of prosody that shares the same characteristics of motherese that can be described as prenatal motherese or emotional fetal-directed speech. This means that pregnant women start using motherese much earlier than expected. FDS seems to be correlated with maternal first perceptions of fetal movements and depression scores. However, more research is needed to confirm these exploratory results. (shrink)
In recent years, a revisionist process focused on logical positivism can be observed, particularly regarding Carnap's work. In this paper, I argue against the interpretation that Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions having been published in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, co-edited by Carnap, is evidence of the revisionist idea that Carnap "would have found Structure philosophically congenial". I claim that Kuhn's book, from Carnap's point of view, is not in philosophy of science but rather in history of science. (...) It could also explain the fact that, despite his sympathetic letters to Kuhn as editor, Carnap never refers to Kuhn's book in his work in philosophy of science. (shrink)
In the graphical representation of ontologies, it is customary to use graph theory as the representational background. We claim here that the standard graph-based approach has a number of limitations. We focus here on a problem in the graph-based representation of ontologies in complex domains such as biomedical, engineering and manufacturing: lack of mereotopological representation. Based on such limitation, we proposed a diagrammatic way to represent an entity’s structure and various forms of mereotopological relationships between the entities.
What I call the Doxastic Puzzle, is the impression that while each of these claims seems true, at least one of them must be false: (a) Claims of the form ‘S ought to have doxastic attitude D towards p at t’ are sometimes true at t, (b) If Φ-ing at t is not within S’s effective control at t, then it is false, at t, that ‘S ought to Φ at t’, (c) For all S, p, and t, having doxastic (...) attitude D towards p at t is not within S’s effective control at t. All three natural replies to the puzzle have been pursued. Some have claimed that doxastic attitudes like believing that p are, in fact, within our effective control, or sufficiently so. Others have claimed that doxastic ought-claims, strictly speaking, are always false. And some have denied that effective control is required for the adequacy of doxastic ought-claims in general. I here pursue and examine a different strategy. In the first part of this paper, I argue that these claims are not only each true but actually not in tension with each other in the first place. Instead of attempting to dispel the puzzle, this solution proposes to evade it instead: to solve it by properly understanding, and by thereby accepting without contradiction, all of its constitutive claims. In the second part of the paper, I argue that the evasive strategy forces us to re-think our understanding of the place of normative reasons in epistemology. More exactly, it seems to come at the cost of one central way of thinking about our reasons for having doxastic attitudes, one where such reasons are good-standing exemplars of normative reasons in general. The evasive strategy, that is, threatens to lead us very quickly to a deflationary picture of epistemic normativity: it rescues normative talk, but sacrifices normative substance. I conclude by explaining why I think this is more consequential than some have made it out to be, and by suggesting that these consequences are welcome nonetheless. (shrink)
En la discusión filosófica sobre la justicia, Amartya Sen, pero también, por ejemplo, Garzón Valdés y el mismo Villoro, sostienen que resulta más urgente alejarnos de la injusticia que concentrarnos en “lo justo”. En este contexto, aquí sostengo que la humillación de la dignidad es precisamente un criterio al que debemos voltear a ver cuando hablamos de lo inaceptable, que es donde inicia la vía negativa hacia la justicia. Para ello, exploro los argumentos de Luis Villoro, Amartya Sen y Martha (...) Nussbaum. Más adelante clarifico el vínculo entre la humillación y la exclusión, para sugerir que en ciertos contextos, y en específico el de la injusticia, el uso del concepto humillación resulta más útil que el de exclusión. (shrink)
My starting point is what I call the Normative Authority Conception of justification, where S is justified in their belief that p at t (to some degree n) if and only if their believing that p at t is not ruled out by epistemic norms that have normative authority over S at t. With this in mind, this paper develops an account of doxastic justification by first developing an account of the normative authority of epistemic norms. Drawing from work in (...) political philosophy, I argue that (a) the cognitive and evaluative commitments and concerns behind our actual practices of holding each other and ourselves accountable for our beliefs reveal which epistemic norms we have consented to be under, and that (b) it is because we have consented to be under the authority of these norms – by actually holding ourselves and others accountable to them – that they in turn have normative authority over us. By connecting the authority of epistemic norms to the authority we have over ourselves in this way, the resulting account of doxastic justification (i) explains why it can be appropriate to criticize, resent, or sanction someone for having unjustified beliefs, (ii) avoids the phenomena of normative alienation and normative parochialism, and (iii) respects the social and collective nature of epistemic justification. (shrink)
In this paper I identify a tension between the two sets of works by Kuhn regarding the genesis of the “new historiography” of science. In the first, it could be said that the change from the traditional to the new historiography is strictly endogenous. In the second, the change is predominantly exogenous. To address this question, I draw on a text that is considered to be less important among Kuhn’s works, but which, as shall be argued, allows some contact between (...) Kuhn’s two approaches via Koyré. I seek to point out and differentiate the roles of Koyré and Kuhn – from Kuhn’s point of view – in the development of the historiography of science and, as a complement, present some reflections regarding the justification of the new historiography. (shrink)
Robustness is a significant constraint in machine learning models. The performance of the algorithms must not deteriorate when training and testing with slightly different data. Deep neural network models achieve awe-inspiring results in a wide range of applications of computer vision. Still, in the presence of noise or region occlusion, some models exhibit inaccurate performance even with data handled in training. Besides, some experiments suggest deep learning models sometimes use incorrect parts of the input information to perform inference. Active image (...) augmentation is an augmentation method that uses interpretability methods to augment the training data and improve its robustness to face the described problems. Although ADA presented interesting results, its original version only used the vanilla backpropagation interpretability to train the U-Net model. In this work, we propose an extensive experimental analysis of the interpretability method’s impact on ADA. We use five interpretability methods: vanilla backpropagation, guided backpropagation, gradient-weighted class activation mapping, guided GradCam and InputXGradient. The results show that all methods achieve similar performance at the ending of training, but when combining ADA with GradCam, the U-Net model presented an impressive fast convergence. (shrink)