Today's sports commerce not only expands the number of international mega-sports events but also increases their value in effecting social change and promoting world peace. As athletes and spectators come together in ever-larger numbers, governments must collaborate with non-governmental, private, and non-profit sectors to develop and implement the business of sports commerce benefiting host nations and local communities. This research identifies the relationship between sports commerce and peace as worthy of greater study. This article examines the role of international sporting (...) events in contributing to social change in host countries and how these competitions may be able to create greater understanding among athletes and related individuals and increase knowledge exchange on a larger scale. The research analyzes several mega-sports events, including the Olympics and the role of the Special Olympics (SO) -the largest amateur sports organization in the world -dedicated to bringing sports experiences to intellectually disabled athletes. This article highlights the transformative power of SO worldwide competitions and finds peace through commerce principles in SO innovative policies and programs. Over four decades, the SO, and particularly its World Games, have led to global initiatives for increasing self-confidence, self-esteem, social acceptance, health and general well-being among intellectually disabled persons. This research offers insights into the ways in which other mega-sporting events could adopt what is unique to SO. An Appendix outlines mega-sports events for future research on sports commerce and peace. (shrink)
Introduction: Ever fallen in love with -- How the Games are political -- The promise of London 2012 and why it won't be kept -- Five new Olympic rings -- Reimagining Olympism -- Not just running after gold -- Further reading and resources: Going the extra mile.
The word 'athletics' is derived from the Greek verb 'to struggle for a prize'. After reading this book, no one will see the Olympics as a graceful display of Greek beauty again, but as war by other means. Nigel Spivey paints a portrait of the Greek Olympics as they really were - fierce contests between bitter rivals, in which victors won kudos and rewards, and losers faced scorn and even assault. Victory was almost worth dying for, and a (...) number of athletes did just that. Many more resorted to cheating and bribery. Contested always bitterly and often bloodily, the ancient Olympics were not an idealistic celebration of unity, but a clash of military powers in an arena not far removed from the battlefield. (shrink)
The backlash against the Olympic Games reflects the failure of the major global institutions in dealing with the social and ethical consequences of globalisation in areas such as the environment, poverty, terrorism and natural disasters. Disillusionment with the Olympic Games mirrors the disenchantment with the perceived values of globalisation, including winning at any price, commercial exploitation by MNCs, intense national rivalry, cronyism, cheating and corruption and the competitive advantage of advanced nations. How could the Olympic Movement reverse this perception? The (...) most important change would be in the area of leadership. Revitalising the Olympic spirit will require a revolution at the IOC. Character, credibility and communication will be the critical success factors. Before appointing the next President of the IOC, there is an exciting opportunity to reconceptualise the Games as a platform for building a framework of global values to counter-balance the naked economic priorities currently dictating the pattern of globalisation. In reinventing the Olympic Games, it is important to recognise that the modern Games are based upon an anachronism. The idea that amateur sport is both the key to individual moral development and world harmony is largely an invention of the British aristocracy, whereas the original Greek Games not only celebrated the classical ideal of `a sound mind in a sound body', but also involved professional athletes and commercial activity. In making the Olympic Charter relevant to the 21st century, and in making the Olympics more than just a speculator sporting event, there is a strong case for the Games to include a wider spectrum of activities, including arts programs and policy forums, which address the well-being of all humanity in a competitive global economy. (shrink)
Nationality, citizenship and eligibility have become increasingly relevant in sport, especially under current conditions where there is an increasing number of players who change their ?allegiances? for international sporting purposes. While it is reasonable to link such trends to wider processes of globalisation and accelerated migratory flows, it is also evident that national sporting representation is subject to the venal power of commercialism. The concern is that national representation has developed into a more strategic, planned and economically driven activity that (...) involves the overt collusion of national governing bodies and individual athletes. This paper evaluates the moral status of current international sporting representation (ISR) rules and practices as they relate to the Olympics. By drawing on de Coubertin's notion of ?sincere internationalism? and Walsh and Guilianotti's (2007) work on hyper-commercialisation in sport, we will attempt to demonstrate how some of the current practices and regulations of ISR are ethically problematic. We conclude that current ISR regulations are drawn too loosely and need to be amended in order to limit the moral pathologies identified. Our critique is informed by empirical data collected from members of the Welsh sports practice community. (shrink)
This paper contrasts the London Olympics of 2012 with the St Louis Games of 1904 in the context of their cultural and historical context, especially the World’s Fair. What I suggest is that the 1904 World’s Fair, with its supporting academic congress at which Adolf von Harnack and Ernst Troeltsch lectured, played a modest part in the early phases of the deabsolutization of western culture, together with the Christianity upon which it was constructed. Despite the widespread patronizing and racialist (...) attitudes in St Louis, the sheer variety and breadth of cultures seen by millions demonstrated a cultural relativism that was emerging as a serious approach to anthropology and other branches of knowledge, including theology. The fruits of such a deabsolutization can perhaps be glimpsed in the gradual transformation of the absolutes of western religion through the twentieth century into the new universals of nationhood and sport, both of which clearly coalesce in the contemporary version of the Olympic Games. I conclude by suggesting that sport and national myths may be the only universals that will have the strength to survive into the future. Of the two, the modern Olympic ideal seems better suited to promoting harmony between peoples than most national myths. This article is based on a lecture given at the Catholic University of Leuven in December 2012. I would like to thank Professor Lieven Boeve and Johan Leemans for the invitation to speak. (shrink)
Chinese Subjectivity and the Beijing Olympics develops the Foucauldian concept of productive power through examining the ways in which the Chinese government tried to mobilize the population to embrace its Olympic project through deploying various sets of strategies and tactics.
The Mathematical Intelligencer recently published a note by Y. Sergeyev that challenges both mathematics and intelligence. We examine Sergeyev’s claims concerning his purported Infinity computer. We compare his grossone system with the classical Levi-Civita fields and with the hyperreal framework of A. Robinson, and analyze the related algorithmic issues inevitably arising in any genuine computer implementation. We show that Sergeyev’s grossone system is unnecessary and vague, and that whatever consistent subsystem could be salvaged is subsumed entirely within a stronger and (...) clearer system. Lou Kauffman, who published an article on a grossone, places it squarely outside the historical panorama of ideas dealing with infinity and infinitesimals. (shrink)
Sex determines much about one's life, but what determines one's sex? The answer is complicated and incomplete: on close examination, ordinary notions of female and male are vague. In 2012, the International Olympic Committee further specified what they mean by woman in response to questions about who, exactly, is eligible to compete in women's Olympic events. I argue, first, that their stipulation is evidence that the use of vague terms is better described by semantic approaches to vagueness than by epistemic (...) approaches. In addition, the IOC's 2012 stipulation was made with sensitivity to its practical consequences. Linguistic actions often have morally relevant consequences, and I contend that, other things equal, we should adopt theories about language that acknowledge the responsibility we bear for what we say. Taking vagueness to be an epistemic phenomenon precludes the sense of agency needed for moral responsibility; taking it to be semantic does not. Thus I advance two arguments for semantic approaches to vagueness, as against epistemic approaches: one descriptive and one normative. (shrink)
`From Aristotle to Us', the conference held at La Trobe University in May 2007, names a powerful and highly influential Romantic trajectory, one which posits a particular conception of the ancients, a particular conception of the moderns, and a complex conception of the relationship between the two. Using the modern Olympic Revival as a case study and a case in point, this article argues that such `exercises' in Greek appropriation always operate with largely unstated assumptions about the nature of the (...) present's relation to the past, and the enormously complex quality of the Greek past. In becoming self-critical about such appropriations of the Classical legacy, contemporary critics are forced to contend with the spectre of religion, a topic that `Greek exercises' almost inevitably carve in high relief. The article concludes with an historiographic meditation on varying images of `paganism' in contemporary culture, images that link the Greeks to athletics to such modern and post-modern `revivals'. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Das Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung ist es, die Zahlungsbereitschaft der deutschen Haushalte für Medaillenerfolge zu ermitteln. Hierzu wurden 332 deutsche Haushalte eines Online-Panels unter Verwendung der Kontingenten Bewertungsmethode befragt. Demnach wären 22,9 % der Befragten bereit, für die Förderung des Spitzensports mehr Steuern zu zahlen. Im Falle aller zahlungsbereiten bzw. zahlungsneutralen Personen liegt der Mittelwert der Zahlungsbereitschaft bei 6,86€. Die regressionsanalytischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der individuelle und der gesellschaftliche Nutzen sowie die wahrgenommene Schuldenlast Deutschlands einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die (...) grundsätzliche Zahlungsbereitschaft haben. Einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Höhe der Zahlungsbereitschaft haben der persönliche Profit, der gesellschaftliche Nutzen und die individuellen Steuerbelastungen. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Der Text zielt auf eine stadtsoziologische Fundierung aktueller urbaner Bewegungskulturen. Die gängige Annahme sportsoziologischer Befunde ist, jugendliche Bewegungskulturen als Phänomen der Großstadt oder als eine Gegenbewegung zu der Funktionalität der modernern Städte auszuweisen. Demgegenüber wird hier die These entfaltet, dass die postindustrielle Stadt für die Eventisierung und Festivalisierung der Bewegungs- und Sportkulturen erst die sozialräumlichen Bedingungen bereit gestellt hat. Zentrale Vorgänge waren hierbei die Theatralisierung und Musealisierung des öffentlichen Raumes sowie die ästhetische Umdeutung des spezifisch modernen Konzeptes einer normativen (...) Urbanität Die Argumentationsfigur wird über die Zusammenführung zweier soziologischer Diskursfelder, die Stadtsoziologie und der Bewegungs- und Sportsoziologie entfaltet. Zunächst werden die sich zum Teil ergänzenden, zum Teil widersprüchlichen jüngeren Trends der Stadtentwicklung systematisch aufgearbeitet. In einem zweiten Schritt werden sie dann ins Verhältnis zu den vorliegenden sportsoziologischen Befunden städtischer Bewegungskulturen gesetzt. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, mittels der Contingent Valuation Methode den Erlebniswert der Ausrichtung der Olympischen Winterspiele in München 2018 sowie den Stolz, diese Veranstaltung in Deutschland zu wissen, für die deutsche Bevölkerung monetär zu quantifizieren. Die Stichprobe zur Erfassung der sog. Zahlungsbereitschaft umfasst 1.011 Personen. Diese wurden mit Fragebögen dazu befragt, was sie dafür zu zahlen bereit wären, dass die Winterspiele 2018 in Deutschland stattfinden. Die Berechnung der gesamten aggregierten Zahlungsbereitschaft der deutschen Bevölkerung erfolgt mittels zweier Szenarien, wonach (...) sich insgesamt 535,4 Mio. € bzw. 787,4 Mio. € ergeben. Regressionsanalytische Auswertungen zeigen, dass die Sportbegeisterung und die Einstellung zu den Olympischen Spielen im Allgemeinen wesentliche Faktoren sind, die die ZB beeinflussen. Abschließend wird die CVM kritisch diskutiert und ihre Schwächen und Anwendungsrestriktionen dargestellt. (shrink)
When the International Olympic Committee meets in Moscow this weekend to choose a host city for the 2008 Games, the front-runner will be China's capital Beijing. Its main rivals are Toronto and Paris, but Canada and France have twice hosted winter or summer Games. In addition, the IoC's retiring President, Juan Antonio Samaranch, is a keen supporter of China's bid, and was disappointed when Sydney beat Beijing for the 2000 Games by just two votes. As his last presidential act he (...) wants to be able to declare Beijing the IoC's choice. (shrink)
In 2007, Oscar Pistorius, a South African sprinter, was training and competing in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympic trials. Having had double transtibial amputations when he was eleven months old, Pistorius runs on technologically advanced prosthetics known as "Cheetah" legs. In January 2008, the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) ruled him ineligible for IAAF competitions (including the Olympics) on the grounds that these carbon-fiber blade prosthetics were technical devices that gave him an advantage over other able-bodied sprinters. (...) Pistorius appealed this ruling with the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), which eventually issued a ruling revoking the IAAF's decision. In the text .. (shrink)
This paper discusses the predicament of Oscar Pistorius. He is a Paralympic gold medallist who wishes to participate in the Olympics in Beijing in 2008. Following a brief introductory section, the paper discusses the arguments that could be, and have been, deployed against his participation in the Olympics, should he make the qualifying time for his chosen event (400m). The next section discusses a more hypothetical argument based upon a specific understanding of the fair opportunity rule. According to (...) this, there may be a case for allowing Pistorius to compete even if he should fail to make the official qualifying time. The final part of the paper reviews the situation at the time of writing and offers some assessment of the strategy of the IAAF in responding to it. It is argued below that the proper focus for assessment of Pistorius's eligibility to compete should not be on whether his blades lead to his having an unfair advantage over his competitors, but instead should focus on whether what he does counts as running. (shrink)