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Orsolya Friedrich
Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München
  1.  11
    Doing Things with Thoughts: Brain-Computer Interfaces and Disembodied Agency.Steffen Steinert, Christoph Bublitz, Ralf Jox & Orsolya Friedrich - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):457-482.
    Connecting human minds to various technological devices and applications through brain-computer interfaces affords intriguingly novel ways for humans to engage and interact with the world. Not only do BCIs play an important role in restorative medicine, they are also increasingly used outside of medical or therapeutic contexts. A striking peculiarity of BCI technology is that the kind of actions it enables seems to differ from paradigmatic human actions, because, effects in the world are brought about by devices such as robotic (...)
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  2.  23
    Wired Emotions: Ethical Issues of Affective Brain–Computer Interfaces.Steffen Steinert & Orsolya Friedrich - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):351-367.
    Ethical issues concerning brain–computer interfaces have already received a considerable amount of attention. However, one particular form of BCI has not received the attention that it deserves: Affective BCIs that allow for the detection and stimulation of affective states. This paper brings the ethical issues of affective BCIs in sharper focus. The paper briefly reviews recent applications of affective BCIs and considers ethical issues that arise from these applications. Ethical issues that affective BCIs share with other neurotechnologies are presented and (...)
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  3.  32
    An Analysis of the Impact of Brain-Computer Interfaces on Autonomy.Orsolya Friedrich, Eric Racine, Steffen Steinert, Johannes Pömsl & Ralf J. Jox - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-13.
    Research conducted on Brain-Computer Interfaces has grown considerably during the last decades. With the help of BCIs, users can gain a wide range of functions. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the impact of BCIs on autonomy. To this end, we introduce three abilities that most accounts of autonomy take to be essential: the ability to use information and knowledge to produce reasons; the ability to ensure that intended actions are effectively realized ; and the ability to enact (...)
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  4.  10
    Using Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Scoping Review of Studies Employing Social Research Methods.Johannes Kögel, Jennifer R. Schmid, Ralf J. Jox & Orsolya Friedrich - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):18.
    The rapid expansion of research on Brain-Computer Interfaces is not only due to the promising solutions offered for persons with physical impairments. There is also a heightened need for understanding BCIs due to the challenges regarding ethics presented by new technology, especially in its impact on the relationship between man and machine. Here we endeavor to present a scoping review of current studies in the field to gain insight into the complexity of BCI use. By examining studies related to BCIs (...)
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  5.  43
    Neuroethik – Geschichte, Definition Und Gegenstandsbereich Eines Neuen WissenschaftsgebietsNeuroethics—History, Definition, and Scope of a New Field of Science.Sabine Müller, Merlin Bittlinger, Kirsten Brukamp, Markus Christen, Orsolya Friedrich, Malte-C. Gruber, Jon Leefmann, Grischa Merkel, Saskia K. Nagel, Marco Stier & Ralf J. Jox - 2018 - Ethik in der Medizin 30 (2):91-106.
    ZusammenfassungFünfzehn Jahre nach ihrer Entstehung ist die Neuroethik ein internationales wissenschaftliches Feld mit enormer Dynamik. Innerhalb weniger Jahre wurden eigene Kongresse, Zeitschriften, Forschungsförderprogramme, Fachgesellschaften und Institute gegründet. Gleichwohl besteht erheblicher Dissens über die Definition und den Gegenstandsbereich dieses neuen Gebiets. Wir argumentieren hier für eine differenzierte Konzeption, wonach neben der Reflexion ethischer Probleme der Neurowissenschaft und ihrer überwiegend neurotechnologischen Anwendungen auch die ethische Reflexion neurowissenschaftlicher Forschung zur Moralität zur Neuroethik gehört. Dies umfasst zwar nicht neurowissenschaftliche oder neuropsychologische Studien zur Moralität, (...)
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  6.  15
    Brain–Computer Interfaces: Lessons to Be Learned From the Ethics of Algorithms.Andreas Wolkenstein, Ralf J. Jox & Orsolya Friedrich - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):635-646.
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  7. Knowledge of Partial Awareness in Disorders of Consciousness: Implications for Ethical Evaluations?Orsolya Friedrich - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):13-23.
    Recent results from neuroimaging appear to indicate that some patients in a vegetative state have partially intact awareness. These results may demonstrate misdiagnosis and suggest the need not only for alternative forms of treatment, but also for the reconsideration of end-of-life decisions in cases of disorders of consciousness. This article addresses the second consequence. First, I will discuss which aspects of consciousness may be involved in neuroimaging findings. I will then consider various factors relevant to ethical end-of-life decision-making, and analyse (...)
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  8.  26
    Why Enhancing Autonomy Is Not a Question of Improving Single Aspects of Reasoning Abilities Through Neuroenhancement.Orsolya Friedrich & Johannes Pömsl - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (2):243-254.
    In a recent paper, Schaefer et al. proposed to enhance autonomy via improving reasoning abilities through cognitive enhancement [1]. While initially their idea additionally seems to elegantly avoid objections against genetic enhancements based on the value of autonomy, we want to draw attention to several problems their approach poses. First, we will show that it is not at all clear that safe and meaningful methods to genetically or pharmaceutically enhance cognition will be feasible any time soon. Second, we want to (...)
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  9.  20
    Principle-Based Structured Case Discussions: Do They Foster Moral Competence in Medical Students? - A Pilot Study.Orsolya Friedrich, Kay Hemmerling, Katja Kuehlmeyer, Stefanie Nörtemann, Martin Fischer & Georg Marckmann - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):21.
    Recent findings suggest that medical students’ moral competence decreases throughout medical school. This pilot study gives preliminary insights into the effects of two educational interventions in ethics classes on moral competence among medical students in Munich, Germany. Between 2012 and 2013, medical students were tested using Lind’s Moral Competence Test prior to and after completing different ethics classes. The experimental group participated in principle-based structured case discussions and was compared with a control group with theory-based case discussions. The pre/post C-scores (...)
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  10.  17
    Brain-Computer Interfaces and Personhood: Interdisciplinary Deliberations on Neural Technology.Matthew Sample, Marjorie Aunos, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Christoph Bublitz, Jennifer Chandler, Tiago H. Falk, Orsolya Friedrich, Deanna Groetzinger, Ralf J. Jox & Johannes Koegel - forthcoming - Journal of Neural Engineering.
    Scientists, engineers, and healthcare professionals are currently developing a variety of new devices under the category of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Current and future applications are both medical/assistive (e.g., for communication) and non-medical (e.g., for gaming). This array of possibilities comes with ethical challenges for all stakeholders. As a result, BCIs have been an object of both hope and concern in various media. We argue that these conflicting sentiments can be productively understood in terms of personhood, specifically the impact of BCIs (...)
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  11.  7
    What is It Like to Use a BCI? – Insights From an Interview Study with Brain-Computer Interface Users.Johannes Kögel, Ralf J. Jox & Orsolya Friedrich - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-14.
    The neurotechnology behind brain-computer interfaces raises various ethical questions. The ethical literature has pinpointed several issues concerning safety, autonomy, responsibility and accountability, psychosocial identity, consent, privacy and data security. This study aims to assess BCI users’ experiences, self-observations and attitudes in their own right and looks for social and ethical implications. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews with BCI users, who used the technology for medical reasons. The transcribed interviews were analyzed according to the Grounded Theory coding method. BCI users perceive (...)
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  12.  14
    Autonomie Als Rechtfertigungsgrund Psychiatrischer Therapien.Orsolya Friedrich & Pd Dr Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - 2014 - Ethik in der Medizin 26 (4).
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  13.  12
    Außerklinische Ethikberatung: Eine Evaluation des Angebots in den Landkreisen Traunstein und Berchtesgadener Land mittels Dokumentenanalyse und Befragung von Hausärzten.Sandra Thiersch, Orsolya Friedrich & Georg Marckmann - 2019 - Ethik in der Medizin 31 (1):45-59.
    ZusammenfassungWährend die Implementierung und Nutzung von Ethikberatung in deutschen Krankenhäusern in den letzten 20 Jahren vorangeschritten ist, entstehen erst in den letzten Jahren zunehmend Ethikberatungsangebote im außerklinischen Bereich. In den Landkreisen Traunstein und Berchtesgadener Land in Südost-Bayern wurde 2012 eine außerklinische Ethikberatung etabliert. Um im Rahmen einer ersten Evaluation wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse über den Bedarf, die Inanspruchnahme und die Zufriedenheit mit diesem Beratungsangebot zu gewinnen, wurde eine Dokumentenanalyse und eine Fragebogenerhebung unter den Hausärzten der beiden Landkreise durchgeführt. Insgesamt nahmen 58 der (...)
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  14.  6
    Do New Neuroimaging Findings Challenge the Ethical Basis of Advance Directives in Disorders of Consciousness?Orsolya Friedrich, Andreas Wolkenstein, Ralf J. Jox, Niek Rogger & Claudia Bozzaro - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):675-685.
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  15.  14
    Autonomie Als Rechtfertigungsgrund Psychiatrischer Therapien [Autonomy as a Justification for Psychiatric Treatments].Orsolya Friedrich & Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - 2014 - Ethik in der Medizin 26 (4):317-330.
    Research with psychiatric patients raises frequently discussed, ethical questions, one of which is: Can psychiatric patients give consent to participation in research at all? To answer this and similar questions adequately, it is - according to our thesis - necessary to analyze first, which theoretical assumptions are made in established practice. -/- To solve the question after the possibility of consent, compatible understandings of ‘disease’, ‘illness’ and ‘autonomy’ are crucial, but there is no consensual use of these terms in philosophy. (...)
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