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Patrick Lee [66]Peter H. Lee [16]P. Lee [13]Pauline C. Lee [5]
Peter Lee [5]P. C. Lee [4]Philip R. Lee [3]Poong Shil Lee [3]

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Patrick Lee
Franciscan University of Steubenville
Poong Lee
Seoul National University
  1.  69
    Body-Self Dualism in Contemporary Ethics and Politics.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Profoundly important ethical and political controversies turn on the question of whether biological life is an essential aspect of a human person, or only an extrinsic instrument. Lee and George argue that human beings are physical, animal organisms - albeit essentially rational and free - and examine the implications of this understanding of human beings for some of the most controversial issues in contemporary ethics and politics. The authors argue that human beings are animal organisms and that their personal identity (...)
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  2. The Pro-Life Argument From Substantial Identity: A Defence.Patrick Lee - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (3):249–263.
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  3. The Nature and Basis of Human Dignity.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2008 - In Adam Schulman (ed.), Human Dignity and Bioethics: Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics. [President's Council on Bioethics. pp. 173-193.
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  4. Total Brain Death: A Reply to Alan Shewmon.Patrick Lee & Germain Grisez - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):275-284.
    D. Alan Shewmon has advanced a well-documented challenge to the widely accepted total brain death criterion for death of the human being. We show that Shewmon's argument against this criterion is unsound, though he does refute the standard argument for that criterion. We advance a distinct argument for the total brain death criterion and answer likely objections. Since human beings are rational animals – sentient organisms of a specific type – the loss of the radical capacity for sentience involves a (...)
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  5.  62
    The Ontological Status of Embryos: A Reply to Jason Morris.Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen & Robert P. George - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):483-504.
    In various places we have defended the position that a new human organism, that is, an individual member of the human species, comes to be at fertilization, the union of the spermatozoon and the oocyte. This individual organism, during the ordinary course of embryological development, remains the same individual and does not undergo any further substantial change, unless monozygotic twinning, or some form of chimerism occurs. Recently, in this Journal Jason Morris has challenged our position, claiming that recent findings in (...)
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  6.  48
    A Christian Philosopher's View of Recent Directions in the Abortion Debate.P. Lee - 2004 - Christian Bioethics 10 (1):7-32.
    From the standpoint of a Christian philosopher, heeding the teaching and exhortations of Pope John Paul II and previous popes, I examine three directions in which the recent philosophical debate has developed. In the last seven or eight years there has been 1) a renewed focus on the biological issue of when a human individual comes to be, 2) new arguments for the proposition that personhood is a characteristic acquired after birth, and 3) refinements of the early argument of Judith (...)
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  7. Aquinas on Human Ensoulment, Abortion and the Value of Life.John Haldane & Patrick Lee - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (2):255-278.
    Although there is a significant number of books and essays in which Aquinas's thought is examined in some detail, there are still many aspects of his writings that remain unknown to those outside the field of Thomistic studies; or which are generally misunderstood. An example is Aquinas's account of the origins of individual human life. This is the subject of a chapter in a recent book by Robert Pasnau on Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature (Cambridge: CUP, 2001). Since there will (...)
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  8.  16
    Total Brain Death and the Integration of the Body Required of a Human Being.Patrick Lee - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):300-314.
    I develop and refine an argument for the total brain death criterion of death previously advanced by Germain Grisez and me: A human being is essentially a rational animal, and so must have a radical capacity for rational operations. For rational animals, conscious sensation is a pre-requisite for rational operation. But total brain death results in the loss of the radical capacity for conscious sensation, and so also for rational operations. Hence, total brain death constitutes a substantial change—the ceasing to (...)
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  9.  12
    Time-of-Occurrence Cues for "Unattended" Auditory Material.Stuart T. Klapp & Patricia Lee - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):176.
  10.  7
    Co-Filing and De Jure Co-Referential Thought in the Mental Files Framework.Poong Shil Lee - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-37.
    In the mental files framework, mental files contain pieces of information. Then, how can we explain the fact that multiple pieces of information are stored in a single mental file? This fact can be called ‘co-filing’. Recanati recommends an account of co-filing as a way to avoid the circularity that can occur when one attempts to explain co-filing in terms of the fact that pieces of information are taken to be about the same object. I argue that his account is (...)
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  11. Substantial Identity and the Right to Life: A Rejoinder to Dean Stretton.Patrick Lee - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (2):93-97.
  12.  48
    Mental Files, Concepts, and Bodies of Information.Poong Shil Lee - 2018 - Synthese 195 (8):3499-3518.
    In this paper, I argue that mental files are both concepts and bodies of information, against the existing views proposed by Fodor and Recanati. Fodor argues that mental files are not concepts but memories of information because concepts are mental symbols. However, Fodor’s argument against the identification of mental files with concepts fails. Recanati disagrees with Fodor and argues that mental files are concepts. But Recanati’s view does not differ essentially from Fodor’s because Recanati holds that mental files are simple (...)
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  13.  10
    Moral Status and the Margins of Human Life.P. Lee - 2015 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 60 (1):105-120.
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  14. Conjugal Union, What Marriage Is and Why It Matters.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book defends the conjugal view of marriage. Patrick Lee and Robert P. George argue that marriage is a distinctive type of community: the union of a man and a woman who have committed to sharing their lives on every level of their beings (bodily, emotionally, and spiritually) in the kind of union that would be fulfilled by conceiving and rearing children together. The comprehensive nature of this union, and its intrinsic orientation to procreation as its natural fulfillment, distinguishes marriage (...)
     
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  15.  9
    God and New Natural Law Theory.Patrick Lee - 2019 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 19 (2):279-291.
    New natural law theory holds that the basic moral principles are prescriptions to pursue the goods to which our nature orients us. Since God is the author of our nature and intelligence, these moral principles are part of his plan for creation. These principles can be known prior to knowing that God exists and prior to knowing that they are in fact directives from him. Nevertheless, since God’s plan includes our active cooperation, morally good acts cooperate with God’s providence, and (...)
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  16.  65
    Is Thomas’s Natural Law Theory Naturalist?Patrick Lee - 1997 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 71 (4):567-587.
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  17.  76
    Evil as Such Is a Privation: A Reply to John Crosby.Patrick Lee - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):469-488.
    I reply to an article in the ACPA Proceedings of 2001 by John Crosby in which he challenged the position that evil as such is a privation. Each of his arguments attempts to present a counterexample to the privation position. His first argument, claiming that annihilation is evil but not a privation, fails to consider that a privation need not be contemporaneous with the subject suffering the privation. Contrary to his second argument, I explain that the repugnance of pain is (...)
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  18.  2
    Co-Filing and De Jure Co-Referential Thought in the Mental Files Framework.Poong Shil Lee - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-37.
    In the mental files framework, mental files contain pieces of information. Then, how can we explain the fact that multiple pieces of information are stored in a single mental file? This fact can be called ‘co-filing’. Recanati recommends an account of co-filing as a way to avoid the circularity that can occur when one attempts to explain co-filing in terms of the fact that pieces of information are taken to be about the same object. I argue that his account is (...)
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  19. Marriage, Procreation, and Same-Sex Unions.Patrick Lee - 2008 - The Monist 91 (3-4):422-438.
  20.  42
    Rational Souls and the Beginning of Life (A Reply to Robert Pasnau).John Haldane & Patrick Lee - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (306):532 - 540.
    The present essay takes up matters discussed by Robert Pasnau in his response to our previous criticism of his account of Aquinas's view of when a foetus acquires a human soul. We are mainly concerned with metaphysical and biological issues and argue that the kind of organization required for ensoulment is that sufficient for the full development of a human being, and that this is present from conception. We contend that in his criticisms of our account Pasnau fails clearly to (...)
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  21.  44
    Do Elephants Show Empathy?Richard rne, P. C. Lee, N. Njiraini, J. H. Poole, K. Sayialel, S. Sayialel, L. A. Bates & C. J. Moss - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (10-11):204-225.
    Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty in moving, and removing foreign objects attached to others. These records demonstrate that an elephant is capable of diagnosing animacy and (...)
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  22.  19
    What Sex Can Be: Self-Alienation, Illusion, or One-Flesh Union.P. Lee & R. P. George - 1997 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 42 (1):135-157.
  23.  34
    Aquinas and Scotus on Liberty and Natural Law.Patrick Lee - 1982 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 56:70.
  24.  13
    Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal Population. By Peter Crowcroft Pp. 177.P. Lee - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (2):283-284.
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  25.  7
    What Will Make Patients Use a Patient Decision Aid? A Qualitative Study on Patients' Perspectives on Implementation Barriers and Facilitators.Wen Ting Tong, Chirk Jenn Ng, Yew Kong Lee & Ping Yein Lee - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
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  26.  39
    Personhood, Dignity, Suicide, and Euthanasia.Patrick Lee - 2001 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (3):329-343.
  27.  6
    Case Study: Seventy Ova.Allan Jacobs, James Dwyer & Peter H. Lee - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (4):12.
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  28.  87
    Lee's Rejoinder to Mercier's Reply.Patrick Lee - 2008 - The Monist 91 (3-4):442-445.
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  29.  17
    Do Elephants Show Empathy?Richard Byrne, Phyllis C. Lee, Norah Njiraini, Joyce H. Poole, Katito Sayialel, Soila Sayialel, L. A. Bates & C. J. Moss - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (10-11):10-11.
    Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty in moving, and removing foreign objects attached to others. These records demonstrate that an elephant is capable of diagnosing animacy and (...)
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  30.  7
    Scientific Facts and Oral Traditions in Oldupai Gorge, Tanzania: Symmetrically Analysing Palaeoanthropological and Maasai Black Boxes.Patrick Lee, Samson Koromo, Julio Mercader & Charles Mather - 2019 - Social Science Information 58 (1):57-83.
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  31.  9
    Measuring Athletic Mental Energy : Instrument Development and Validation.Frank J. H. Lu, Diane L. Gill, Cynthia M. C. Yang, Po-Fu Lee, Yi-Hsiang Chiu, Ya-Wen Hsu & Garry Kuan - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  32.  22
    Distinguishing Between What is Intended and Foreseen Side Effects.Patrick Lee - 2017 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 62 (2):231-251.
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  33.  29
    Aquinas on Knowledge of Truth and Existence.Patrick Lee - 1986 - New Scholasticism 60 (1):46-71.
  34.  7
    The Social Architect and the Myopic Mason: The Spatial Politics of the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in Nineteenth-Century Paris.Paula Young Lee - 2007 - Science in Context 20 (4).
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  35.  6
    Back to 'Things in Themselves': A Phenomenological Foundation for Classical Realism. [REVIEW]Patrick Lee - 1989 - Review of Metaphysics 42 (4):852-852.
    Seifert explains here the distinctiveness of the method of phenomenology and, above all, seeks to reclaim the method from the idealists and for classical realism. The main question of the book is: "In our knowledge, do we also discover besides the appearances and constituted aspects of things, 'things themselves,' i.e., essential structures and laws, and existents, which are in no way constituted by human consciousness?".
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  36. The Goodness of Creation, Evil, and Christian Teaching.Patrick Lee - 2000 - The Thomist 64 (2):239-269.
     
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  37. Cognitive Design Principles: From Cognitive Models to Computer Models.Barbara Tversky, Maneesh Agrawala, Julie Heiser, P. U. Lee, Pat Hanrahan, Doantam Phan, Chris Stolte & M. P. Daniele - 2006 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Engineering. College Publications.
  38.  30
    Human Beings Are Animals.Patrick Lee - 1997 - International Philosophical Quarterly 37 (3):291-303.
  39. St. Thomas and Avicenna on the Agent Intellect.Patrick Lee - 1981 - The Thomist 45 (1):41.
     
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  40.  21
    Dependent Rational Animals: Why Human Beings Need the Virtues by Alasdair C. MacIntyre.Patrick Lee - 2000 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 45 (1):133-160.
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  41.  2
    "Feelings of the Mind" in Talk About Thinking in English.Penny Lee - 2003 - Cognitive Linguistics 14 (2-3).
  42.  5
    Seventy Ova.Allan Jacobs, James Dwyer & Peter H. Lee - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (4):12.
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  43. Aquinas, the Embryo and the Ethics of Abortion.J. Haldane & Patrick Lee - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (2):255-278.
     
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  44.  15
    Catholic Bioethics and the Gift of Human Life, Second Edition by William E. May.Patrick Lee - 2009 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 9 (2):392-394.
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  45. The Relationship Between Intellect and Will in Free Choice According to Aquinas and Scotus.Patrick Lee - 1985 - The Thomist 49 (3):321.
     
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  46.  24
    John I. Jenkins: Knowledge and Faith in Thomas Aquinas.Patrick Lee - 2001 - Faith and Philosophy 18 (1):127-132.
  47.  39
    “There is Nothing More…Than Dressing and Eating”: Li Zhi 李贄 and the Child-Like Heart-Mind.Pauline C. Lee - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (1):63-81.
    Zhi 李贄, also named ( hao 號) Zhuowu 卓吾 (1527–1602), and argues that he articulates a coherent and compelling vision of a good life focused on the expression of genuine feelings distinctive to each individual. Through a study of literary texts and terms of art he refers to in his critical essay “On the Child-like Heart-mind” ( Tongxin Shuo 童心說), as well as the metaphors and images he fleshes out throughout his writings, I characterize Li’s ethical vision and show that (...)
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  48.  35
    “Spewing Jade and Spitting Pearls”:1 Li Zhi's Ethics of Genuineness.Pauline C. Lee - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):114-132.
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  49.  38
    Reasons and Religious Belief.Patrick Lee - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (1):19-34.
    The problem addressed is: whether religious belief, defined here as accepting that God has revealed and that what he has revealed is true, could ever be rational. That is, does the idea of religious belief imply that it is irrational? The author attempts to resolve this problem in favor of religious belief, and suggests how reasons can legitimately function in religious belief. The evidentialist objection to religion is answered, and it is proposed that reasons might function, not to prove that (...)
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  50.  8
    Asian Christian Spirituality: Reclaiming Traditions.William F. Walles, Virginia Fabella, Peter K. H. Lee & David Kwang-sun Suh - 1994 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 14:304.
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