Este artigo propõe-se a mostrar como é possível, em pleno acordo com a inspiração original do ceticismo pirrônico e não obstante o silêncio de Sexto Empírico sobre esses pontos, desenvolver uma concepção cética de verdade e elaborar uma noção de realismo cético, que fazem justiça às intuições básicas do senso comum.
This paper develops two main themes: in the first place, one tries to make clear how, from the point of view of our contemporary philosophical ideas, a retrospective interpretation of Greek sceptic pyrrhonism allows us to read it, not only as a questioning of the theses and arguments of dogmatic philosophy, but as a questioning, too, of the very legitimity of the traditional philosophical problems and philosophical language. But the second part of the text is a positive one, which proceeds (...) to an analysis of the relation between a phenomenic and a dogmatic level of language and, then, explains how the idea of a philosophical investigation of problems formulated in the phenomenic level is plainly compatible with pyrrhonic philosophy. And a discussion is undertaken of the relation between problems formulated in one and another levels. (shrink)
Em resposta a críticas dirigidas contra a postura neopirrônica defendida pelo autor em artigo anterior (Porchat 3), mostra-se que elas provêm de uma incompreensão básica da noção de fenômeno no ceticismo grego.
Na sua primeira parte e utilizando a linguagem filosófica contemporânea, este artigo delineia as linhas básicas da filosofia cética, de acordo com o pirronismo antigo, tanto em sua face negativa, dialética e antidogmática, como em sua face positiva, enquanto ﬁlosoﬁa da vida prática cotidiana. A segunda parte é consagrada a enfatizar a proximidade estreita do pirronismo com relação às tendências contemporâneas do pensamento filosófico e a tornar manifesto o interesse permanente de relembrar-se o ceticismo grego.
O argumento explora que conseqüências resultariam se, no de-curso de uma revisão crítica empreendida por um filósofo de suas cren-ças e certezas, ele considerasse a possibilidade de estar louco. Desenvol-vido na primeira pessoa, o argumento, que tem um perfil cartesiano e é estranho ao padrão de argumentação do antigo ceticismo pirrônico, cul-mina, no entanto, numa postura cética. Ele desafia e põe em xeque, de uma maneira radical, os ideais de certeza e conhecimento absolutos pro-postos pela Razão clássica.
Este artigo tenta mostrar que o nascimento do empirismo como orientação filosófica se deu, não na modernidade, mas na filosofia helenística grega, no pirronismo dos médicos-filósofos dessa época. A combinação de empirismo e Metodismo médico ensejou ao velho pirronismo a possibilidade de formular uma postura epistemológica consistente com seu fenomenismo originário, ao mesmo tempo que integrava no seu iniverso filosófico as práticas "cognitivas" das tékhnai gregas.
In his interesting, original and well organized paper "O Ceticismo Pirrônico e os Problemas Filosóficos" Oswaldo PorchatPereira reinterprets ancient Pyrrhonism and claims a new domain for the philosophical activity, namely the "phenomenic" one. The present text examines this doctrine in order to unravel not only the similarities between the Porchatian approach and contemporary pragmatism, but also some of the main difficulties connected with that reinterpretarion of Pyrrhonism.
Are contemporary philosophers to follow Pyrrho of Elis in adopting his skeptic craft or at least core aspects of it as a reaction to the fact that, since immemorial times, persons have been engaged in disputes in metaphysics? Over the last 2500 years or so, most Western philosophers have not done so in being more influenced by Aristotle’s dogmatic craft than by Pyrrho’s skeptic one. Over the last fifty years or so, a few Brazilian neo-Pyrrhonist philosophers, such as Oswald (...)Porchat, Otávio Bueno and Plínio Junqueira Smith, have done the opposite in aiming to spell out the pertinence of Ancient Pyrrhonism to contemporary philosophy. On its part, this essay makes a case for the claim that one is to react to the stated fact by adopting a conflictual craft that promotes a synthesis of Pyrrho’s skeptic craft and the dogmatic craft. This synthesis: brings to light the core features of the skeptic and of the dogmatic craft; problematizes the dogmatic craft by means of the skeptic one and vice-versa so that the shortcomings of these crafts are avoided; and aims to keep certain positive aspects both of the skeptic craft and of the dogmatic one. (shrink)
O artigo critica a posição filosófica neopirrônica defendida por Oswaldo PorchatPereira (Porchat 5). Argumentamos que uma de suas noções básicas, a de fenômeno, carece de uma definição apropriada. Além disso, mostramos que o neopirronismo abre as portas para o irracionalismo e que a ciência moderna traz problemas para essa postura.
It is well known that Wittgenstein's reading of the philosophical classics was patchy. He left unread a large part of the literature which most philosophers would regard as essential to a knowledge of their subject. Wittgenstein gave an interesting reason for his non-reading of Hume. He said that he could not sit down and read Hume, because he knew far too much about the subject of Hume's writings to find this anything but a torture. In a recent commentary, Peter Hacker (...) has taken this to show that ‘Wittgenstein seems to have despised Hume’. Hume, he adds, ‘made almost every epistemological and metaphysical mistake Wittgenstein could think of. (shrink)
Schizophrenia is usually described as a fragmentation of subjective experience and the impossibility to engage in meaningful cultural and intersubjective practices. Although the term schizophrenia is less than 100 years old, madness is generally believed to have accompanied mankind through its historical and cultural ontogeny. What does it mean to be “mad”? The failure to adopt social practices or to internalize cultural values of common sense? Despite the vast amount of literature and research, it seems that the study of schizophrenia (...) and of the psychoses is suffering from a generic disintegration. In this introduction, we offer an historical overview of the variety of theories and approaches to schizophrenia. We also provide an overview of how the authors in this volume attempt an integrative account where training, practice, theory and research are considered as parts of a larger whole. This is a varied and pluralistic volume, and it is up to the readers to make use of different chapters according to their own needs. (shrink)
Contemporary theories of consciousness are based on widely different concepts of its nature, most or all of which probably embody aspects of the truth about it. Starting with a concept of consciousness indicated by the phrase “the feeling of what happens” (the title of a book by Antonio Damásio), we attempt to build a framework capable of supporting and resolving divergent views. We picture consciousness in terms of Reality experiencing itself from the perspective of cognitive agents. Each conscious experience is (...) regarded as composed of momentary feeling events that are combined by recognition and evaluation into extended conscious episodes that bind cognitive contents with a wide range of apparent durations (0.1 secs to 2 or more secs, for us humans, depending on circumstances and context). Three necessary conditions for the existence of consciousness are identified: a) a ground of Reality, envisaged as an universal field of potentiality encompassing all possible manifestations, whether material or 'mental'; b) a transitional zone, leading to; c) a manifest world with its fundamental divisions into material, 'informational' and quale-endowed aspects. We explore ideas about the nature of these necessary conditions, how they may relate to one another and whether our suggestions have empirical implications. (shrink)
This paper argues that Oswald Spengler has an innovative philosophical position on the nature and interrelation of mathematics and science. It further argues that his position in many ways parallels that of Martin Heidegger. Both held that an appreciation of the mathematical nature of contemporary science was critical to a proper appreciation of science, technology and modernity. Both also held that the fundamental feature of modern science is its mathematical nature, and that the mathematical operates as a projection that (...) establishes in advance the manner in which an object will present itself. They also assert that modern science, mathematics and metaphysics all have their roots in the ‘mathematical’, whose essence is itself nothing numerical. (shrink)
What is philosophy about and what are its methods? _Philosophy and Ordinary Language_ is a defence of the view that philosophy is largely about questions of language, which to a large extent means _ordinary_ language. Some people argue that if philosophy is about ordinary language, then it is necessarily less deep and difficult than it is usually taken to be but Oswald Hanfling shows us that this isn't true. Hanfling, a leading expert in the development of analytic philosophy, covers (...) a wide range of topics, including scepticism and the definition of knowledge, free will, empiricism, folk psychology, ordinary versus artificial logic, and philosophy versus science. Drawing on philosophers such as Austin, Wittgenstein, and Quine, this book explores the nature of ordinary language in philosophy. (shrink)
When, in 1979, A. J. Ayer was asked for an evaluation of his youthful Language, Truth and Logic, he replied: ‘I suppose the most important of the defects was that nearly all of it was false’. Like many of the claims in the book itself, this verdict is open to question. What was wrong with LTL was not so much that what it said was false, but that it presented philosophical issues in an excessively simple and aggressive way. Yet it (...) was just this quality that put the book and its author on the philosophical map, ensuring for them an important place in the history of twentieth-century philosophy. LTL presented a challenge to traditional ways of doing philosophy, the reverberations of which are still evident today. (shrink)
Wittgenstein's later writings generate a great deal of controversy and debate, as do the implications of his ideas for such topics as consciousness, knowledge, language and the arts. Oswald Hanfling addresses a widespeard tendency to ascribe to Wittgenstein views that go beyond those he actually held. Separate chapters deal with important topics such as the private language argument, rule-following, the problem of other minds, and the ascription of scepticism to Wittgenstein. Describing Wittgenstein as a 'humanist' thinker, he contrasts his (...) views on language, art humanity and philosophy itself with those of scientifically minded philosophers. He argues that 'the human form of life' calls for a kind of understanding that cfannot be achieved by the methods of emirical science; that consiousness, for example, cannot properly be regarded as a property of the bran; and that the resulting 'problem of consoiusness is an illusion. Wittgenstein and the Human Form of Life is essential reading for anyone interested in Wittgenstein's approach to what it means to be human. It will be invaluable to all Wittgenstein scholars, and all who are interested in the philosophy of mind, language and aesthetics. (shrink)
O artigo defende uma proposta filosófica neopirrônica, que se entende como inteiramente adequada às necessidades filosóficas do homem contemporâneo. O texto é diretamente inspirado na obra de Sexto Empírico e procura investigar as ricas potencialidades da noção pirroniana de fenômeno, uma vez restabelecido o seu sentido originário na obra de Sexto.
Oswald Spengler (1880?1936) is a neglected figure in the history of European philosophical thought. This article examines the philosophical anthropology developed in his later work, particularly his Man and Technics: A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life (1931). My purpose is twofold: the first is to argue that Spengler's later thought is a response to criticisms of the ?pessimism? of his earlier work, The Decline of the West (1919). Man and Technics overcomes this charge by providing a novel philosophical (...) anthropology which identifies technology as the highest expression of human cognitive and creative capacities. The second is to suggest that in his later period Spengler presents an affirmatory account of modern technology as the final stage of human cultural evolution. I conclude that by providing a philosophical anthropology that reconciles technology with human nature, Man and Technics represents an important development of Spengler's theory of human culture. (shrink)
This book is a compact, accessible treatment of the main ideas advanced by the positivists, including Schlick, Carnap, Ayer, and the early Wittgenstein. Oswald Hanfling discusses such ideas as the 'verification principle' ('the meaning of this statement is the method of its verification') and the 'elimination of metaphysics, ' an attempt to show that metaphysical statements, for example about God, are unverifiable and therefore meaningless.
Este ensaio se divide em duas partes. Na primeira, retorno, brevemente, aoprogresso da filosofia de Porchat, apontando algumas de suas descobertas notáveis, em artigos reunidos no “Rumo ao ceticismo”, coletânea de 2007, com publicações de 1969 a 2005. Meu primeiro objetivo é contextualizar “O argumento da loucura”, artigo que encerra a coletânea, na obra do filósofo. Na segunda parte, que se inicia com uma revisão de “O argumento da loucura”, proponho uma análise em que o argumento de Porchat (...) se traduz em argumentos céticos, anticartesianos, anti ultrarracionalismos, comparando-se, por exemplo, aos de Hume, mas em que o texto se apresenta também como um procedimento, prática, terapêutica, contemporânea e original. Nessa interpretação, ele se aproxima simpaticamente das filosofias nas quais Porchat reconhece um fascínio pelo que ele denomina “absoluto”, acompanha-as pelas tribulações que lhes são sintomáticas, e as conduz à resolução cética. Inevitáveis são as perguntas: o que pode significar esse “absoluto”? como se conduz o procedimento terapêutico? A que resultado cético porchatiano ele leva? Aqui pode, em minha hipótese, encontrar no argumento da loucura antes um modo ou tropo do ceticismo, que vem resgatar práticas filosóficas inclinadas ao sem sentido de “espaços transmundanos”, trazendo-as de volta à rica variedade das experiências mundanas, que se constituem em verdadeiras filosofias, para Porchat. (shrink)
This paper examines from a cognitive perspective the rhetorical and epistemic advantages that can be gained from the use of (extended) metaphors in political discourse. We defend the assumption that extended metaphors can be argumentatively exploited, and provide two arguments in support of the claim. First, considering that each instantiation of the metaphorical mapping in the text may function as a confirmation of the overall relevance of the main core mapping, we argue that extended metaphors carry self-validating claims that increase (...) the chances of their content being accepted. Second, we show how the recognition of an extended metaphor’s sophistication and relevance (on behalf of the addressee) can benefit the speaker’s perceived competence (ethos). We then assess whether these two arguments measure against the dual epistemic monitoring postulated in the notion of epistemic vigilance (i.e., assessment of the source of a message and assessment of the message) and conclude that extended metaphors may fulfil the requirements of epistemic vigilance and lead to the stabilisation of a belief. We illustrate our account with an analysis of the extended metaphor of the USA as an empire found in a political pamphlet written by the Swiss politician Oskar Freysinger. (shrink)
A brief reconstruction of the first two sections of Edmund Husserl's Vorlensungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins is done, showing how, making use of the phenomenological method, the author develops his transcendental theory of time. A revaluation of the meaning of "perception of time" allows him to establish the basis which are, in our perspective, able to give an account of one of the most debatable questions about time, its asymmetry or unidirectionality. We furthermore discuss the main difficulties that affect (...) Husserl in this project.Apresentamos uma breve reconstrução das duas primeiras seções de Vorlensungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins, de Edmund Husserl, em que analisamos a maneira pela qual ele desenvolve uma teoria transcendental do tempo, trazendo-a para o campo de seu método fenomenológico. A partir de uma reavaliação do significado de "percepção do tempo", ele oferece critérios que, a nosso ver, seriam capazes de dar conta de uma das características mais discutidas do tempo, sua assimetria ou unidirecionalidade. Discutimos também as principais dificuldades enfrentadas por este projeto. (shrink)
Neste texto examino algumas consequências da afirmação de Porchat de que o fenômeno no neopirronismo não precisa ser precisamente definido. Ao deixar o fenômeno variar ao sabor das circunstâncias, a abordagem de Porchat então parece deixar um dos elementos da dupla articulação que forma a epokhé neopirronista — a aceitação do fenômeno sem que ele comande crenças e que forma um par com a suspensão do juízo acerca do que não é fenômeno — imerso em imprecisões e, com (...) isso, a posição neopirronista vulnerável. Argumento que esta vulnerabilidade é uma de suas virtudes pois apresenta um ceticismo situado, dependente de circunstâncias variáveis e que combate sistematicamente a ideia de que uma tese que imunize a variabilidade do fenômeno pode ser concebida e eventualmente formulada. Para tanto detenho-me na ideia de que o fenômeno é antes de tudo uma manifestação circunstanciada das coisas e é precisamente a ele, em um irremediável torvelinho, que o neopirronismo é enfaticamente leal. (shrink)
“Articulate models” subservient to formal intelligence are imagined to be heterarchies of automata capable of performing the “symbolic (quasi-spatial) syntheses” of Luria (1973), where “quasi-spatial” points to the abstract core of spatiality: the symbol productions, combinations, and substitutions of algebraic reckoning. The alleged cognitive role of internal “topographic images” and of “efference copies” is confronted with this background and denied.
This paper tries to meet the three basic constraints in the metaphysics of perception—that, following Schellenberg, I call here the particularity constraint, the indistinguishable constraint, and the phenomenological constraint—by putting forward a new combination of the two well-known contradictory views in this field: the relational view and the content view. Following other compatibilists, I do think that it is possible to reconcile the two views, recognizing that experience has both a relational and a representational dimension. However, in opposition to the (...) current ways of combining these two views, I reject the idea of gappy contents. Instead, my proposal is builds on Lewis’s famous semantic, according to which the content of sentences is best modeled as complex functions from context-index pairs to truth-values. In conformity with the content view, I want to suggest that perceptual experiences do represent complex properties or complex functions that are either veridical or falsidical of particulars in contexts and indexes. In this relativist framework, I can also accommodate the relational claim that our experience of particulars must be understood as a fundamental cognitive relation rather than as a representation. In this way, particulars also play a key role in individuating perceptual experiences. Two token experiences, e and e′, are different when one of the following conditions is met: first, if two different particulars, a and a′, are causally responsible for the token experiences e and e′, respectively, regardless of the time and location in which the perceptual experiences take place; second, if the same particular a, which is causally responsible for both e and e′, is either located in a different place or is in the same location but at a different time. (shrink)
Life and Meaning surveys a variety of Philosophical answers to the question, 'What makes life worth living?' By collecting readings from a wide range of philosophical history it gives the various perspectives on the value and meaning of life. Aspects of life which appear to make it meaningless 9death, suffering, randomness) are seen in the light of their long and varied history in philosophical literature and are subjected to careful scrutiny. The texts chosen here pose these and related issues and (...) offer various responses. By careful selection and helpful editorial introduction Life and Meaning gives essential texts which provide the background to contemporary enquiries. Is self-realization a coherent ideal? Does it mean being true to our original nature (Rousseau) or to our potential as 'rational animals' (Aristotle)? Should we live according to our desires and in pursuit of happiness (Mill)? Should we appeal to a nature or 'essence' be rejected as bad faith? (shrink)
Asked about Wittgenstein's contribution to aesthetics, one might think first of all of his discussion of ‘family resemblance’ concepts, in which he argued that the various instances of games, for example, need not have any feature or set of features in common, in virtue of which they are all called games; the concept of a game can function perfectly well without any such set of conditions. This insight was soon applied to the much debated quest for a definition of the (...) word ‘art’, and it was claimed that here too the various instances of art were related by way of family resemblance, so that it was futile to look for a condition or set of conditions, which works of art, and only works of art, had in common. Wittgenstein himself did not extend his argument to the concept of art. Although he was deeply interested in the arts, especially music, he wrote very little on aesthetics, his most sustained treatment of the topic being available for us only in the form of notes taken of a set of his lectures on aesthetics. (shrink)
The purpose of the present study is to examine the attitudes of Portuguese chartered accountants with respect to questions of ethical nature that can arise in their professional activity. Respondents were asked to respond to the Ethics Position Questionnaire developed by Forsyth (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39(1), 175–184, 1980), in order to determine their idealism and relativism levels. Subsequently, they answered questions about five scenarios related to accounting practices, with the objective of measuring their ethical judgments. Based on (...) the idealism and relativism levels of our respondents, they were classified into one of four groups, representing different ethical ideologies (absolutism, exceptionism, subjectivism, and situationism). The results indicated that age was the major determinant of relativism. Contrary to previous research, older respondents revealed themselves significantly more relativistic than younger ones. Gender seems to be the most important determinant of ethical judgments; against expectations, men evidenced significantly stricter judgments than women in two of the five scenarios. Findings also indicated that respondents’ ethical judgments did not differ significantly based on their ethical ideology, supporting the idea that ethical ideology is not an important determinant of ethical judgments. (shrink)