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Per Nortvedt [33]P. Nortvedt [19]
  1.  36
    Rationing at the Bedside: Immoral or Unavoidable?Morten Magelssen, Per Nortvedt & Jan Helge Solbakk - 2016 - Clinical Ethics 11 (4):112-121.
    Although most theorists of healthcare rationing argue that rationing, including rationing that takes place in the physician–patient relationship is unavoidable, some health professionals strongly disagree. In a recent essay, Vegard Bruun Wyller argues that bedside rationing is immoral and thoroughly at odds with a sound view of the physician–patient relationship. We take Wyller to be an articulate exponent of the reluctance to participate in rationing found among some clinicians. Our essay attempts to refute the five crucial premises of his argument (...)
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  2.  20
    The Ethics of Care: Role Obligations and Moderate Partiality in Health Care.Per Nortvedt, Marit Helene Hem & Helge Skirbekk - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (2):192-200.
    This article contends that an ethics of care has a particular moral ontology that makes it suitable to argue for the normative significance of relational responsibilities within professional health care. This ontology is relational. It means that moral choices always have to account for the web of relationships, the relational networks and responsibilities that are an essential part of particular moral circumstances. Given this ontology, the article investigates the conditions for health care professionals to be partial and to act on (...)
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  3.  26
    Medical Students’ Attitudes Towards Conscientious Objection: A Survey.Sven Jakob Nordstrand, Magnus Andreas Nordstrand, Per Nortvedt & Morten Magelssen - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):609-612.
    Objective To examine medical students’ views on conscientious objection and controversial medical procedures.Methods Questionnaire study among Norwegian 5th and 6th year medical students.Results Five hundred and thirty-one of 893 students responded. Respondents object to a range of procedures not limited to abortion —notably euthanasia, ritual circumcision for boys, assisted reproduction for same-sex couples and ultrasound in the setting of prenatal diagnosis. A small minority would object to referrals for abortion. In the case of abortion, up to 55% would tolerate conscientious (...)
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  4.  31
    In Quest of Justice? Clinical Prioritisation in Healthcare for the Aged.R. Pedersen, P. Nortvedt, M. Nordhaug, A. Slettebo, K. H. Grothe, M. Kirkevold, B. S. Brinchmann & B. Andersen - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (4):230-235.
    Background: A fair distribution of healthcare services for older patients is an important challenge, but qualitative research exploring clinicians’ consideration in daily clinical prioritisation in healthcare services for the aged is scarce.Objectives: To explore what kind of criteria, values, and other relevant considerations are important in clinical prioritisations in healthcare services for older patients.Design: A semi-structured interview-guide was used to interview 45 clinicians working with older patients. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using hermeneutical content analysis and template organising style.Participants: 20 (...)
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  5.  51
    Subjectivity and Vulnerability: Reflections on the Foundation of Ethical Sensibility.Per Nortvedt - 2003 - Nursing Philosophy 4 (3):222-230.
    This paper investigates the possibility of understanding the rudimentary elements of clinical sensitivity by investigating the works of Edmund Husserl and Emmanuel Levinas on sensibility. Husserl's theory of intentionality offers significant reflections on the role of pre-reflective and affective intuition as a condition for intentionality and reflective consciousness. These early works of Husserl, in particular his works on the constitution of phenomenological time and subjective time-consciousness, prove to be an important basis for Levinas’ works on an ethics of alterity and (...)
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  6.  28
    Making a Difference: A Qualitative Study on Care and Priority Setting in Health Care. [REVIEW]Helge Skirbekk & Per Nortvedt - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (1):77-88.
    The focus of the study is the conflict between care and concern for particular patients, versus considerations that take impartial considerations of justice to be central to moral deliberations. To examine these questions we have conducted qualitative interviews with health professionals in Norwegian hospitals. We found a value norm that implicitly seemed to overrule all others, the norm of ‘making a difference for the patients’. We will examine what such a statement implies, aiming to shed some light over moral dilemmas (...)
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  7.  20
    Rationing Home-Based Nursing Care: Professional Ethical Implications.Siri Tønnessen, Per Nortvedt & Reidun Førde - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (3):386-396.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses’ decisions about priorities in home-based nursing care. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with 17 nurses in home-based care. The interviews were analyzed and interpreted according to a hermeneutic methodology. Nurses describe clinical priorities in home-based care as rationing care to mind the gap between an extensive workload and staff shortages. By organizing home-based care according to tight time schedules, the nurses’ are able to provide care for as many patients as possible. (...)
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  8.  45
    Needs, Closeness and Responsibilities. An Inquiry Into Some Rival Moral Considerations in Nursing Care.Per Nortvedt - 2001 - Nursing Philosophy 2 (2):112–121.
  9.  24
    Helping Motives in Late Modern Society: Values and Attitudes Among Nursing Students.May-Karin Rognstad, Per Nortvedt & Olaf Aasland - 2004 - Nursing Ethics 11 (3):227-239.
    This article reports a follow-up study of Norwegian nursing students entitled ‘The helping motive -an important goal for choosing nursing education’. It presents and discusses a significant ambiguity within the altruistic helping motive of 301 nursing students in the light of classical and modern virtue ethics. A quantitative longitudinal survey design was used to study socialization and building professional identity. The follow-up study began after respondents had completed more than two-and-a-half years of the three-year educational programme. Data were collected using (...)
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  10.  15
    The Principle and Problem of Proximity in Ethics.P. Nortvedt & M. Nordhaug - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):156-161.
    The normative significance of proximity in ethics is considered, giving an overview of the contemporary debates about proximity in ethics and focusing on three main perspectives that take proximity to have normative significance. The first perspective is represented by meta-ethical positions, where a basic moral claim is said to originate from an irreducible, particular and unique otherness that shows up in human vulnerability. The second perspective presents a psychologically and philosophically based analysis of human emotions, which is taken to form (...)
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  11.  31
    Life-Prolonging Treatment in Nursing Homes: How Do Physicians and Nurses Describe and Justify Their Own Practice?A. Dreyer, R. Forde & P. Nortvedt - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (7):396-400.
    Background Making the right decisions, while simultaneously showing respect for patient autonomy, represents a great challenge to nursing home staff in the issues of life-prolonging treatment, hydration, nutrition and hospitalisation to dying patents in end-of-life. Objectives To study how physicians and nurses protect nursing home patients' autonomy in end-of-life decisions, and how they justify their practice. Design A qualitative descriptive design with analysis of the content of transcribed in-depth interviews with physicians and nurses. Participants Nine physicians and ten nurses in (...)
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  12.  21
    Clinical Prioritisations of Healthcare for the Aged—Professional Roles.P. Nortvedt, R. Pedersen, K. H. Grothe, M. Nordhaug, M. Kirkevold, A. Slettebo, B. S. Brinchmann & B. Andersen - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):332-335.
    Background: Although fair distribution of healthcare services for older patients is an important challenge, qualitative research exploring clinicians’ considerations in clinical prioritisation within this field is scarce. Objectives: To explore how clinicians understand their professional role in clinical prioritisations in healthcare services for old patients. Design: A semi-structured interview-guide was employed to interview 45 clinicians working with older patients. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using hermeneutical content analysis. Participants: 20 physicians and 25 nurses working in public hospitals and nursing homes (...)
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  13.  13
    Mature Care in Professional Relationships and Health Care Prioritizations.Marita Nordhaug & Per Nortvedt - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (2):209-216.
    This article addresses some ambiguities and normative problems with the concept of mature care in professional relationships and in health care priorities. Mature care has recently been introduced in the literature on care ethics as an alternative to prevailing altruistic conceptions of care. The essence of mature care is an emphasis on reciprocity, where the mature agent has the ability to balance the concerns of self with those of others and act from a principle of not causing harm. Our basic (...)
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  14.  16
    Sensibility and Clinical Understanding.Per Nortvedt - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):209-219.
    This paper argues that there is a dimension of human consciousness which allows for a pre-intentional and non-cognitive intuition of sensibility. A sensibility which allows for the vulnerability of the human other is by nature characterized by passivity and receptivity. Moreover, sensibility invokes the significance of relating to the human other in an affective way of being touched by his or her pain and suffering. This capacity of being distressed by the distress of another person opens up for ethical responsibility (...)
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  15.  13
    Attitudes Towards Assisted Dying Are Influenced by Question Wording and Order: A Survey Experiment.Morten Magelssen, Magne Supphellen, Per Nortvedt & Lars Johan Materstvedt - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):24.
    BackgroundSurveys on attitudes towards assisted dying play an important role in informing public debate, policy and legislation. Unfortunately, surveys are often designed with insufficient attention to framing effects; that is, effects on the respondents’ stated attitudes caused by question wording and context. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and measure such framing effects.MethodsSurvey experiment in which an eight-question survey on attitudes towards assisted dying was distributed to Norwegian citizens through a web-based panel. Two variations of question wording as (...)
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  16.  23
    Ethical Decision-Making in Nursing Homes: Influence of Organizational Factors.Anne Dreyer, Reidun Førde & Per Nortvedt - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (4):514-525.
    In this article we report findings from a qualitative study that explored how doctors and nurses in nursing homes describe professional collaboration around dying patients. The study also examined the consequences this can have for the life-prolonging treatment of patients and the care of them and their relatives. Nine doctors and 10 nurses from 10 Norwegian nursing homes were interviewed about their experience of decision-making processes on life-prolonging treatment and care. The findings reveal that the frameworks for the professional collaboration (...)
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  17.  35
    What Matters to the Parents? A Qualitative Study of Parents' Experiences with Life-and-Death Decisions Concerning Their Premature Infants.Berit Støre Brinchmann, Reidun Førde & Per Nortvedt - 2002 - Nursing Ethics 9 (4):388-404.
    The aim of this article is to generate knowledge about parents’ participation in life-and-death decisions concerning their very premature and/or critically ill infants in hospital neonatal units. The question is: what are parents’ attitudes towards their involvement in such decision making? A descriptive study design using in-depth interviews was chosen. During the period 1997-2000, 20 qualitative interviews with 35 parents of 26 children were carried out. Ten of the infants died; 16 were alive at the time of the interview. The (...)
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  18.  16
    Sensitive Judgement: An Inquiry Into the Foundations of Nursing Ethics.P. Nortvedt - 1998 - Nursing Ethics 5 (5):385-392.
    This article considers the foundation of nursing as a moral practice. Its basic claim is that all nursing knowledge and action reside on a moral foundation. The clinical gaze meets vulnerability in the patient’s human condition. To see a patient’s wound is to see his or her hurt and discomfort; it is a concerned observation. To see the factual and pathophysiological is at the same time to see the ethical: the moral realities of suffering, pain and discomfort. A nurse’s emotional (...)
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  19.  28
    Inadequate Treatment for Elderly Patients: Professional Norms and Tight Budgets Could Cause “Ageism” in Hospitals.Helge Skirbekk & Per Nortvedt - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 22 (2):192-201.
    We have studied ethical considerations of care among health professionals when treating and setting priorities for elderly patients in Norway. The views of medical doctors and nurses were analysed using qualitative methods. We conducted 21 in depth interviews and 3 focus group interviews in hospitals and general practices. Both doctors and nurses said they treated elderly patients different from younger patients, and often they were given lower priorities. Too little or too much treatment, in the sense of too many interventions (...)
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  20.  12
    Professional Challenges of Bedside Rationing in Intensive Care.Kristin Halvorsen, Reidun Førde & Per Nortvedt - 2008 - Nursing Ethics 15 (6):715-728.
    As the pressure on available health care resources grows, an increasing moral challenge in intensive care is to secure a fair distribution of nursing care and medical treatment. The aim of this article is to explore how limited resources influence nursing care and medical treatment in intensive care, and to explore whether intensive care unit clinicians use national prioritization criteria in clinical deliberations. The study used a qualitative approach including participant observation and in-depth interviews with intensive care unit physicians and (...)
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  21.  24
    The Principle of Justice in Patient Priorities in the Intensive Care Unit: The Role of Significant Others.K. Halvorsen, R. Forde & P. Nortvedt - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):483-487.
    Background: Theoretically, the principle of justice is strong in healthcare priorities both nationally and internationally. Research, however, has indicated that questions can be raised as to how this principle is dealt with in clinical intensive care. Objective: The objective of this article is to examine how significant others may affect the principle of justice in the medical treatment and nursing care of intensive care patients. Method: Field observations and in-depth interviews with physicians and nurses in intensive care units (ICU). Emphasis (...)
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  22.  36
    Family Involvement in the End-of-Life Decisions of Competent Intensive Care Patients.R. Lind, P. Nortvedt, G. Lorem & O. Hevroy - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (1):0969733012448969.
    In this article, we report the findings from a qualitative study that explored how relatives of terminally ill, alert and competent intensive care patients perceived their involvement in the end-of-life decision-making process. Eleven family members of six deceased patients were interviewed. Our findings reveal that relatives narrate about a strong intertwinement with the patient. They experienced the patients’ personal individuality as a fragile achievement. Therefore, they viewed their presence as crucial with their primary role to support and protect the patient, (...)
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  23.  64
    Levinas, Justice and Health Care.P. Nortvedt - 2003 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (1):25-34.
    In this paper I argue that the metaphysical ethics of Emmanuel Levinas captures some essential moral intuitions that are central to health care. However, there is an ongoing discussion about the relevance of ethical metaphysics for normative ethics and in particular on the question of the relationship between justice and individualized care. In this paper I take part in this debate and I argue that Levinas' idea of an ethics of the Other that guides politics and justice can shed important (...)
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  24.  18
    Priority Dilemmas in Dialysis: The Impact of Old Age.K. Halvorsen, A. Slettebo, P. Nortvedt, R. Pedersen, M. Kirkevold, M. Nordhaug & B. S. Brinchmann - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (8):585-589.
    Aim: This study explores priority dilemmas in dialysis treatment and care offered elderly patients within the Norwegian public healthcare system.Background: Inadequate healthcare due to advanced age is frequently reported in Norway. The Norwegian guidelines for healthcare priorities state that age alone is not a relevant criterion. However, chronological age, if it affects the risk or effect of medical treatment, can be a legitimate criterion.Method: A qualitative approach is used. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and analysed through hermeneutical content analysis. (...)
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  25.  8
    An Ethics of Care: New Perspectives, Both Theoretically and Empirically?P. Nortvedt & F. Vosman - 2014 - Nursing Ethics 21 (7):753-754.
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  26.  11
    'Like a Prison Without Bars': Dementia and Experiences of Dignity.Anne Kari T. Heggestad, Per Nortvedt & Åshild Slettebø - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (8):881-892.
    The aim of this article is to investigate how life in Norwegian nursing homes may affect experiences of dignity among persons with dementia. The study had a qualitative design and used a phenomenological and hermeneutic approach. Participant observation in two nursing home units was combined with qualitative interviews with five residents living in these units. The study took place between March and December 2010. The residents feel that their freedom is restricted, and they describe feelings of homesickness. They also experience (...)
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  27.  13
    Intensive Care Nurses' Involvement in the End-of-Life Process - Perspectives of Relatives.R. Lind, G. F. Lorem, P. Nortvedt & O. Hevroy - 2012 - Nursing Ethics 19 (5):666-676.
    In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study that explored how the relatives of intensive care unit patients experienced the nurses’ role and relationship with them in the end-of-life decision-making processes. In all, 27 relatives of 21 deceased patients were interviewed about their experiences in this challenging ethical issue. The findings reveal that despite bedside experiences of care, compassion and comfort, the nurses were perceived as vague and evasive in their communication, and the relatives missed a long-term perspective (...)
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  28.  28
    The Importance of Moral Sensitivity When Including Persons with Dementia in Qualitative Research.A. K. T. Heggestad, P. Nortvedt & A. Slettebo - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (1):0969733012455564.
    The aim of this article is to show the importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in research. The article presents and discusses ethical challenges encountered when a total of 15 persons with dementia from two nursing homes and seven proxies were included in a qualitative study. The examples show that the ethical challenges may be unpredictable. As researchers, you participate with the informants in their daily life and in the interviews, and it is not possible to plan (...)
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  29.  51
    Justice and Proximity: Problems for an Ethics of Care. [REVIEW]Marita Nordhaug & Per Nortvedt - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (1):3-14.
    This paper aims at addressing some questions considering the conflicting normative claims of partiality, i.e. to provide for the caring needs of the particular patient, and impartial claims of treating all patients with a relevant need equally. This ethical conflict between different conceptions of moral responsibilities within professional ethics relates to debates between an ethics of care and an ethics of justice. An ethics of care is a particularistic position that endorses some form of partiality, i.e. favouring persons to whom (...)
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  30.  6
    Altruism and Mature Care: Some Rival Moral Considerations in Care Ethics.M. H. Hem, K. Halvorsen & P. Nortvedt - 2014 - Nursing Ethics 21 (7):794-802.
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  31.  63
    On the Fact-Value Distinction and the Phenomenology of Caring.Per Nortvedt - 2005 - Nursing Philosophy 6 (2):81–82.
  32.  91
    Clinical Ethics: Autonomy at the End of Life: Life-Prolonging Treatment in Nursing Homes—Relatives’ Role in the Decision-Making Process.A. Dreyer, R. Forde & P. Nortvedt - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (11):672-677.
    Background: The increasing number of elderly people in nursing homes with failing competence to give consent represents a great challenge to healthcare staff’s protection of patient autonomy in the issues of life-prolonging treatment, hydration, nutrition and hospitalisation. The lack of national guidelines and internal routines can threaten the protection of patient autonomy. Objectives: To place focus on protecting patient autonomy in the decision-making process by studying how relatives experience their role as substitute decision-makers. Design: A qualitative descriptive design with analysis (...)
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  33.  20
    The Normativity of Clinical Health Care: Perspectives on Moral Realism.P. Nortvedt - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (3):295-309.
    The paper argues that a particular version of moral realism constitutes an important basis for ethics in medicine and health care. Moral realism is the position that moral value is a part of the fabric of relational and interpersonal reality. But even though moral values are subject to human interpretations, they are not themselves the sole product of these interpretations. Moral values are not invented but discovered by the subject. Moral realism argues that values are open to perception and experience (...)
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  34.  10
    Ethics of Care and Responsibility: Normative Fragments. [REVIEW]Per Nortvedt - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (1):1-2.
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  35.  15
    Ethical Decision Making in Neonatal Units — The Normative Significance of Vitality.Berit Støre Brinchmann & Per Nortvedt - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):193-200.
    This article will be concerned with the phenomenon of vitality, which emerged as one of the main findings in a larger grounded theory study about life and death decisions in hospitals' neonatal units. Definite signs showing the new-born infant's energy and vigour contributed to the clinician's judgements about life expectancy and the continuation or termination of medical treatment. In this paper we will discuss the normative importance of vitality as a diagnostic cue and will argue that vitality, as a sign (...)
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  36.  21
    Sedation of Patients in Intensive Care Medicine and Nursing: Ethical Issues.Per Nortvedt, Gunnvald Kvarstein & Ingvild Jønland - 2005 - Nursing Ethics 12 (5):522-536.
    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of medically-induced sedation and pain relief in intensive care medicine. The study results reported are part of a larger investigation of patients’ experiences of being sedated and receiving pain relief, and also families’ experiences of having a close relative under controlled sedation in an intensive care unit. The study is based on qualitative in-depth interviews with nine nurses and six doctors working in intensive care and surgical units in a major Norwegian hospital. The (...)
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  37.  6
    Medical Ethics Manual: Does It Serve its Purpose?P. Nortvedt - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (3):159-160.
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  38.  5
    Nursing Ethics – Transition, Pluralism or What?Per Nortvedt - 2006 - Nursing Philosophy 7 (3):109–109.
  39.  12
    Critical Response To: Holm's Paper.Per Nortvedt - 2001 - Nursing Philosophy 2 (1):34–35.
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  40.  7
    Refractory Suffering at the End of Life and the Assisted Dying Debate: An Interview Study with Palliative Care Nurses and Doctors.Kristine Espegren Gustad, Åsta Askjer, Per Nortvedt, Olav Magnus S. Fredheim & Morten Magelssen - forthcoming - Sage Publications: Clinical Ethics.
    Clinical Ethics, Ahead of Print. BackgroundHow often does refractory suffering, which is suffering due to symptoms that cannot be adequately controlled, occur at the end of life in modern palliative care? What are the causes of such refractory suffering? Should euthanasia be offered for refractory suffering at the end of life? We sought to shed light on these questions through interviews with palliative care specialists.MethodsSemi-structured interviews with six nurses and six doctors working in palliative care in five Norwegian hospitals. Transcripts (...)
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  41.  19
    Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Ability to Empathize.Anne Kari Tolo Heggestad, Per Nortvedt, Bjørg Christiansen & Anne-Sophie Konow-Lund - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973301666498.
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  42.  8
    Nurses’ Role and Care Practices in Decision-Making Regarding Artificial Ventilation in Late Stage Pulmonary Disease.Heidi Jerpseth, Vegard Dahl, Per Nortvedt & Kristin Halvorsen - 2017 - Nursing Ethics 24 (7):821-832.
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  43.  8
    Beyond Autonomy and Care: Experiences of Ambivalent Abortion Seekers.Marianne Kjelsvik, Ragnhild J. Tveit Sekse, Asgjerd Litleré Moi, Elin M. Aasen, Per Nortvedt & Eva Gjengedal - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973301881912.
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  44.  3
    An Ethics of Care: Normative Challenges.Per Nortvedt - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (2):147.
  45.  10
    Author Response.P. Nortvedt, H. Skirbekk & M. H. Hem - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (2):270-271.
  46. Guest Editorial.P. Nortvedt - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (2):147-148.
  47.  5
    Needs and Closeness—Defending a Reasonable Partiality in Nursing Care.Per Nortvedt - 2019 - Nursing Philosophy 20 (3):e12256.
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  48. The Art of Nursing: Aesthetics or Praxis? A Response to Steven Edwards, Louise de Raeve and Per Nortvedt-Reply.P. Nortvedt - 1998 - Nursing Ethics 5 (6):550-552.
     
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  49.  32
    Immersed Subjectivity and Engaged Narratives: Clinical Epistemology and Normative Intricacy.Per Nortvedt - 2003 - Nursing Philosophy 4 (2):129-136.
  50.  6
    Prioritising Patient Care.Helge Skirbekk, Marit Helene Hem & Per Nortvedt - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973301666497.
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