In the early years of the fifth century, the Greek cities of Asia Minor attempted to free themselves from Persian rule. Our primary evidence for the unsuccessful ‘Ionian Revolt’ is literary, a patchwork from the narrative of Herodotus iv–vi. The main events of the Revolt need not be doubted: the Ionian cities were ruled by Greek puppet tyrants until the outbreak of the rebellion ; Aristagoras was the early leader of the movement which began after the failure of the Persian-Milesian (...) expedition against Naxos ; Athens, petitioned by Aristagoras, and Eretria supplied limited support for-the Revolt. (shrink)
Containing essays on the nature and scope of rhetoric, as well as philosophical analyses of persuasion and argumentation, this book claims to deal with a "new field of philosophy" in which "the concepts of rhetoric and argumentation, including the rhetoric and argumentation of the philosopher himself, are subjected to philosophical scrutiny." Leaving aside the "newness" of such an endeavor, it is heartening to see new interest in the questions of rhetorical argument. Perhaps analytic philosophers should pay more attention to the (...) history of rhetoric and modern rhetoricians to the new developments in philosophy. This book is a first step in that direction.—B. P. H. (shrink)
One of a series "designed to add to the growing body of historical material reevaluating the culture of Medieval Europe." This volume consists of short, lucid articles which explore some of the historical, philosophical and literary figures and developments of the Middle Ages. A lead article by Laurence K. Shook discusses the nature and value of medieval studies.—B. P. H.
An excellent comparison of the thought of the major figure in the "classic period of Roman Catholic theology" with that of "the central figure of seventeenth century [Protestant] theology." Aquinas's views on creation are succinctly summarized and provide a useful background for the exposition of Gerhard's theology. The author finds the different quality of these two theological outlooks to lie in Aquinas's awareness of man's "richness" and Gerhard's emphasis of man's "inner contradictoriness." That is to say, whereas Aquinas sees the (...) world as "reflecting the abundance of God's resourcefulness and ordering love," Gerhard sees more of creation's inner contradictions: "man trying to save himself though unable to do so...." One hopes that more such comparative studies in Catholic-Protestant thought will be forthcoming.—B. P. H. (shrink)
Yet another development of the natural theology of Thomas Aquinas aimed at the undergraduate. The approach is traditional and clearly stated. Each chapter begins with an outline and ends with a list of leading ideas and supplementary readings. Judicious use of charts and diagrams helps to clarify the more difficult terms.--B. P. H.
This is a provocative and important book. Most of its essays by Catholic laymen strongly criticize the Church's traditional stand against "artificial" contraception. The objections against the approved rhythm method, the critical analysis of arguments from "natural law" on theological as well as philosophical grounds, and the attempt to develop a more meaningful Christian approach to sexuality seem certain to raise angry rebuttals from many clergy and a good number of the more conservative laity in the Church. Here we have (...) laymen thinking and arguing in a manner worthy of the "Open Church" foreseen by Pope John and supported by the Second Vatican Council.—B. P. H. (shrink)
Besides his translation of this classic, the author provides an introduction which serves to situate Galen and his work in ancient thought, an analysis which discusses Galen's sources, and a concise summary of the work itself. This volume should be of value to the modern logician as well as the student of ancient and medieval philosophy.—B. P. H.
A superb new translation of the Fioretti which conveys both the humility and the playful humor of St. Francis and his early followers. Also included are the Considerations on the Stigmata, the Life of Brother Juniper, the Life of Brother Egidio, the Second Rule, and the Testament. The translator provides an interesting and illuminating introduction.—B. P. H.
A textbook introduction which borrows heavily from current Existentialist terminology. Each chapter ends with a summary and a list of suggested readings. Although the beginning student's interest may be aroused by this book, it is not made clear what kind of philosophy he is being interested in.—B. P. H.
According to Lewis the medieval universe, "while unimaginably large, was also unambiguously finite." The earth was believed to be infinitesimally small by cosmic standards and to have a perfect spherical shape containing within it an ordered variety. Man looked at the world and saw a manifestation of Divine Wisdom and of human finitude. It is Lewis's thesis that this model of the universe accounts for the most typical vice as well as the most typical virtue of medieval literature. The vice, (...) "sheer unabashed, prolonged dulness," arises because the writer feels the world has a built-in significance and thus he need not embellish his subject-matter. The virtue, an "absence of strain" whereby the story seems to be telling itself, comes from the author's complete confidence in the intrinsic value of his subject-matter and results in a vividness unrivalled until very recent times. Lewis concludes his admirable book with a warning to his contemporaries not to misunderstand the character of a model nor to assume naively that today's model is necessarily more factual and "true" to reality than that of the Middle Ages.—B. P. H. (shrink)
Lectures given at the Second International Congress for Medieval Philosophy held in Cologne in 1961. Topics covered include: "The Early Scholastics—from Logic to Metaphysics"; "Platonism and neo-Platonism in Medieval Philosophy"; "Thomas Aquinas and the Old Dominicans"; "Arabian Philosophy: Averroes and His Opponents"; "The Philosophy of the Franciscans"; "Late Medieval Developments of Philosophy"; and "Sources and Editions in Medieval Philosophy." Articles appear in English, German, French, Italian, and Latin.—B. P. H.
A massive undertaking which the author hopes will help the reader "to discern the nature of the ills which beset moral philosophy in our time, and above all to recognize, in actu exercito, the philosophical bases of ethics and the value of the primary concepts which it brings into play." Employing what he calls "the method used with such care by Aristotle," Maritain begins with the discovery of ethics by Socrates, moves on to the impact of Christianity upon moral philosophy, (...) the ethics of Kant, and the great "illusion" of post-Kantian dialecticism, and concludes with a telling criticism of so-called existentialist ethics and Bergsonian supra-morality. The style is lively throughout and the general tenor of the book is one of humble yet critical scholarship.—B. P. H. (shrink)
A generally clear and well-written introduction to Thomistic natural theology which, like most such "textbook" treatments, suffers from too much commentary and too little Aquinas. The nature and existence of God are dealt with in some detail, and two interesting sections on "Invalid Reasons for Holding the Existence of God" and "Some Controverted Arguments" are included.--B. P. H.
Thirteen essays, both appreciative and informative, on the man and his philosophy. Simon, Collins, Anderson, Ward, and other leading Thomists are represented. They give us a comprehensive picture of Maritain's interests, his importance and his influence.--B. P. H.
Primarily a source book for introductory courses in epistemology, this book presents a good selection of most of the essential readings in basic epistemology. Critical notes are offered mainly from an Aristotelian-Thomistic standpoint.--D. P. B.
In those twenty or so pages of section xi of Part Two of the Philosophical Investigations in which Wittgenstein discusses the concept of noticing an aspect and its place among the concepts of experience, there are three passages which are explicitly concerned with the relations between seeing and interpreting in the experience of noticing an aspect.
Social and political scientists, historians and others, have put forward a number of widely differing views concerning the ‘character’ of Islamic millenarian and/or Mahdist movements in Africa. The same is true of course with regard to the opinions ofscholars concerning the transformative capacity of Islam as an ideology. In this paper I want to look at one aspect only of Islamic millenarianism in the West African context, viz. its allegedly revolutionary character.
This article shows that Popper’s measure of corroboration is inapplicable if, as Popper argued, the logical probability of synthetic universal statements is zero relative to any evidence that we might possess. It goes on to show that Popper’s definition of degree of testability, in terms of degree of logical content, suffers from a similar problem. 1 The Corroboration Function and P(h|b) 2 Degrees of Testability and P(h|b).
H.B.D. Kettlewell is best known for his pioneering work on the phenomenon of industrial melanism, which began shortly after his appointment in 1951 as a Nuffield Foundation research worker in E.B. Ford's newly formed sub-department of genetics at the University of Oxford. In the years since, a legend has formed around these investigations, one that portrays them as a success story of the 'Oxford School of Ecological Genetics', emphasizes Ford's intellectual contribution, and minimizes reference to assistance provided by others. The (...) following essay reviews the important influence Ford, E.A. Cockayne, and P.M. Sheppard played in Kettlewell's research, leading up to his most famous experiments in 1953. It documents several reasons for doubting that Ford was as intellectually involved in the design of these investigations as he has previously been portrayed. It clarifies Kettlewell's intellectual contribution to the investigations for which he is famous, as well as the pivotal roles Cockayne and Sheppard played in the design, execution and interpretation of these investigations. (shrink)
For cases in which to remember that p is to have (strict) nonbasic, unmixed memory knowledge that p; in which there is at most one prior time, t, from which one remembers; in which one knew at t that p; and in which there can arise a sensible question whether one remembers that p from t — a person, B, remembers that p from t if and only if: (1) There is a set of grounds a subset of which consists (...) of (i) only those grounds B has at both t and the present for B to be sure that p, and (ii) enough such grounds to make it reasonable at both t and the present for B to be sure that p (I call any such subset a set of “adequate original grounds dating from t”), and (2) there is no time prior to t such that B has a set of adequate original grounds dating from that time. The way in which the crucial terms in this explication are being used is explained. And the explication is defended by showing how it can deal with cases that are counterexamples to explications recently offered by Malcolm and by Munsat. (shrink)
There are calls to expand the schema “ S knows that p ” to accommodate ways of knowing that are socially important but neglected in recent epistemology. A wider, more adequate conception of human knowing is needed that will include interested or motivated inquirers as “S,” and personal traits of persons as “ p .” Historically important treatments of knowing that accommodate these features deserve examination as part of the effort to create a broader epistemology. We find such a treatment (...) of knowing in Plato's Apology , 20 d-24 b, in which Socrates claims a bit of wisdom. We attend more carefully than others have to the concrete aspects of Socrates' encounters with interlocutors. (shrink)
The psychologist-philosopher B.F. Skinner and the physicist-philosopher P.W. Bridgman, both dedicated empiricists, initially entered into an intellectual relationship that seemed destined to be warm and fruitful. Yet, it ended up unfulfilled. Since I am now perhaps one of the few who knew both men as colleagues for many years, I might be able to throw some unique light on their interaction, and on what I consider to be one of the missed opportunities in the history of ideas.