Energy is a crucial concept within classical and quantum physics. An essential tool to quantify energy is the Hamiltonian. Here, we consider how to define a Hamiltonian in general probabilistic theories—a framework in which quantum theory is a special case. We list desiderata which the definition should meet. For 3-dimensional systems, we provide a fully-defined recipe which satisfies these desiderata. We discuss the higher dimensional case where some freedom of choice is left remaining. We apply the definition to example toy (...) theories, and discuss how the quantum notion of time evolution as a phase between energy eigenstates generalises to other theories. (shrink)
The black hole information problem provides important clues for trying to piece together a quantum theory of gravity. Discussions on this topic have generally assumed that in a consistent theory of gravity and quantum mechanics, quantum theory is unmodified. In this review, we discuss the black hole information problem in the context of generalisations of quantum theory. In this preliminary exploration, we examine black holes in the setting of generalised probabilistic theories, in which quantum theory and classical probability theory are (...) special cases. We are able to calculate the time it takes information to escape a black hole, assuming that information is preserved. In quantum mechanics, information should escape pure state black holes after half the Hawking photons have been emitted, but we find that this get’s modified in generalisations of quantum mechanics. Likewise the black-hole mirror result of Hayden and Preskill, that information from entangled black holes can escape quickly, also get’s modified. We find that although information exits the black hole as predicted by quantum theory, it is fairly generic that it fails to appear outside the black hole at this point—something impossible in quantum theory due to the no-hiding theorem. The information is neither inside the black hole, nor outside it, but is delocalised. (shrink)
Empleando procedimientos de la lógica simbólica, se intenta contribuir a una mejor comprensión del ejercicio dialéctico llevado a cabo en el Parménides. La interpretación de las formas del ser y el no ser a partir de la oposición entre el objeto de conocimiento y el pensamiento acerca del mismo, abre la puerta a una manera original de enfocar el problema de la verdad en Platón. Puede resultar interesante, asimismo, la solución que se propone a la aporía planteada en Parménides 132b-c, (...) relativa a la confusión del pensamiento o el no ser con otras formas. (shrink)
The object of this t e xt is to present human rights as subjec t i ve rights, and therefore, as an appropriate fo r m of discourse in mode r n socie t y . Subject i v e rights are a discourse strat e gy through w hich ind i viduals h a ve lost contact with their companions in c i vil socie t y , and th e y f ind themsel v es isolate d , (...) in a relationship that e xists on l y with a f iction that the l a w calls "state". Citizens h a ve been stripped of the possibilities of addressing the other members of c i vil socie t y , and forced in the conflicts with them to go through special c i vil ser v ants w h o are in cha r ge of suppressing the conflict b y the use of force a g ainst some of the liti g ants. This discourse strat e gy ma k es the ind i vidual a citizen, and it tu r ns into a linguistic manner of being in the mode r n or bou r geois w orld. The strat e gy of subject i v e rights is w hat ma k es mode r n l a w modern. Human rights, for their pa r t, are all the e xpectations and aspirations of ind i viduals of a capitalist socie t y , that can on l y be mentioned in te r ms of "rights , " since it is this discourse that ma k es them into citizens. In this w a y , all human aspirations are co n v er ted - or can be co n v e r ted- into "rights", w hich is the peculiar linguistic manner that modernity o f fers to ind i viduals to talk about their aspirations. (shrink)
Levando–se em conta os leitores do século XXI, ao debruçar-se sobre a participação da Igreja católica brasileira na preparação do Concílio Vaticano II, o presente estudo parte de três perguntas: a) o quê interessa saber sobre a participação brasileira? b) É este um tema relevante? c) Alguns brasileiros participação significativamente na fase preparatória? Para responder apropriadamente a essas questões os autores propõem um conceito diferente de “participação” na preparação do Vaticano II por parte do episcopado brasileiro. O artigo não foca (...) apenas a presença deste ou daquele bispo ou perito nas comissões do Concílio, mas propõe a idéia de que o mais importante foi a auto-preparação, que durante certo tempo permaneceu “latente” e posteriormente se organizou através de um Concílio com um episcopado jovem, com uma média de idade em torno de 54 anos e 11 de experiência como bispo. Por isso, conscientes dos problemas pastorais que a realidade do subdesenvolvimento punha à Igreja, e com uma incipiente experiência de participação colegial, desenvolvida na construção do Plano de Emergência, este episcopado não só vivenciou em profundidade o “evento” conciliar, como foi o primeiro a sair dele organizado para colocá-lo em prática. Daqui a relevância desta reconstrução. Palavras-chave: Helder Câmara. Plano de Emergência. Colegialidade. Vaticano II. Igreja Católica no BrasilThis article aims to show the contribution of the Brazilian Catholic Church in the preparation of the Second Vatican Council. To fulfill such purpose the present study focus its research in three basic questions: a) what is important to know about the Brazilian participation? b) Is this a relevant topic? C) Some Brazilians participate significantly in the preparatory phase? To respond appropriately to these issues the authors propose a different concept of "participation" in the preparation of Vatican II by the Brazilian episcopate. The article focuses not only the presence of this or that bishop or the expert commissions of the Council, but proposes the idea that the most important was the self-preparation, which for a time remained "latent" and later was organized by a council with a young bishop, with an average age around 11 and 54 years of experience as a bishop. Therefore, aware of the problems that the pastoral reality of underdevelopment put the Church, and with an incipient experience of participating high school, developed in the construction of the Emergency Plan, the bishops not only experienced in depth the "event" to reconcile, as was the first it held out to put it into practice. Key words: Helder Câmara. Emergency Plan. Collegiality. Vatican II. Catholic Church in Brazil. (shrink)
O autor desta obra, Oscar de Figueiredo Lustosa, é doutor em História Social pela Universidade de São Paulo, escritor de várias obras com ênfase à pesquisa histórica da Igreja no Brasil e na América Latina. Por isso, sua formação acadêmica dá pressupostos legítimos para desenvolver a presente abordagem: o desenvolvimento histórico da catequese no contexto eclesial brasileiro. O texto está dividido em cinco capítulos e seu objetivo é percorrer a gênese e a evolução da catequese e da evangelização no (...) Brasil. (shrink)
In this collection of fourteen essays, first published in 1943, Herbert Read extends and amplifies the points of view expressed in his successful pamphlet _To Hell with Culture_, which has been reprinted here. The ‘politics of the unpolitical’ are the politics of those who strive for human values and not for national or sectional interests. Herbert Read defines these values and demands their recognition as a solvent of social and cultural crises’, and looks forward to the future with constructive vision. (...) This book will be of interest to students of politics, history, and philosophy. (shrink)
While Ç ´Ò¿ µ methods for parsing probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) are well known, a tabular parsing framework for arbitrary PCFGs which allows for botton-up, topdown, and other parsing strategies, has not yet been provided. This paper presents such an algorithm, and shows its correctness and advantages over prior work. The paper ﬁnishes by bringing out the connections between the algorithm and work on hypergraphs, which permits us to extend the presented Viterbi (best parse) algorithm to an inside (total probability) (...) algorithm. (shrink)
Certain proximities between two distinguished but very dissimilar contemporaries, Quintilian and Tacitus, may be stated. Contemporary they were, though the former, born probably a little before A.D. 40, was older by about twenty years. Both were from outside Rome, Quintilian certainly of provincial, Spanish, origin, Tacitus very probably from one of the Galliae, yet both exemplars of Romanitas.
This is a preprint version of my "Review of E. Husserl's Allgemeine Erkenntnistheorie (1902/03), Vorlesung published in History and Philosophy of Logic 24 (2003), 76-78. The published version should be consulted for all citations.
Classical science and in fact Post-Newtonian science up till the early twentieth century were mired in a deterministic interpretation of realities. The deterministic hypothesis in science holds that everything in nature has a cause and if one could know the antecedent causes, he could predict the future with certainty. But quantum mechanics holds that sub-atomic particles, though the ultimate materials from which all the complexity of existence in the universe emerges, do not obey deterministic laws, hence, their activities are causally (...) indeterminate and could only be understood with probability. This paper argues that quantum mechanics can not totally be free from determinism, for it has subtly conceded to determinism in holding that the sub-atomic particles are the building blocks of the macro world, and that there is interconnection between entities in the universe, even at the nonmanifest level. The probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics only betray our human limitation of the knowledge of nature, which, I believe still have lots of tricks in our sleeves over mankind. (shrink)