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Osamu Muramoto
Oregon Health Sciences University
  1.  19
    Informed Consent for the Diagnosis of Brain Death: A Conceptual Argument.Osamu Muramoto - 2016 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 11:8.
    BackgroundThis essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over (...)
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  2.  31
    Retrospective Diagnosis of a Famous Historical Figure: Ontological, Epistemic, and Ethical Considerations.Osamu Muramoto - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:10.
    The aim of this essay is to elaborate philosophical and ethical underpinnings of posthumous diagnosis of famous historical figures based on literary and artistic products, or commonly called retrospective diagnosis. It discusses ontological and epistemic challenges raised in the humanities and social sciences, and attempts to systematically reply to their criticisms from the viewpoint of clinical medicine, philosophy of medicine, particularly the ontology of disease and the epistemology of diagnosis, and medical ethics. The ontological challenge focuses on the doubt about (...)
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  3. Socrates and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Pathographic Diagnosis 2,400 Years Later.Osamu Muramoto - 2006 - Epilepsia 47 (3):652-654.
    Purpose: Some enigmatic remarks and behaviors of Socrates have been a subject of debate among scholars. We investigated the possibility of underlying epilepsy in Socrates by analyzing pathographic evidence in ancient literature from the viewpoint of the current understanding of seizure semiology. Methods: We performed a case study from a literature survey. Results: In 399 BCE, Socrates was tried and executed in Athens on the charge of “impiety.” His charges included the “introduction of new deities” and “not believing in the (...)
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  4.  25
    Socially and Temporally Extended End-of-Life Decision-Making Process for Dementia Patients.Osamu Muramoto - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):339-343.
    There are two contrasting views on the decision-making for life-sustaining treatment in advanced stages of dementia when the patient is deemed incompetent. One is to respect the patient's precedent autonomy by adhering to advance directives or using the substituted judgement standard. The other is to use the best-interests standard, particularly if the current judgement on what is best for the incapacitated patient contradicts the instructions from the patient's precedent autonomy. In this paper, I argue that the protracted clinical course of (...)
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  5. Solving the Socratic Problem—A Contribution From Medicine.Osamu Muramoto - 2018 - Mouseion 15 (online):1-29.
    This essay provides a medical theory that could clarify enigmas surrounding the historical Socrates. It offers textual evidence that Socrates had temporal lobe epilepsy and that its two types of seizure manifested as recurrent voices and peculiar behaviour, both of which were notorious hallmarks of Socrates. Common and immediate criticisms against the methodology of retrospective diagnosis are addressed first. Next, the diagnostic reasoning is presented in detail. The possibility of temporal lobe personality in Socrates is also considered. The important implication (...)
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  6. Jehovah's Witness Bioethics.Osamu Muramoto - 2008 - In Peter A. Singer & A. M. Viens (eds.), The Cambridge Textbook of Bioethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 416.
     
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  7.  2
    Is Informed Consent Required for the Diagnosis of Brain Death Regardless of Consent for Organ Donation?Osamu Muramoto - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):5-5.
    In the half-century history of clinical practice of diagnosing brain death, informed consent has seldom been considered until very recently. Like many other medical diagnoses and ordinary death pronouncements, it has been taken for granted for decades that brain death is diagnosed and death is declared without consideration of the patient’s advance directives or family’s wishes. This essay examines the pros and cons of using informed consent before the diagnosis of brain death from an ethical point of view. As shared (...)
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