BackgroundWhen conducting research with Indigenous populations consent should be sought from both individual participants and the local community. We aimed to search and summarise the literature about methods for seeking consent for research with Indigenous populations.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted for articles that describe or evaluate the process of seeking informed consent for research with Indigenous participants. Guidelines for ethical research and for seeking consent with Indigenous people are also included in our review.ResultsOf 1447 articles found 1391 were excluded (...) ; 56 were relevant and included. Articles were categorised into original research that evaluated the consent process or publications detailing the process of seeking consent and guidelines for ethical research. Guidelines were categorised into international ; national and state/regional/local guidelines. In five studies based in Australia, Canada and The United States of America the consent process with Indigenous people was objectively evaluated. In 13 other studies interpreters, voice recording, videos, pictures, flipcharts and “plain language” forms were used to assist in seeking consent but these processes were not evaluated. Some Indigenous organisations provide examples of community-designed resources for seeking consent and describe methods of community engagement, but none are evaluated. International, national and local ethical guidelines stress the importance of upholding Indigenous values but fail to specify methods for engaging communities or obtaining individual consent. In the ‘Grey literature’ concerns about the consent process are identified but no solutions are offered.ConclusionConsultation with Indigenous communities is needed to determine how consent should be sought from the community and the individual, and how to evaluate this process. (shrink)
Researchers are required to seek consent from Indigenous communities prior to conducting research but there is inadequate information about how Indigenous people understand and become fully engaged with this consent process. Few studies evaluate the preference or understanding of the consent process for research with Indigenous populations. Lack of informed consent can impact on research findings. The Picture Talk Project was initiated with senior Aboriginal leaders of the Fitzroy Valley community situated in the far north of Western Australia. Aboriginal people (...) were interviewed about their understanding and experiences of research and consent processes. Transcripts were analysed using NVivo10 software with an integrated method of inductive and deductive coding and based in grounded theory. Local Aboriginal interpreters validated coding. Major themes were defined and supporting quotes sourced. Interviews with Aboriginal leaders were facilitated by a local Aboriginal Community Navigator who could interpret if necessary and provide cultural guidance. Participants were from all four major local language groups of the Fitzroy Valley; aged 31 years and above; and half were male. Themes emerging from these discussions included Research—finding knowledge; Being respectful of Aboriginal people, Working on country, and Being flexible with time; Working together with good communication; Reciprocity—two-way learning; and Reaching consent. The project revealed how much more there is to be learned about how research with remote Aboriginal communities should be conducted such that it is both culturally respectful and, importantly, meaningful for participants. We identify important elements in community consultation about research and seeking consent. (shrink)
In this lecture I would like to show some of the principal characteristics about virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics, specifically I shall analyze books II and VI, where Aristotle defines the virtuous person as someone who has a disposition to make the right judgements as the φρόνιμος should have to do. I will try to determine what we mean exactly when we talk about the ethics of virtue. My aim is to reconstruct Aristotle’s picture of the rationality of action that (...) exists in the concept of virtue. For that reason I will explore the relations between virtue and others notions like: “phronēsis” (φρονήσις), the intellectual virtue (τῆς ρετὴς διανοητικῆς), the boulēsis (βούλησις), and the proairēsis (προαίρεσις). (shrink)
Kant no es considerado, generalmente, un filósofo político. Las obras de la razón crítica de Kant han sido asumidas como la parte más importante de su pensamiento. De tal manera que los especialistas han centrado sus investigaciones en la razón teórica de Kant y en su aproximación metafísica a la moralidad. Este artículo expone las relaciones entre tres conceptos básicos del pensamiento político de Kant: conflicto, libertad y sociedad civil. Sin embargo, el objetivo es mostrar como el punto de vista (...) político subsume la perspectiva moral, histórica y jurídica. (shrink)
The concept of falsification, in general, has been studied at an abstract and meta-theoretical level in philosophy of science. The purpose of this paper is not to continue that procedure, but to establish an interdisciplinary analysis between philosophy of science and political science in a methodological perspective. The goal is to answer to the question: How do you put the concept of specification and the falsification process into practice in an empirical research in political science? In order to answer this (...) question, the paper is divided into three parts: the first explores the meaning of the falsification concept in Karl Popper; the second develops the meaning of the specification concept; and, finally, based on an article by Dirk de Bièvre, Falsification in Theory- Guided Empirical Social Research, and on a paper by Arndt Wonka, Concept Specification in Political Science Research, a practical reflection is made about the two aforementioned categories regarding their importance for social research. (shrink)
This article approaches the largely known four objections that Hegel held against Kant: the formalism of moral principle, the criticism of autonomy and formalism, the objection of the abstract universalism in Kant′s ethics, and the terrorism of the pure reason. The purpose is to determine the extent of these objections in front of Kant′s critical thought. At the end of the text, I will support that in spite of different misunderstandings about Kant′s ethics; however Hegel inherited us a great lesson (...) that even crosses the contemporary ethical thought: the radical contraposition between justice (virtue) and the Sittlichkeit (the concrete and effective ethics) that leads us to the loss of the basic moral phenomenon. (shrink)
Tradicionalmente la ética kantiana ha sido definida como una ética que asume una posición deontológica fuerte en la que las ideas de bien se sacrifican en relación con las ideas de la justicia. Mi objetivo en este ensayo es realizar un análisis del concepto buena voluntad en la Fundamentación de la Metafísica de las Costumbres, con el ánimo de explorar los límites del concepto de lo correcto en su interior. Asimismo, examinaré las razones que Kant argumenta para instaurar la prioridad (...) de la justicia. Pienso que después de analizar estos límites es posible ver con mayor claridad que la primacía de la justicia no implica necesariamente el sacrificio del bienestar del sujeto. (shrink)
En mi experiencia como docente universitario he apreciado la dificultad que tienen los jóvenes estudiantes de Filosofía para acercarse a la Crítica de la Razón Pura de Immanuel Kant. Así mismo, también es notable la cantidad de malentendidos y prejuicios con los que se acercan los estudiantes a este autor clásico. Esto se debe principalmente, a una confusión de contextos teóricos y a un desconocimiento del alcance y validez de la obra. Dicha confusión se origina debido a que los estudiantes (...) primero conocen las objeciones y los debates contemporáneos del filósofo, antes que una aproximación crítica al autor mismo. Teniendo en cuenta esto, considero necesario realizar un breve texto con una función propedéutica que le permita comprender al estudiante del pensamiento de Kant y cómo se articulan sus preocupaciones conceptuales en el contexto filosófico de la edad moderna. (shrink)
Love: An Emotion that Ties and liberates is a reflective look about love, in which love dialogues from the west tradition, represented by literary works from different historical moments, talk to build a panorama “about truths”, complexities, contradictions and emotions of the love passion. A journey that goes with the courteous love, Divine Comedy, Faust, Tristan and Isolde, Abelard and Heloise, until now; showing how universal this feeling is, and the undeniable links that this one establishes with freedom and death.
Este proyecto responde a un momento histórico de gran importancia, que por supuesto no pudo ser más oportuno. Colombia celebra en el año 2006 los quince años de la promulgación de su Constitución Política, y los cambios de trascendentales surgidos a partir de su aplicación has sido prolíficos, Particularmente, el tema ambiental ha sobresalido dentro de las grandes transformaciones del país, y por ello no en vano hoy se afirma que tenemos una verdades Constitución ecológica. De igual forma, la Facultad (...) de Jurisprudencia de la Universidad del Rosario conmemora los die años de la creación de la especialización en Derecho Ambiental, y tal coincidencia histórica fue una motivación adicional para proponer la realización de un análisis de la evolución normativa surtida para proponer la realización de un análisis de la evolución normativa surtida en este decenio, una evaluación de la gestión ambiental colombiana y de sus distintos impactos en una sociedad que cuenta hoy en día con herramientas constitucionales legales para la defensa de sus derechos e interese colectivos. La Universidad del Rosario ha sido parte de esta evolución, desarrollando un rol activo con el cual se han abierto espacios de discusión y de proposición de alternativas, herramientas y experiencias en pro de la protección integral de la diversidad étnica, cultural y natural de la Nación colombiana. Así, se ha constituido como facilitadora del proceso de la formación de los nuevos actores y ha tenido gran posicionamiento en procesos de participación y de estructuración de proyectos institucionales ambientales. (shrink)
The objective of the OSCAR Project is twofold. On the one hand, it is to construct a general theory of rational cognition. On the other hand, it is to construct an artificial rational agent (an "artilect") implementing that theory. This is a joint project in philosophy and AI.
This paper discusses the predicament of Oscar Pistorius. He is a Paralympic gold medallist who wishes to participate in the Olympics in Beijing in 2008. Following a brief introductory section, the paper discusses the arguments that could be, and have been, deployed against his participation in the Olympics, should he make the qualifying time for his chosen event (400m). The next section discusses a more hypothetical argument based upon a specific understanding of the fair opportunity rule. According to this, (...) there may be a case for allowing Pistorius to compete even if he should fail to make the official qualifying time. The final part of the paper reviews the situation at the time of writing and offers some assessment of the strategy of the IAAF in responding to it. It is argued below that the proper focus for assessment of Pistorius's eligibility to compete should not be on whether his blades lead to his having an unfair advantage over his competitors, but instead should focus on whether what he does counts as running. (shrink)
It seems fairly straightforward to describe what should and should not count as a disability into two separate and opposing categories. In this paper we will challenge this assumption and critically reflect on the narrow relations between the concepts of 'talent' and 'disability'. We further relate such matters of terminology and classification to issues of justice in what is conceived of as disability sport. Do current systems of classification do justice to the performances of disabled athletes? Is the organisation of (...) a just and fair competition similar for abled as it is for disabled sport? Two cases (of Francesco Lentini and Oscar Pistorius) will be explored to further illustrate the complexities of these questions, in particular when related to notions of normality and extraordinary performances. (shrink)
Oscar Pistorius was born without fibulas and had both legs amputated below the knee when he was 11 months old. A business student at the University of Pretoria, Pistorius runs with the aid of carbon-fibre artificial limbs and is the double amputee world record holder in the 100, 200 and 400 metres events.1“I don’t see myself as disabled,” says Oscar, “There’s nothing I can’t do that able-bodied athletes can do.”2 But then the question is: do prosthetic limbs simply (...) level the ground for Pistorius—“Blade-runner”, compensating for his disability, or do they give him an unacceptable advantage? As Jeré Longman nicely put it: is he disabled, or too-abled?3Athletics’ world governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations , shares the latter opinion, and assigned to German Professor Brüggemann the task of monitoring Oscar’s performances and analysing the information. According to his study, Pistorius’ limbs use 25% less energy than able-bodied athletes to run at the same speed.4 On the strength of these findings, on 14 January 2008 the IAAF ruled …. (shrink)
This article considers María Lugones's concept of faithful witnessing as a point of departure to think about the ethics and possibilities of faithful witnessing in literary contexts. For Lugones, faithful witnessing is an act of aligning oneself with oppressed peoples against the grain of power and recognizing their humanity, oppression, and resistance despite the lack of institutional endorsement. I engage the work of Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Denise Oliver, and other scholars who offer methodologies and discourses on recognition, witnessing, and resistance. (...) I argue that the feminist philosophical concept of faithful witnessing is a critical element of reading decolonial imaginaries. The article undertakes close readings of two novels in the Afro-Latinx and Afro-Hispanic tradition: Donato Ndongo's Shadows of Your Black Memory and Junot Díaz's The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. In these readings, the concept of faithful witnessing enriches the analysis of religious colonization and the gender violence inherent to coloniality. (shrink)
Proceedings of the 2008 AAAI Spring Symposium on Architectures for Intelligent Theory-Based Agents. “OSCAR is a fully implemented architecture for a cognitive agent, based largely on the author’s work in philosophy concerning epistemology and practical cognition. The seminal idea is that a generally intelligent agent must be able to function in an environment in which it is ignorant of most matters of fact. The architecture incorporates a general-purpose defeasible reasoner, built on top of an efficient natural deduction reasoner for (...) first-order logic. It is based upon a detailed theory about how the various aspects of epistemic and practical cognition should interact, and many of the details are driven by theoretical results concerning defeasible reasoning.”. (shrink)
That Oscar Wilde was a central figure for aestheticism needs no arguing; that he should be taken seriously as an aesthetician is perhaps a less obvious matter. While much of his work concerns itself with the traditional purview of aesthetics as a philosophical discipline, commentators have rarely granted his writings that attention to ideas qua ideas that marks off a philosophical interest in a writer's oeuvre from other types of analysis. A number of attempts to tackle Wilde's pronouncements in (...) a broadly philosophical fashion have been made through the decades.1 Most recent scholarship, however, has regarded Wilde... (shrink)
Oscar is going to be the first artificial person — at any rate, he is going to be the first artificial person to be built in Tucson's Philosophy Department. Oscar's creator, John Pollock, maintains that once Oscar is complete he will experience qualia, will be self-conscious, will have desires, fears, intentions, and a full range of mental states (Pollock 1989, pp. ix–x). In this paper I focus on what seems to me to be the most problematical of (...) these claims, viz., that Oscar will experience qualia. I argue that we have not been given sufficient reasons to believe this bold claim. I doubt that Oscar will enjoy qualitative conscious phenomena and I maintain that it will be like nothing to be Oscar. (shrink)
The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents of human-level intelligence, capable of operating in environments of real-world complexity. OSCAR is a cognitive architecture for such agents, implemented in LISP. OSCAR is based on my extensive work in philosophy concerning both epistemology and rational decision making. This paper provides a detailed overview of OSCAR. The main conclusions are that such agents must be capablew of operating against a background of pervasive ignorance, because the (...) real world is too complex for them to know more than a small fraction of what is true. This is handled by giving the agent the power to reason defeasibily. The OSCAR system of defeasible reasoning is sketched. It is argued that if epistemic cognition must be defeasible, planning must also be done defeasibly, and the best way to do that is to reason defeasibly about plans. A sketch is given about how this might work. (shrink)
Pope Francis wants a reform of the church and he sees Archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador as a model bishop, one who smells like his sheep and who was fully committed to a poor church for the poor. Pope Francis and Archbishop Romero agree that the basis for church reform must be the gospel. As Jesus did not preach himself but the kingdom of God, the church must be at the service of the kingdom, she is the sacrament (...) of the kingdom. The first addressees of the good news of the kingdom of God were the poor, so there is an intrinsic relationship between the church and the poor. Church reform means that the church becomes more like Jesus Christ serving the poor, the needy and the marginalized. There is an intrinsic relationship between church reform and the signs of the times. The Second Vatican Council established a new relationship between the church and the world. Of key importance for this are the signs of the times as signs of the presence and the plans of God in history. Archbishop Romero's deepest and most creative spiritual and theological insight is his association of the passion of the Salvadoran people with the suffering servant of God and the crucified Christ. He spoke of a crucified people. (shrink)
The Oscar Wilde trials (1895) have usually been interpreted either as a historical document which gives insight into the regulation of sexuality in the late nineteenth century, or as literary biography explicating the playwright's life and works. Taking its cue from recent scholarship in ‘law and literature’, and also from Wilde's own conception of the relationship between art and life, this article proposes a reading of the trials which blurs the distinction between legal history and literary criticism by considering (...) them as a form of literature. It argues that the trial transcripts enact and reflect Wilde's vision of what literature is and how it should be read, and as such should be given a place amongst his literary works, alongside such aesthetic manifestos as ‘The Decay of Lying’ and ‘The Critic as Artist’. (shrink)
OSCAR is a fully implemented architecture for a cognitive agent, based largely on the author’s work in philosophy concerning epistemology and practical cognition. The seminal idea is that a generally intelligent agent must be able to function in an environment in which it is ignorant of most matters of fact. The architecture incorporates a general-purpose defeasible reasoner, built on top of an efficient natural deduction reasoner for first-order logic. It is based upon a detailed theory about how the various (...) aspects of epistemic and practical cognition should interact, and many of the details are driven by theoretical results concerning defeasible reasoning. The architecture is easily extensible by changing the set of inference schemes supplied to the reasoner. Existing inference schemes handle many kinds of epistemic cognition, including reasoning from perceptual input, causal reasoning and the frame problem, and reasoning defeasibly about probabilities. Work is underway to implement a system of defeasible decisiontheoretic planning. (shrink)
Oscar Wilde’s interest in utopia is well known, largely because of the famous aphoristic statement—a departure from the usual Wildean epigram—found in the midst of his essay “The Soul of Man Under Socialism” (1891). To the anticipated criticism that his vision of a world in which scientists use “wonderful and marvelous things” to replace human labor might seem pejoratively “Utopian,” he responds that “a map of the world that does not include Utopia is not worth even glancing at, for (...) it leaves out the one country at which Humanity is always landing. And when humanity lands there, it looks out, and, seeing a better country, sets sail. Progress is the realisation of Utopias.”1 This series of poignant sentences has .. (shrink)
Until 1977, Monsignor Romero was a traditional Catholic bishop trained in traditional Roman theology with a penchant for order and non-involvement in 'politics'. He was also a product of the 1968 Medellin Conference which fashioned a pastoral model for the Latin American church: 'A fundamental option for the poor' on the thrust of the Second Vatican Council. This article seeks to present Oscar Romero within a historical context and proposes him as a servant-leader model for African church leaders, especially (...) Catholic bishops. (shrink)
In the present philosophical reflection my purpose consists of revising two big points based on the book Theory and Practice of Bioethics Principles, written by Ricardo Maliandi and Oscar Thüer. The first point is linked with the problem of foundation of ethics proposed by the authors. The second point is linked with the problem related with the model of ethical applicability proposed by the authors.
Se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de elaborar una semblanza del Comandante Dr. Alberto Oscar Ibietatorremendía Vega en el décimo aniversario de su fallecimiento. Hombre de positivos valores morales, políticos y sociales, que además de ejercer la Medicina y practicar varios deportes, integró varios procesos revolucionarios de izquierda con carácter antiimperialista, desde la Joven Cuba hasta el Movimiento 26 de Julio. Continuó en las filas del movimiento revolucionario donde asumió todas las tareas asignadas, especialmente el cumplimiento de misiones (...) internacionalistas en Argelia y Nicaragua. Su vida constituye un digno ejemplo para las nuevas generaciones, por lo que debe figurar en la historia de la Medicina cubana. An investigation was carried out with the objective of developing a biographic profile of the medical doctor and commander Alberto Oscar Ibietatorremendía Vega as a way to pay tribute to him during the tenth anniversary of his demise. Being a man of high moral, political and social values, he was a member of several revolutionary groups such as Joven Cuba and Movimiento 26 de Julio. Moreover, he practiced medicine and was active in several sports. After the triumph of the Revolution, he continued his work as a member of the revolutionary process. He held different responsibilities, especially those in international missions in Algeria and Nicaragua. His life is an example to the new generations and must therefore have a place in the history of Cuban medicine. (shrink)
Oscar de Beaux was professor of Zoology at Genova University and then director of Civil Museum of Natural History in the same town. The first contributions of de Beaux which included elements of biological ethics concerned the european bison of Bialowieza and the brown bear of the Alps between 1923–1929. In 1930 de Beaux published his most important study called “Biological ethics: an attempt to arouse a naturalistic conscience”, translated also in german and in english. According to Oscar (...) de Beaux, biological ethics is the study and definition of man's moral position before the living beings which do not belong to the humane race, beginning with the morale premise that man was not able to create the species. With these outlook, man takes on a decisively active and intelligent position regarding the problem of conserving nature and its resources; on the basis of this definition of morality man becomes the wise administrator of life on earth. (shrink)
The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents with human-like intelligence. That is the stuff of science fiction, but it is also the ultimate aspiration of AI. In retrospect, we can understand what a difficult problem this is, so since its inception AI has focused more on small manageable problems, with the hope that progress there will have useful implications for the grand problem. Now there is a resurgence of interest in tackling the grand problem head-on. (...) Perhaps AI has made enough progress on the little problems that we can fruitfully address the big problem. The objective is to build agents of human-level intelligence capable of operating in environments of real-world complexity. I will refer to these as GIAs — “generally intelligent agents”. OSCAR is a cognitive architecture for GIAs, implemented in LISP.1 OSCAR draws heavily on my work in philosophy concerning both epistemology (Pollock 1974, 1986, 1990, 1995, 1998, 2008b, 2008; Pollock and Cruz 1999; Pollock and Oved, 2005) and rational decision making (2005, 2006, 2006a). (shrink)
This paper considers, in the context of an undergraduate law degree, how to encourage students to develop an awareness of ethical issues relating to membership of a 'profession' and how lawyers could and should conduct themselves, whilst retaining the notion of a law degree as part of a liberal arts education. It suggests an interdisciplinary approach, both in its content and its methodologies, as an innovative and interesting means of addressing issues of legal ethics and professional responsibility. It offers an (...) analysis of the trial of Oscar Wilde, to show that it may be possible to inculcate a level of 'ethical awareness' through a study of the actions and behaviours of the legal professionals involved in famous or historical trials. (shrink)
La obra editada por Mario López, Carlos Eduardo Martínez y Óscar Useche constituye una aproximación al conocimiento de los procesos de construcción de paz desarrollados por distintas comunidades en el planeta y de los abordajes teóricos sobre el tema centrados en las nuevas formas de convivencia que surgen gracias a la fuerza de lo comunitario. Se trata de una compilación de dieciséis artículos elaborados por investigadores provenientes de enfoques diversos quienes presentan una reflexión so..
When moral or religious teachings have public and political effects, analysis usually focuses on the message, but attention to the manner in which the teachings are communicated is equally important in understanding their power to influence the course of events. Oscar Romero's particular style of moral discourse was remarkably effective for three reasons: First, his moral reasoning resonated with Salvadoran identity. It was intelligible within those reigning assumptions about national history and territory that could actually move a public to (...) action. Second, his moral judgments were timely. Romero sought to discern what was possible for the Salvadoran public at a given moment. Third, Romero had integrity as a public figure. He lived in such a way that his life, and especially his death, became an exemplary embodiment of the larger religious narrative that both grounded his ethics and gave meaning to the nation. (shrink)