Results for 'Original'

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  1.  69
    Joseph Raz's Fallibility Objection to the Original Position.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper draws attention to an overlooked objection to what Rawls says about the original position. The objection comes from Joseph Raz. I reformulate it as a dilemma: either there is a better option for individuals in the original position than Rawls’s recommended option, or else the original position is not a suitable method for ranking options regarding principles of justice. I also identify a consequence of the dilemma, for the maximin argument.
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  2. Non-Social Human Beings in the Original Position.Terence Rajivan Edward - 2016 - Philosophical Pathways (205).
    This paper argues that Rawls must commit himself to non-social human beings to defend his original position procedure.
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  3. What Counts as Original Appropriation?Bas van der Vossen - 2009 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (4):355-373.
    I here defend historical entitlement theories of property rights against a popular charge. This is the objection that such theories fail because no convincing account of original appropriation exists. I argue that this argument assumes a certain reading of historical entitlement theory and I spell out an alternative reading against which it misfires. On this reading, the role of acts of original appropriation is not to justify but to individuate people’s holdings. I argue that we can identify which (...)
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  4.  61
    Is Racial Profiling Just? Making Criminal Justice Policy in the Original Position.Jeffrey Reiman - 2011 - Journal of Ethics 15 (1/2):3 - 19.
    The justice of racial profiling is addressed in the original position first for a society without racism, then for a society marked by racism. In the first case, the practice is argued to be just if carried out respectfully and expeditiously and likely to contribute to effective crime control. Thus it is not intrinsically racist. Addressing the second case, the idea that the harms of racial profiling are modest because expressive is critiqued. The practice is shown to carry the (...)
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  5.  98
    The Metaphysics of Original Sin.Michael C. Rea - 2007 - In Peter Van Inwagen & Dean Zimmerman (eds.), Persons: Human and Divine. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press ;. pp. 319--356.
    This paper argues that there is no straightforward conflict between the traditional Christian doctrine of original sin and the thesis that a person P is morally responsible for the obtaining of a state of affairs S only if S obtains (or obtained) and P could have prevented S from obtaining.
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  6.  30
    The Anxiety of Inheritance: Reinhold Niebuhr and the Literal Truth of Original Sin.Geoffrey Rees - 2003 - Journal of Religious Ethics 31 (1):75 - 99.
    Widely regarded as the most influential proponent of the truth of original sin in the twentieth century, Reinhold Niebuhr worked hard to excise any "literalistic" element from his interpretation of the doctrine. In his attempt to "correct" the Augustinian tradition on original sin by purging it of all "literalistic errors," however, Niebuhr assumed as his starting point the most characteristically modern objection to the doctrine: that birth is a thoroughly natural, animal, and morally meaningless event. As a result, (...)
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  7.  21
    Moral Responsibility: Radical Reversals and Original Designs.Alfred R. Mele - 2016 - Journal of Ethics 20 (1-3):69-82.
    This article identifies and assesses a way of thinking that might help to explain why some compatibilists are attracted to what is variously called an internalist, structuralist, or anti-historicist view of moral responsibility—a view about the bearing of agents’ histories on their moral responsibility. Scenarios of two different kinds are considered. Several scenarios feature heavy-duty manipulation that radically changes an agent’s mature moral personality from admirable to despicable or vice versa. These “radical reversal” scenarios are contrasted with a scenario featuring (...)
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  8.  13
    The Savings Problem in the Original Position: Assessing and Revising a Model.Eric Brandstedt - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):269-89.
    The common conception of justice as reciprocity seemingly is inapplicable to relations between non-overlapping generations. This is a challenge also to John Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness. This text responds to this by way of reinterpreting and developing Rawls’s theory. First, by examining the original position as a model, some revisions of it are shown to be wanting. Second, by drawing on the methodology of constructivism, an alternative solution is proposed: an amendment to the primary goods named ‘sustainability (...)
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  9. Hume on the Stoic Rational Passions and "Original Existences.".Jason R. Fisette - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    I argue that Hume’s characterization of the passions as “original existences” is shaped by his preoccupation with Stoicism, and is not (as most commentators suppose) a ridiculous or trifling remark. My argument has three parts. First, I show that Hume’s description of the passions as “original existences” is properly understood as part of his argument against the possibility of passions caused by reason alone (rational passions). Second, I establish that Hume was responding to the Stoics, who claimed that (...)
     
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  10.  2
    European Philosophy and Original Sin in Stephen Mulhall.Judith Wolfe - 2017 - New Blackfriars 98 (1076):387-398.
    Stephen Mulhall has distinguished himself as one of the most rigorous and constructive contemporary thinkers on European philosophy and its complicated relationship to Christian theology. A prominent locus of that relationship in his work is the Christian doctrine of original sin, and its criticism but also structural recapitulation in the work of Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre and others. This article begins with an overview of relevant themes and their development in Mulhall's writings. I then offer an account of the internal (...)
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  11.  38
    The Problem of Propagation: Original Sin as Inherited Discourse.James Stillwaggon - 2014 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (1):61-73.
    As Modernist doctrines emphasizing the unity and agency of the educated self are increasingly set up as the straw men of contemporary educational discourses, premodern and Medieval theories of selfhood tend to disappear from the horizon of educational thought altogether. In this essay, in order to subvert this overcoming of our intellectual past, I examine Thomas Aquinas’ reading of the doctrine of original sin. Relying on Graham McAleer’s claim that Aquinas’ metaphysical theory sanctifies the body, I argue that Aquinas’ (...)
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  12.  27
    The State of Nature, the Original Position and the Problem of Historical Memory.Francisco Castilla Urbano - 2007 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 24:171-192.
    The comparison between the concept state of nature, as it appears in the contractualist theories of XVII and XVIII centuries, and the original position of the the- ory of justice by John Rawls, reveals the assumptions, difficulties and limitations of the latter. In spite of its claims, the original position does not justify the search and existence of a well ordered society, and it is far away from reach the brightness and coherence with which their predecessors argued on (...)
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  13.  25
    Posição original e equilíbrio reflexivo em John Rawls: o problema da justificação.Denis Coitinho Silveira - 2009 - Trans/Form/Ação 32 (1):139-157.
    O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer algumas considerações sobre o papel dos procedimentos de posição original e equilíbrio reflexivo na teoria da justiça como equidade de John Rawls, nas obras A Theory of Justice, Political Liberalism e Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Eu pretendo mostrar que Rawls faz uso de um modelo coerentista-pragmático de justificação dos princípios de justiça em um âmbito público, que é não-fundacionalista em razão da interconexão entre estes procedimentos.
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  14.  22
    Original Mind and Cosmic Consciousness in the Co-Creative Process.Simone de La Tour & Kevin de La Tour - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (1):57-74.
    This article will investigate the issue of accessing benxin 本心 (original mind), subsequent operation from Self and, in that process, union with the greater universe or benti 本体 (original substance)—a state expressed in the West as cosmic consciousness. It is proposed that this allows one to participate as a partner in the creative process of one’s own life and the surrounding world. The equally important question of how to gain contact with original mind will also be addressed, (...)
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  15.  17
    The Obscuration and Rediscovery of the Original Confucian Thought of Moral Politics: Deciphering Work on the Guodian, Shangbo and the Transmitted Versions of Ziyi. [REVIEW]Zhihong Hu - 2008 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):535-557.
    By analyzing the author of Ziyi 缁衣 (Black Costumes) as well as Ziyi’s transmission and evolution by studying and analyzing the ancient text, one can see that Ziyi was a work of Zisi or the Zisi and Mencius School. Comparing the similarities and differences between the transmitted version of Ziyi and its Guodian 郭店 and Shangbo 上博 versions, one finds that the original version of Ziyi had been significantly revised by Confucian classics teachers in the unstable political and social (...)
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  16.  14
    A Study on the Theory of “Returning to the Original” and “Recovering Nature” in Chinese Philosophy.Shiling Xiang - 2008 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):502-519.
    The approach of returning to the original and recovering nature is a typical characteristic of Chinese philosophy. It was founded by the Daoist School and followed by both Daoist and Confucian schools. The precondition of returning to the original and recovering nature is the stillness and goodness within nature integrated into a whole afterwards. Its implementation includes not only returning to the original root so as to achieve the philosophical aim but also restoration to the original (...)
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  17.  5
    Economia Política e as raízes da posição original em Rawls (English version).Fabrício Pontin - 2013 - Doispontos 10 (1).
    O impacto e a relevância da teoria econômica para o desenvolvimento de A Theory of Justice são, frequentemente, deixados de lado na imensa literatura a respeito das obras de John Rawls. Ainda assim, entender os elementos de economia política na obra de Rawls é fundamental para a compreensão dos motivos pelos quais ele abandonará uma abordagem utilitarista para a filosofia política e, consequentemente , par a noss o entendimento das principais questões que dão origem à noção de justiça como equidade. (...)
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  18. Original Justice, Original Sin, and the Free-Will Defense.Paul A. Macdonald Jr - 2010 - The Thomist 74 (1):105-141.
    In this article, I advance what I think is a more theologically robust and informed free-will defense, which allows me to address the problem of evil in a more theologically robust and informed way. In doing so, however, I do not claim to offer a comprehensive response to the problem of evil, or full-blown "theodicy"; instead, I offer a partial response, which I place in the service of a full-blown theodicy. Moreover, my own approach is explicitly Thomistic, insofar as I (...)
     
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  19.  28
    Original Position Models, Trade-Offs and Continuity.Steven Daskal - 2016 - Utilitas 28 (3):254-287.
    John Harsanyi has offered an argument grounded in Bayesian decision theory that purports to show that John Rawls's original position analysis leads directly to utilitarian conclusions. After explaining why a prominent Rawlsian line of response to Harsanyi's argument fails, I argue that a seemingly innocuous Bayesian rationality assumption, the continuity axiom, is at the heart of a fundamental disagreement between Harsanyi and Rawls. The most natural way for a Rawlsian to respond to Harsanyi's line of analysis, I argue, is (...)
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  20. Imposing Duties and Original Appropriation.Bas van der Vossen - 2015 - Journal of Political Philosophy 23 (1):64-85.
  21.  83
    Imposing Duties and Original Appropriation.Bas Vossen - 2014 - Journal of Political Philosophy 22 (2):64-85.
  22.  36
    Sociobiology and Original Sin.Patricia A. Williams - 2000 - Zygon 35 (4):783-812.
  23.  9
    La posición original de The Law of Peoples de John Rawls como postura etnocéntrica rortiana.William Farfán Moreno - 2010 - Logos: Revista de la Facultad de Filosofia y Humanidades 17:115-131.
    John Rawls’ main purpose in The Law of Peoples is to extend his social contract theory to the peoples’ society, establishing the general principles that should be accepted by liberal and non-liberal societies, regulating the relationships between peoples. This paper pretends to analyze and demonstrate that Rawls’ law of peoples is considered to be an ethnocentrically theory, and therefore, difficult as a regular proposal for today’s world.
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  24.  4
    Facilitation and Interference in Performance on the Modified Mashburn Apparatus: I. The Effects of Varying the Amount of Original Learning.Don Lewis, Dorothy E. McAllister & Jack A. Adams - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (4):247.
  25.  4
    Extinction and Response Competition in Original and Interpolated Learning of a Visual Discrimination.Robert G. Crowder, Michael Cole & Richard Boucher - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):422.
  26.  3
    Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of the Degree of Original and Interpolated Learning.George E. Briggs - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (1):60.
  27.  3
    Effects of Context and Imagery on Original and Interpolated Learning: Confusion of List Markers, or Reduction of Interference?D. McNicol & J. J. Gosbell - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):1006.
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  28.  2
    Retention of Concepts as a Function of the Degree of Original and Interpolated Learning.Jack Richardson - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (5):358.
  29.  2
    Studies of Distributed Practice: XII. Retention Following Varying Degrees of Original Learning.Benton J. Underwood - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (5):294.
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  30.  1
    Evidence for Both Stimulus-Substitution and Original Anticipatory Responses in the Conditioning of Dogs.W. N. Kellogg - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (2):186.
  31.  17
    An Inquiry Into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue: In Two Treatises.Francis Hutcheson - 2008 - Liberty Fund.
    Introduction -- Note on the texts -- An inquiry into the original of our ideas of beauty and virtue -- Treatise I -- An inquiry concerning beauty, order, & c. -- Treatise II -- An inquiry concerning the original of our ideas of virtue or moral good.
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  32.  74
    Defining Original Presentism.Jesse M. Mulder - 2016 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):29-60.
    It is surprisingly hard to define presentism. Traditional definitions of the view, in terms of tensed existence statements, have turned out not to to be capable of convincingly distinguishing presentism from eternalism. Picking up on a recent proposal by Tallant, I suggest that we need to locate the break between eternalism and presentism on a much more fundamental level. The problem is that presentists have tried to express their view within a framework that is inherently eternalist. I call that framework (...)
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  33.  15
    Kant on the Original Synthesis of Understanding and Sensibility.Jessica J. Williams - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-21.
    In this paper, I propose a novel interpretation of the role of the understanding in generating the unity of space and time. On the account I propose, we must distinguish between the unity that belongs to determinate spaces and times – which is a result of category-guided synthesis and which is Kant’s primary focus in §26 of the B-Deduction, including the famous B160–1n – and the unity that belongs to space and time themselves as all-encompassing structures. Non-conceptualist readers of Kant (...)
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  34. The Original Analects: Sayings of Confucius and His Successors.E. Bruce Brooks & A. Taeko Brooks - 1998 - Columbia University Press.
    This new translation presents the _Analects_ in a revolutionary new format that, for the first time in any language, distinguishes the original words of the Master from the later sayings of his disciples and their followers, enabling readers to experience China's most influential philosophical work in its true historical, social, and political context.
     
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  35. Original Sin: The Divergent Doctrines of Augustine and Tillich.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    In this paper I provide a comparative analysis of Augustine's and Paul Tillich's doctrines of Original Sin. I argue that Augustine's doctrine is deeply flawed in ways corrected for by Tillich.
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  36. The Original Sceptics: A Controversy.Myles Burnyeat & Michael Frede - 1997 - Hackett.
    These five essays began a debate about the nature and scope of ancient scepticism which has transformed our understanding of what scepticism originally was. Together they provide a vigorous and highly stimulating introduction to the thought of the original sceptics, and shed new light on its relation to sceptical arguments in modern philosophy.
     
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  37.  15
    Enabling the Original Intent: Catalysts for Social Entrepreneurship. [REVIEW]Craig V. VanSandt, Mukesh Sud & Christopher Marmé - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):419 - 428.
    As capitalist economies have shifted their primary focus from providing goods and services for all, to concentrating wealth at the top echelons of societies, social entrepreneurs have been one source of re-capturing the original intent of capitalism. Social entrepreneurs have combined the efficiency and effectiveness of business organizations with the social concerns of many non-profit and governmental agencies. As a result, social entrepreneurship is viewed as having significant potential for alleviating many of the social ills we now face. To (...)
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  38. Original Acquisition of Private Property.L. Wenar - 1998 - Mind 107 (428):799-820.
    Suppose libertarians could prove that durable, unqualified private property rights could be created through 'original acquisition' of unowned resources in a state of nature. Such a proof would cast serious doubt on the legitimacy of the modern state. It could also render the approach to property rights that I favour irrelevant. I argue here that none of the familiar Lockean-libertarian arguments for a strong natural right to acquisition succeed, and that any successful argument for grounding a right to acquire (...)
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  39. Original Tao: Inward Training and the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism.Harold D. Roth (ed.) - 1999 - Columbia University Press.
    Revolutionizing received opinion of Taoism's origins in light of historic new discoveries, Harold D. Roth has uncovered China's oldest mystical text--the original expression of Taoist philosophy--and presents it here with a complete translation and commentary. Over the past twenty-five years, documents recovered from the tombs of China's ancient elite have sparked a revolution in scholarship about early Chinese thought, in particular the origins of Taoist philosophy and religion. In _Original Tao,_ Harold D. Roth exhumes the seminal text of Taoism--_Inward (...)
     
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  40. The Fall of "Augustinian Adam": Problems of Original Fragility and Supralapsarian Purpose.John Schneider - 2012 - Zygon 47 (4):949-969.
    This essay is framed by conflict between Christianity and Darwinian science over the history of the world and the nature of original human personhood. Evolutionary science narrates a long prehuman geological and biological history filled with vast amounts, kinds, and distributions of apparently random brutal and pointless suffering. It has also unveiled an original human person with animal psychosomatic heredity. This narrative seems to discredit Christianity's metanarrative of the Fall—Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. The author contends that the (...)
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  41. Why Zygon? The Journal's Original Visions and the Future of Religion-and-Science.Karl E. Peters - 2010 - Zygon 45 (2):430-436.
    This essay briefly examines the original visions of Zygon , how they helped explain the publication of a new journal, and what they imply for where we might be going today.
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  42. The 'Theory Theory' of Mind and the Aims of Sellars' Original Myth of Jones.James R. O'Shea - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):175-204.
    Recent proponents of the ‘theory theory’ of mind often trace its roots back to Wilfrid Sellars’ famous ‘myth of Jones’ in his 1956 article, ‘Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind’. Sellars developed an account of the intersubjective basis of our knowledge of the inner mental states of both self and others, an account which included the claim that such knowledge is in some sense theoretical knowledge. This paper examines the nature of this claim in Sellars’ original account and its (...)
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  43.  6
    Non-Autonomous Sentient Beings and Original Acquisition.John Hadley - 2017 - Analysis 77 (2):292-299.
    Libertarians concede that non-autonomous sentient beings pose a problem for their theory. But, while they acknowledge that libertarianism denies non-autonomous sentient beings basic moral rights, libertarians have overlooked how their theory also denies non-autonomous sentient beings basic moral powers. In this article, I show how the libertarian entitlement theory of justice, specifically, the theory for the original acquisition of holdings, denies non-autonomous sentient beings the moral power to originally acquire or make property. Attempts to avoid this problem by appealing (...)
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  44.  3
    Conceptions of Original Intentionality (and Social Ontology).Pietro Salis - 2017 - In Pietro Salis & Guido Seddone (eds.), Mind, collective agency, norms. Aachen, Germany: Shaker Verlag. pp. 7-15.
    This paper highlights the fundamental difference in the criteria adopted to explain original intentionality, which is the basic stratum of intentional phenomena, between the mentalist mainstream and the minority inspired by the rejection of the Myth of the Given. Among the attempts on the latter, inferentialism has become a view of particular interest. According to inferentialism, full intentionality is a feature of cognitive subjects who participate in normative discursive practice. Therefore, the criteria to which the basic intentionality of the (...)
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  45. Separability of Quantum States Vs. Original Bell (1964) Inequalities.Marek Żukowski - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (4):541-545.
    All separable states satisfy all Bell-type inequalities, which involve as their assumption only existence of local realistic (local hidden variable) models of the correlations of spatially separated systems, observed by two or more observers making independent decisions on what to measure (free will). The recent observation by Loubenets, that some separable states do not satisfy the original Bell inequality (1964) has no consequences whatsoever for the studies of the relation of separability with local realism. The original Bell inequality (...)
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  46.  3
    Multi-Use and Constraints From Original Use.Justin A. Jungé & Daniel C. Dennett - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):277-278.
    Anderson's theory is plausible and largely consistent with the data. However, it remains underspecified on several fronts, and we highlight areas for potential improvement. Reuse is described as duplicating a functional component, preserving one function and tinkering to add another function. This is a promising model, but Anderson neglects other reasonable alternatives and we highlight several. Evidence cited in support of reuse fails to uniquely support it among a broader set of multi-use theories. We suggest that a more stringent criterion (...)
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  47. The Meaning of Original Meaning.Mark Greenberg - manuscript
    The view (most prominently advocated by Justice Scalia) that original meaning entails the constitutionality of original practices has strong intuitive appeal and has been broadly assumed by originalists and nonoriginalists alike. But the position is mistaken. We suggest that a failure to distinguish between two different notions of meaning accounts for the position's wide currency. According to the first notion, the meaning of a term is roughly what a dictionary definition attempts to convey--the semantic or linguistic understanding necessary (...)
     
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  48.  13
    Hannah Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism in its Original Context.Alfons Söllner - 2004 - European Journal of Political Theory 3 (2):219-238.
    The objective of this article is to contribute to an understanding of Hannah Arendt’s special place in present-day political theory by means of a contrast between her Origins of Totalitarianism and four important political science studies of National Socialism and totalitarianism, three written by authors who shared the status of involuntary emigrant with Arendt, that are offered as constituting the original context of her work. A critical appreciation of the seminal works by Ernst Fraenkel, Franz L. Neumann, Sigmund Neumann, (...)
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  49.  2
    Theorising From the Global Standpoint: Kant and Grotius on Original Common Possession of the Earth.Jakob Huber - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):231-249.
    The paper contrasts Kant's conception of original common possession of the earth with Hugo Grotius's superficially similar notion. The aim is not only to elucidate how much Kant departs from his natural law predecessors—given that Grotius's needs-based framework very much lines in with contemporary theorists’ tendency to reduce issues of global concern to questions of how to divide the world up, it also seeks to advocate Kant's global thinking as an alternative for current debates. Crucially, it is Kant's radical (...)
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  50.  15
    Human Embryos in the Original Position?Russell Disilvestro - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (3):285 – 304.
    Two different discussions in John Rawls' A Theory of Justice lead naturally to a rather conservative position on the moral status of the human embryo. When discussing paternalism, he claims that the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves in case they end up as incapacitated or undeveloped human beings when the veil of ignorance is lifted. Since human embryos are examples of such beings, the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves (...)
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