The article reviews the book Słowa i zbawienie. Dyskurs religijny w perspektywie filozofii Hilarego Putnama [Words and Salvation: Religious Discourse in the Perspective of Hilary Putnam's Philosophy], by Piotr Sikora.
The main purpose of this thesis is to explore de Finetti's ideas and contributions to decision theory. Such ideas are not as well-known as his work on probability. ;The first part of the work is placed in a unisubjective decision-making context. It starts by including a discussion on predictivism, an approach to statistics which de Finetti insisted on and which has only recently been rediscovered and advocated. ;The second part is placed in the context of group, or multisubjective, decision-making. This (...) area is well-known for its negative results, starting with Arrow's impossibility theorem. While being aware of such difficulties, de Finetti made important contributions to this field, which he saw as the appropriate context to approach basic concepts such as "objectivity" and Wald's admissibility theorem. Such concepts, together with exchangeability, illuminate the Bayesian position by also making connection with the non-Bayesian approach. ;The last part of the work starts with a critical discussion of classical methods which are unacceptable for Bayesians. Finally, an important application problem--environmental stress screening--is solved from a Bayesian predictivist point of view. (shrink)
With reference to the previous empirical works on applause, we explore the roles it plays during the first birthday celebration using multimodal analysis. Particularly, we focus on modes of its initiation and collaborative enactment. The empirical material includes 25 videos from different Polish families. The analysis demonstrates that applause works in interaction as a ritual anchor that allows the participants to move to either the end or the next sequence of the ritual, as an appreciative assessment of the previous action, (...) as a device for focusing joint attention, which coordinates the interaction of participants and focuses the attention on the most important actor/recipient of the ritual. (shrink)
John Searle attempts to show through a consideration of promising that at least some ‘ought’ statements can be derived from ‘is’ statements. He thinks that you can determine on purely factual grounds that a person has made a promise, and that it follows logically from the statement that a person has made a promise that he has at least a prima facie obligation to do the thing he promised to do. I agree with but not with.
This reprint of a collection of essays on problems concerning future generations examines questions such as whether intrinsic value should be placed on the preservation of mankind, what are our obligations to posterity, and whether potential people have moral rights.
Diversos manuais de Filosofia da Educação se referem a Rousseau como um dos precursores da educação moderna, devido ao papel que a criança passou a ter na sua teoria da educação. Em especial sua obra Emílio, ou da educação mostra a importância da criança. Porém, se a educação não for entendida apenas como uma conformação do homem à sociedade e suas leis, mas, sim, uma transformação radical do seres humanos, capaz de conduzi-los da barbárie à cultura; perceberemos que esta importância (...) de Rousseau para a educação moderna só é real, enquanto o autor se mantém pessimista em relação à natureza humana, afirmando que esta é originalmente boa e que degenera entre os homens; e que, nos momentos em que o otimismo suplanta o pessimismo, desaparece a possibilidade da educação, pois aí, o homem está novamente no estado de natureza, onde há o aniquilamento da cultura e o abandono da razão. In several manuals of Philosophy of Education Rousseau is thought as a forerunner of modern education, given the role that the child becomes to have in his theory of education. In particular his work Emile, or Education shows the importance of the child. But, if education is not understood only as a conformation of men to society and its laws, but, a radical transformation of human beings, able to lead them from barbarism to culture, we realize that Rousseau's importance for modern education is only real, while the author remains pessimistic about human nature, affirming that it is originally good, and that degenerates among men; and that, at times when optimism outshines pessimism, disappears the possibility of education, otherwise the man is back to the state of nature, where there is destruction of culture and the abandonment of reason. (shrink)