Results for 'P. Hey Spencer'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  41
    Epistemology, Ethics, and Progress in Precision Medicine.Spencer Phillips Hey & Brianna Barsanti-Innes - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (3):293-310.
    One of the central goals of precision medicine is to dissolve the long-standing tension between the population-level data provided by traditional randomized controlled trials and the physician’s need to prescribe therapies for their individual patient. The RCT can tell the physician that therapy A is, on average, more effective than therapy B for a population of patients, P, but this does not tell her whether A is more effective for the particular patient, p1, in front of her. However, by leveraging (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  2.  3
    Meta-Heuristic Strategies in Scientific Judgment.Spencer P. Hey - unknown
    In the first half of this dissertation, I develop a heuristic methodology for analyzing scientific solutions to the problem of underdetermination. Heuristics are rough-and-ready procedures used by scientists to construct models, design experiments, interpret evidence, etc. But as powerful as they are, heuristics are also error-prone. Therefore, I argue that they key to prudently using a heuristic is the articulation of meta-heuristics---guidelines to the kinds of problems for which a heuristic is well- or ill-suited. Given that heuristics will introduce certain (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  17
    Challenges and Opportunities for Biomarker Validation.Spencer Phillips Hey, Elvira D'Andrea, Emily H. Jung, Frazer Tessema, Jing Luo, Bishal Gyawali & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (3):357-361.
    Biomarkers can be powerful tools to guide diagnosis, treatment, and research. However, prudent use of biomarkers requires formal validation efforts. Although the data needed for biomarker validation has traditionally been hard to access, new research initiatives can ease this process.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  4.  59
    Heuristics and Meta-Heuristics in Scientific Judgement.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):471-495.
    Despite the increasing recognition that heuristics may be involved in myriad scientific activities, much about how to use them prudently remains obscure. As typically defined, heuristics are efficient rules or procedures for converting complex problems into simpler ones. But this increased efficiency and problem-solving power comes at the cost of a systematic bias. As Wimsatt showed, biased modelling heuristics can conceal errors, leading to poor decisions or inaccurate models. This liability to produce errors presents a fundamental challenge to the philosophical (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  5.  52
    Robust and Discordant Evidence: Methodological Lessons From Clinical Research.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):55-75.
    The concordance of results that are “robust” across multiple scientific modalities is widely considered to play a critical role in the epistemology of science. But what should we make of those cases where such multimodal evidence is discordant? Jacob Stegenga has recently argued that robustness is “worse than useless” in these cases, suggesting that “different kinds of evidence cannot be combined in a coherent way.” In this article I respond to this critique and illustrate the critical methodological role that robustness (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  6.  90
    What Theories Are Tested in Clinical Trials?Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1318-1329.
    John Worrall and Nancy Cartwright have both argued that randomized controlled trials are “testing the wrong theory.” They claim that RCTs are designed to test inferences about the causal relationships in the study population, but this does not guarantee a justified inference about the causal relationships in the more diverse population in clinical practice. In this article I argue that the epistemology of theory testing in trials is more complicated than either Worrall’s or Cartwright’s accounts suggest. I illustrate this more (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  7.  44
    Assay Sensitivity and the Epistemic Contexts of Clinical Trials.Spencer Phillips Hey & Charles Weijer - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):1-17.
    In February 2010, the World Medical Association hosted an international symposium on the ethics of placebo controls in clinical trials (WMA 2010). Despite years of debate, ethicists, clinical trialists, and policy makers remain divided over the ethical acceptability of using placebos in research when a proven, effective treatment is available. The protracted nature of this problem is due, at least in part, to a perceived conflict between the opposing demands placed on clinical research by science and ethics. A good, scientifically (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  8.  28
    Do We Know Whether Researchers and Reviewers Are Estimating Risk and Benefit Accurately?Spencer Phillips Hey & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (8):609-617.
    Accurate estimation of risk and benefit is integral to good clinical research planning, ethical review, and study implementation. Some commentators have argued that various actors in clinical research systems are prone to biased or arbitrary risk/benefit estimation. In this commentary, we suggest the evidence supporting such claims is very limited. Most prior work has imputed risk/benefit beliefs based on past behavior or goals, rather than directly measuring them. We describe an approach – forecast analysis – that would enable direct and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  9.  15
    Why High Drug Pricing Is A Problem for Research Ethics.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):29-35.
    The high price of drugs is receiving due consideration from ethicists, policymakers, and legislators. However, much of this attention has focused on the difference between the cost of drug development and company profits and the possible laws and regulations that could limit a drug’s price once it reaches market. By contrast, little attention has been paid to the ethical implications of high drug prices for the research subjects whose bodies were essential to the drug’s development. Indeed, the future price of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  29
    The Risk-Escalation Model: A Principled Design Strategy for Early-Phase Trials.Spencer Phillips Hey & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (2):121-139.
    Should first-in-human trials be designed to maximize the prospect of therapeutic benefit for volunteers, prioritize avoidance of unintended harms, or aim for some happy medium between the two? Perennial controversies surrounding initiation and design of early-phase trials hinge on how this question is resolved. In this paper, we build on the premise that the task of early-phase testing is to optimize various components of a potential therapy so that later, confirmatory trials have the maximal probability of informing drug development and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  11.  4
    Surrogate Endpoints and Drug Regulation: What Is Needed to Clarify the Evidence.Spencer Phillips Hey, William B. Feldman, Emily H. Jung, Elvira D'Andrea & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (3):381-387.
    The FDA's new table of surrogate endpoints used for drug approvals is an important step forward for overseeing the use of biomarkers in clinical trials. Nevertheless, we present several ways in which the table can be improved.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12. Judging Quality and Coordination in Biomarker Diagnostic Development.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (2):207-227.
    What makes a high-quality biomarker experiment? The success of personalized medicine hinges on the answer to this question. In this paper, I argue that judgment about the quality of biomarker experiments is mediated by the problem of theoretical underdetermination. That is, the network of biological and pathophysiological theories motivating a biomarker experiment is sufficiently complicated that it often frustrates valid interpretation of the experimental results. Drawing on a case-study in biomarker diagnostic development from neurooncology, I argue that this problem of (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13. A Framework for Assessing Scientific Merit in Ethical Review of Clinical Research.Ariella Binik & Spencer Phillips Hey - 2019 - Ethics and Human Research 41 (2):2-13.
    Ethics guidelines and commentary suggest that a central function of research ethics committees is to assess the scientific merit of the protocols they review. However, some commentators object to this role, and evidence suggests that the assessment of scientific merit is a significant source of confusion and animosity between ethics committees and clinical investigators. In this essay, we argue that ethics committees should assess the scientific value and validity of research protocols and that new decision-making tools are needed to help (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14.  15
    Priority, Prediction and the Ethical Research Enterprise.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):812-813.
    In their essay, ‘When Clinical Trials Compete: Prioritizing Study Recruitment’, Gelinas et al describe a collective action problem that can arise if multiple trials at a single institution are all trying to recruit participants from the same patient population. Each trial may be addressing an important question, and each will need a certain number of participants to provide an informative answer. But because these trials are all recruiting from the same population, it is possible that there will not be enough (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  15.  17
    Reprioritizing Research Activity for the Post‐Antibiotic Era: Ethical, Legal, and Social Considerations.Spencer Phillips Hey & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (2):16-20.
    Many hold that the so-called golden era of antibiotic discovery has passed, leaving only a limited clinical pipeline for new antibiotics. A logical conclusion of such arguments is that we need to reform the current system of antibiotic drug research—including clinical trials and regulatory requirements—to spur activity in discovery and development. The United States Congress in the past few years has debated a number of bills to address this crisis, including the 2012 Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act and the 2016 (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16.  34
    Ethics and Epistemology of Accurate Prediction in Clinical Research.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):559-562.
    All major research ethics policies assert that the ethical review of clinical trial protocols should include a systematic assessment of risks and benefits. But despite this policy, protocols do not typically contain explicit probability statements about the likely risks or benefits involved in the proposed research. In this essay, I articulate a range of ethical and epistemic advantages that explicit forecasting would offer to the health research enterprise. I then consider how some particular confidence levels may come into conflict with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  7
    Complex Underdetermination and the Units of Clinical Translation.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 30 (2):207-227.
    What makes a high-quality biomarker experiment? The success of personalized medicine hinges on the answer to this question. Unfortunately, as many commentators have now emphasized, the quality of most biomarker experiments to date has been quite low. Although the technical side of this problem has received considerable attention, the philosophical issues remain largely unexplored. In this paper, I argue that understanding what constitutes a high-quality biomarker experiment requires some fundamental shifts in how we think about the epistemology, ontology, and methodology (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  11
    Defining “True and Non-Misleading” for Pharmaceutical Promotion.Spencer Phillips Hey & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (2):552-554.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  3
    Heuristics and Explanation in Translational Medicine.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2019 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 62 (4):675-689.
    The reigning paradigm of rational drug discovery in translational medicine attempts to exploit biological theories and pathophysiological explanations to identify novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. Given that there are limited human and material resources available for testing experimental therapeutics, this theory- and explanation-driven strategy of drug development seems to make good sense: it narrows the number of plausible drug candidates to be put through rigorous and expensive testing; it potentially improves the success rate of clinical translation; and it provides (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  8
    What Questions Can a Placebo Answer?Spencer Phillips Hey & Charles Weijer - 2016 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (1):23-36.
    The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction—describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise—in particular the distinction between (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  35
    Stakeholder Views Regarding Ethical Issues in the Design and Conduct of Pragmatic Trials: Study Protocol.Stuart G. Nicholls, Kelly Carroll, Jamie Brehaut, Charles Weijer, Spencer Phillips Hey, Cory E. Goldstein, Merrick Zwarenstein, Ian D. Graham, Joanne E. McKenzie, Lauralyn McIntyre, Vipul Jairath, Marion K. Campbell, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Dean A. Fergusson & Monica Taljaard - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):90.
    Randomized controlled trial trial designs exist on an explanatory-pragmatic spectrum, depending on the degree to which a study aims to address a question of efficacy or effectiveness. As conceptualized by Schwartz and Lellouch in 1967, an explanatory approach to trial design emphasizes hypothesis testing about the mechanisms of action of treatments under ideal conditions, whereas a pragmatic approach emphasizes testing effectiveness of two or more available treatments in real-world conditions. Interest in, and the number of, pragmatic trials has grown substantially (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  8
    Thinking Clearly About the FIRST Trial: Addressing Ethical Challenges in Cluster Randomised Trials of Policy Interventions Involving Health Providers.Austin R. Horn, Charles Weijer, Spencer Phillips Hey, Jamie Brehaut, Dean A. Fergusson, Cory E. Goldstein, Jeremy Grimshaw & Monica Taljaard - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):593-598.
    The ethics of the Flexibility In duty hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees trial have been vehemently debated. Views on the ethics of the FIRST trial range from it being completely unethical to wholly unproblematic. The FIRST trial illustrates the complex ethical challenges posed by cluster randomised trials of policy interventions involving healthcare professionals. In what follows, we have three objectives. First, we critically review the FIRST trial controversy, finding that commentators have failed to sufficiently identify and address many of the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  39
    An Investigation of Real Versus Perceived CSP in S&P-500 Firms.Catherine Liston-Heyes & Gwen Ceton - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):283-296.
    Firms are spending billions annually in the name of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Whilst markets are increasingly willing to reward good and responsible firms, they lack the instruments to measure corporate social performance (CSP). To convince investors and other stakeholders, firms invest heavily in building a reputation for good corporate behaviour. This article argues that reputations for CSP are often unrepresentative of true CSP and investigates how differences in 'perceived' and 'actual' – as measured by the Fortune and KLD databases, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  24.  43
    Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?Richard P. Cooper, Caroline Catmur & Cecilia Heyes - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (4):605-630.
    Automatic imitation or “imitative compatibility” is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions—body movement topography and relative spatial position. However, it is not yet clear whether these two types of stimulus–response compatibility effect are mediated by the same or different cognitive processes. We present an interactive activation model (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25.  8
    Prototypes and Particulars: Geometric and Experience-Dependent Spatial Categories.John P. Spencer & Alycia M. Hund - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (1):16-37.
  26.  15
    Do the Writing Methodologies of Greco-Roman Historians Have an Impact on Luke’s Writing Order?Benjamin W. W. Fung, Aida B. Spencer & Francois P. Viljoen - 2017 - Hts Theological Studies 73 (3).
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  27.  31
    A Critical Evaluation of the Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Touch.Dónal P. O'Mathúna, Steven Pryjmachuk, Wayne Spencer, Michael Stanwick & Stephen Matthiesen - 2002 - Nursing Philosophy 3 (2):163-176.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  28.  53
    Autonomy in Action: Linking the Act of Looking to Memory Formation in Infancy Via Dynamic Neural Fields.Sammy Perone & John P. Spencer - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):1-60.
    Looking is a fundamental exploratory behavior by which infants acquire knowledge about the world. In theories of infant habituation, however, looking as an exploratory behavior has been deemphasized relative to the reliable nature with which looking indexes active cognitive processing. We present a new theory that connects looking to the dynamics of memory formation and formally implement this theory in a Dynamic Neural Field model that learns autonomously as it actively looks and looks away from a stimulus. We situate this (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  29.  23
    Quality Control for Hospitals' Clinical Ethics Services: Proposed Standards.Cavin P. Leeman, John C. Fletcher, Edward M. Spencer & Sigrid Fry-Revere - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (3):257-.
    Hospital ethics committees have become widespread over the last 25 years, stimulated by the Quinlan decision of the New Jersey Supreme Court, the report of a President's Commission, and most recently by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations , which now man dates that each hospital seeking accreditation have a functioning process for the consideration of ethical issues in patient care. Laws and regulations in several states require that hospitals establish ethics committees, and some states stipulate that (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  30.  28
    A Dynamical Theory for the Contrast of Perfect and Imperfect Crystals in the Scanning Electron Microscope Using Backscattered Electrons.J. P. Spencer, C. J. Humphreys & P. B. Hirsch - 1972 - Philosophical Magazine 26 (1):193-213.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  31.  8
    Quality Control for Hospitals' Clinical Ethics Services: Proposed Standards.Cavin P. Leeman, John C. Fletcher, Edward M. Spencer & Sigrid Fry-Revere - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (3):257-268.
    Hospital ethics committees have become widespread over the last 25 years, stimulated by the Quinlan decision of the New Jersey Supreme Court, the report of a President's Commission, and most recently by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, which now man dates that each hospital seeking accreditation have a functioning process for the consideration of ethical issues in patient care. Laws and regulations in several states require that hospitals establish ethics committees, and some states stipulate that certain (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  32. Nagging Doubts and a Glimmer of Hope: The Role of Implicit Self-Esteem in Self-Image Maintenance.Steven J. Spencer, Christian H. Jordan, Christine Er Logel, Mark P. Zanna, A. Tesser, J. V. Wood & D. A. Stapel - 2005 - In Abraham Tesser, Joanne V. Wood & Diederik A. Stapel (eds.), On Building, Defending and Regulating the Self: A Psychological Perspective. Psychology Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33. P. Carus, Kant and Spencer[REVIEW]E. Adickes - 1901 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 6:463.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Stephan Matthiesen: A Critical Evaluation of the Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Touch.P. O. Donal, Steven Pryjmachuk Mathuna & Michael Stanwick Wayne Spencer - 2003 - Nursing Philosophy 3 (2).
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  68
    Spencer, E.M., Mills, A.E., Rorty, M.V. And Werhane, P.H. (Eds.), Organization Ethics in Health Care.Ruth Marquis - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (3):295-296.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. P. Carus, Kant and Spencer[REVIEW] E. Adickes - 1901 - Kant-Studien 6:463.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  24
    (P.) Spencer Ed. The Egypt Exploration Society: The Early Years (EES Occasional Publications 16). London: The Egypt Exploration Society, 2007. Pp. Ix + 262, Illus. £20. 9780856981852 (Pbk). [REVIEW]David Fearn - 2011 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 131:302-303.
  38.  11
    Herbert Spencer's Grundlagen der Philosophie.P. Haberlin - 1910 - Philosophical Review 19 (2):213-214.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. An Invertebrate Stomach's View on Vertebrate Ecology.Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H. Leendertz, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Grit Schubert - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (11):1004-1013.
  40.  27
    Non‐Bayesian Noun Generalization in 3‐ to 5‐Year‐Old Children: Probing the Role of Prior Knowledge in the Suspicious Coincidence Effect. [REVIEW]Gavin W. Jenkins, Larissa K. Samuelson, Jodi R. Smith & John P. Spencer - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (2):268-306.
    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as “Labrador,” “dog,” and “animal.” Xu and Tenenbaum suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model—that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate exemplars. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  41. Spencer's Ethics of Equal Freedom.David P. Weinstein - 1988 - Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University
    This study examines Herbert Spencer's social and political thought by way of his principle of equal freedom. This principle reads, "The liberty of each, limited by the like liberty of each, is the rule in conformity with which society must be organized." ;Basically, this study attempts to demonstrate that Spencer was first and foremost an indirect utilitarian and that equal freedom was the central moral rule of his indirect utilitarianism. An attempt is also made to show how (...) conceived moral rights as derivations of equal freedom. For Spencer, moral rights were substantive specifications of equal freedom. Like their parent principle, they indirectly promoted happiness. Among other things, my analysis of equal freedom and rights endeavors to clarify how Spencer tried to accommodate a theory of stringent moral rights with utility and how negative freedom and virtue can be seen as compatible features of his theory of freedom. These two themes are meant to comprise some of the most promising rewards of this study. ;This study also explores Spencer's ethical naturalism via G. E. Moore's famous criticisms in Principia Ethica and via some of Henry Sidgwick's critical observations. While Moore's discussion is judged unsatisfactory, Sidgwick's analysis is deemed more successful. ;Finally, this study concludes by examining Spencer's theory of freedom and rights in terms of two fundamental moral rights and in terms of Spencer's vision of utopia. (shrink)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  6
    Education and Our Expanding Horizons.R. G. Macmillan, P. D. Hey & J. W. Macquarrie - 1963 - British Journal of Educational Studies 11 (2):204-205.
  43.  23
    Moving Word Learning to a Novel Space: A Dynamic Systems View of Referent Selection and Retention.K. Samuelson Larissa, C. Kucker Sarah & P. Spencer John - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):52-72.
    Theories of cognitive development must address both the issue of how children bring their knowledge to bear on behavior in-the-moment, and how knowledge changes over time. We argue that seeking answers to these questions requires an appreciation of the dynamic nature of the developing system in its full, reciprocal complexity. We illustrate this dynamic complexity with results from two lines of research on early word learning. The first demonstrates how the child's active engagement with objects and people supports referent selection (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  44.  46
    Descriptions as Distinctions. George Spencer Brown's Calculus of Indications as a Basis for Mitterer's Non-Dualistic Descriptions.P. Ene - 2013 - Constructivist Foundations 8 (2):202-208.
    Context: Non-dualistic thinking is an alternative to realism and constructivism. Problem: In the absence of a distinct definition of the term “description,” the question comes up of what exactly can be included in non-dualistic descriptions, and in how far the definition of this term affects the relation between theory and empirical practice. Furthermore, this paper is concerned with the question of whether non-dualism and dualism differ in their implications. Method: I provide a wider semantic framework for the term “description” by (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  17
    Neither Shaken nor Stirred: Reply to Bertenthal and Scheutz.Richard P. Cooper, Caroline Catmur & Cecilia Heyes - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (4):642-645.
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  57
    Grounding Cognitive‐Level Processes in Behavior: The View From Dynamic Systems Theory.Larissa K. Samuelson, Gavin W. Jenkins & John P. Spencer - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):191-205.
    Marr's seminal work laid out a program of research by specifying key questions for cognitive science at different levels of analysis. Because dynamic systems theory focuses on time and interdependence of components, DST research programs come to very different conclusions regarding the nature of cognitive change. We review a specific DST approach to cognitive-level processes: dynamic field theory. We review research applying DFT to several cognitive-level processes: object permanence, naming hierarchical categories, and inferring intent, that demonstrate the difference in understanding (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  47.  3
    Moving Word Learning to a Novel Space: A Dynamic Systems View of Referent Selection and Retention.Larissa K. Samuelson, Sarah C. Kucker & John P. Spencer - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:52-72.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  48.  15
    The Role of Experience in Location Estimation: Target Distributions Shift Location Memory Biases.John Lipinski, Vanessa R. Simmering, Jeffrey S. Johnson & John P. Spencer - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):147-153.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49.  10
    E. Grädel, P.G. Kolaitis, L. Libkin, M. Marx, J. Spencer, M.Y. Vardi, Y. Venema and S. Weinstein. Finite Model Theory and its Applications. Texts in Theoretical Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, 2007, Xiii + 437 Pp. [REVIEW]Stephan Kreutzer - 2010 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 16 (3):406-407.
  50.  39
    The Essence of Cognitive Development.John P. Spencer - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):62-63.
    Psychologists have long debated the underlying cause of infants' perseverative reaching. Thelen et al. explain the error in terms of general processes that make goal-directed actions to remembered locations. The context- and experience-dependent nature of their model implies that there is no single cause of the A-not-B error, and, more generally, no core essence to cognitive development.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 1000