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Peter Roberts [62]Pendaran Roberts [15]Paul Roberts [14]Peri Roberts [8]
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  1.  32
    Philosophy of education in a new key: Future of philosophy of education.Liz Jackson, MichaelA Peters, Lei Chen, Zhongjing Huang, Wang Chengbing, Ezekiel Dixon-Román, Aislinn O'Donnell, Yasushi Maruyama, Lisa A. Mazzei, Alison Jones, Candace R. Kuby, Rowena Azada-Palacios, Elizabeth Adams St Pierre, Jacoba Matapo, Gina A. Opiniano, Peter Roberts, Michael Hand, Alecia Y. Jackson, Jerry Rosiek, Te Kawehau Hoskins, Kathy Hytten & Marek Tesar - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (8):1234-1255.
    What is the future of Philosophy of education? Or as many of scholars and thinkers in this final ‘future-focused’ collective piece from the philosophy of education in a new key Series put it, what are the futures—plural and multiple—of the intersections of ‘philosophy’ and ‘education?’ What is ‘Philosophy’; and what is ‘Education’, and what role may ‘enquiry’ play? Is the future of education and philosophy embracing—or at least taking seriously—and thinking with Indigenous ethicoontoepistemologies? And, perhaps most importantly, what is that (...)
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  2. Reflective Intuitions about the Causal Theory of Perception across Sensory Modalities.Pendaran Roberts, Keith Allen & Kelly Schmidtke - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (2):257-277.
    Many philosophers believe that there is a causal condition on perception, and that this condition is a conceptual truth about perception. A highly influential argument for this claim is based on intuitive responses to Gricean-style thought experiments. Do the folk share the intuitions of philosophers? Roberts et al. (2016) presented participants with two kinds of cases: Blocker cases (similar to Grice’s case involving a mirror and a pillar) and Non-Blocker cases (similar to Grice’s case involving a clock and brain stimulation). (...)
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  3. Folk Core Beliefs about Color.Pendaran Roberts & Kelly Ann Schmidtke - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (4):849-869.
    Johnston famously argued that the colors are, more or less inclusively speaking, dispositions to cause color experiences by arguing that this view best accommodates his five proposed core beliefs about color. Since then, Campbell, Kalderon, Gert, Benbaji, and others, have all engaged with at least some of Johnston’s proposed core beliefs in one way or another. Which propositions are core beliefs is ultimately an empirical matter. We investigate whether Johnston’s proposed core beliefs are, in fact, believed by assessing the agreement/disagreement (...)
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  4.  70
    Education, Literacy, and Humanization: Exploring the Work of Paulo Freire.Peter Roberts - 2000 - Bergin & Garvey.
    Provides a critical introduction to the work of Paulo Freire, paying particular attention to later texts.
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  5.  14
    Philosophy of education in a new key: A collective project of the PESA executive.Michael A. Peters, Sonja Arndt, Marek Tesar, Liz Jackson, Ruyu Hung, Carl Mika, Janis T. Ozolins, Christoph Teschers, Janet Orchard, Rachel Buchanan, Andrew Madjar, Rene Novak, Tina Besley, Sean Sturm, Peter Roberts & Andrew Gibbons - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (8):1061-1082.
    Michael Peters, Sonja Arndt & Marek TesarThis is a collective writing experiment of PESA members, including its Executive Committee, asking questions of the Philosophy of Education in a New Key. Co...
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  6. Colour Relationalism and the Real Deliverances of Introspection.Pendaran Roberts, James Andow & Kelly Schmidtke - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (5):1173-1189.
    Colour relationalism holds that the colours are constituted by relations to subjects. Anti-relationalists have claimed that this view stands in stark contrast to our phenomenally-informed, pre-theoretic intuitions. Is this claim right? Cohen and Nichols’ recent empirical study suggests not, as about half of their participants seemed to be relationalists about colour. Despite Cohen and Nichols’ study, we think that the anti-relationalist’s claim is correct. We explain why there are good reasons to suspect that Cohen and Nichols’ experimental design skewed their (...)
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  7. Folk intuitions about the causal theory of perception.Pendaran Roberts, Keith Allen & Kelly Ann Schmidtke - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    It is widely held by philosophers not only that there is a causal condition on perception but also that the causal condition is a conceptual truth about perception. One influential line of argument for this claim is based on intuitive responses to a style of thought experiment popularized by Grice. Given the significance of these thought experiments to the literature, it is important to see whether the folk in fact respond to these cases in the way that philosophers assume they (...)
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  8. Another look at color primitivism.Pendaran Roberts - 2020 - Synthese 197 (6):2489-2506.
    This article is on a precise kind of color primitivism, ‘ostensivism.’ This is the view that it is in the nature of the colors that they are phenomenal, non-reductive, structural, categorical properties. First, I differentiate ostensivism from other precise forms of primitivism. Next, I examine the core belief ‘Revelation,’ and propose a revised version, which, unlike standard statements, is compatible with a yet unstated but plausible core belief: roughly, that there are interesting things to be discovered about the nature of (...)
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  9. Bridging Literary and Philosophical Genres: Judgement, reflection and education in Camus’The Fall.Peter Roberts - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (7):873-887.
    Both literature and philosophy, as genres of writing, can enable us to address important ontological, epistemological and ethical questions. One author who makes it possible for readers to bridge these two genres is Albert Camus. Nowhere is this more evident than in Camus’ short novel, The Fall. The Fall, through the character and words of Jean‐Baptiste Clamence, prompts readers to reflect deeply on themselves, their motivations and commitments, and their relations with others. This paper discusses the origin and structure of (...)
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  10.  10
    Better Worlds: Education, Art, and Utopia.Peter Roberts & John Freeman-Moir - 2013 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    This book, with its attention to literature and the visual arts as well as traditional non-fiction sources, provides a distinctive, wide-ranging exploration of utopia and education. Utopia is examined not as a model of social perfection but as an active, ongoing, imaginative educational process — the building of better worlds.
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  11. Happiness, Despair and Education.Peter Roberts - 2012 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 32 (5):463-475.
    In today’s world we appear to place a premium on happiness. Happiness is often portrayed, directly or indirectly, as one of the key aims of education. To suggest that education is concerned with promoting unhappiness or even despair would, in many contexts, seem outlandish. This paper challenges these widely held views. Focusing on the work of the great Russian writer, Fyodor Dostoevsky, I argue that despair, the origins of which lie in our reflective consciousness, is a defining feature of human (...)
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  12. Parsing the rainbow.Pendaran Roberts - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1793-1811.
    Navigating the ontology of color used to be a simple affair. There was the naive view that colors really are in objects the way they appear, and the view that they are secondary qualities to cause certain experiences in us. Today, there are myriad well-developed views but no satisfactory taxonomy of philosophical theories on color. In this article, I first examine the two newest taxonomies on offer and argue that they are inadequate. In particular, I look at Brogaard’s taxonomy and (...)
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  13. Turning up the volume on the property view of sound.Pendaran Roberts - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (4):337-357.
    In the present article, I show that sounds are properties that are not physical in a narrow sense. First, I argue that sounds are properties using Moorean style arguments and defend this property view from various arguments against it that make use of salient disanalogies between sounds and colors. The first disanalogy is that we talk of objects making sounds but not of objects making colors. The second is that we count and quantify over sounds but not colors. The third (...)
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  14.  5
    Presumptuous or pluralistic presumptions of innocence? Methodological diagnosis towards conceptual reinvigoration.Paul Roberts - 2020 - Synthese 198 (9):8901-8932.
    This article is a contribution to interdisciplinary scholarship addressing the presumption of innocence, especially interdisciplinary conversations between philosophers and jurists. Terminological confusion and methodological traps and errors notoriously beset academic literature addressing the presumption of innocence and related concepts, such as evidentiary presumptions, and the burden and standard of proof in criminal trials. This article is diagnostic, in the sense that its primary objective is to highlight the assumptions—in particular, the disciplinary assumptions—implicit in influential contributions to debates on the presumption (...)
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  15. Relationalism about perceptible properties and the principle of charity.Pendaran Roberts & Kelly Ann Schmidtke - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9).
    Color relationalism holds that the colors are constituted by relations to subjects. The introspective rejoinder against this view claims that it is opposed to our phenomenally-informed, pre-theoretic intuitions. The rejoinder seems to be correct about how colors appear when looking at how participants respond to an item about the metaphysical nature of color but not when looking at an item about the ascription of colors. The present article expands the properties investigated to sound and taste and inspects the mentioned asymmetry, (...)
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  16.  27
    Education and the Face of the Other: Levinas, Camus and (mis)understanding.Peter Roberts - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (11):1133-1149.
    Among the most neglected of Albert Camus? literary works is his play The misunderstanding. Composed while Camus was in exile in occupied France, and first performed on stage in 1944, The misunderstanding depicts the events that unfold when a man returns, without declaring his identity, to a home he left 20 years ago. Unrecognized, he is killed by his mother and sister for financial gain. This article draws on ideas from Emmanuel Levinas in identifying and discussing some of the key (...)
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  17. Lay intuitions about epistemic normativity.Pendaran Roberts, James Andow & Kelly Ann Schmitdtke - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):3267-3287.
    Recent empirical work on non-philosophers’ intuitions about epistemic normativity reveals patterns that cannot be fully accounted for by direct epistemic consequentialism. On the basis of these results, one might picture participants as “epistemic deontologists.” We present the results of two new experiments that support a more nuanced picture. We examine intuitions about guesses and hypotheses, and about beliefs. Our results suggest a two-factor model of intuitions, wherein both consequentialist and non-consequentialist considerations affect participants’ judgments about epistemic permissibility.
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  18.  26
    Acceptance, Resistance and Educational Transformation: A Taoist reading of The first man.Peter Roberts - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (11):1175-1189.
    This article provides a Taoist reading of Camus’ posthumously published novel, The first man. With its focus on the early life of the central character, Jacques Cormery, The first man is a semi-autobiographical account of learning and transformation, but it is, like so many other stories of its kind, one sustained by complex tensions: between the comfort of the familiar and the promise of the new; between possibility and despair; between resistance and acceptance. A theme that binds some of the (...)
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  19.  49
    Education and the limits of reason: Reading dostoevsky.Peter Roberts - 2012 - Educational Theory 62 (2):203-223.
    Philosophers of education have had a longstanding interest in the nature and value of reason. Literature can provide an important source of insight in addressing questions in this area. One writer who is especially helpful in this regard is Fyodor Dostoevsky. In this essay Peter Roberts provides an educational reading of Dostoevsky's highly influential shorter novel, Notes from Underground. This novel was Dostoevsky's critical response to the emerging philosophy of rational egoism. In this close reading of Notes from Underground, Roberts (...)
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  20.  83
    Bridging East and West—Or, a Bridge Too Far? Paulo Freire and the Tao Te Ching.Peter Roberts - 2012 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (9):942-958.
    This article considers key differences and similarities between Freirean and Taoist ideals. I limit my focus to the Tao Te Ching, paying brief attention to the origins of this classic work of Chinese philosophy before concentrating on several themes of relevance to Freire's work. An essay by James Fraser, who makes three references to the Tao Te Ching in his discussion of love and history in Freire's pedagogy, provides a helpful starting point for investigation. A summary of Fraser's account is (...)
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  21. Strict liability and the presumption of innocence: An exposé of functionalist assumptions.Paul Roberts - 2005 - In Andrew Simester (ed.), Appraising Strict Liability. Oxford University Press.
     
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  22.  28
    Attention, asceticism, and grace.Peter Roberts - 2011 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 10 (3):315-328.
    The work of the French thinker Simone Weil has exerted an important influence on scholars in a wide range of fields. To date, however, her writings have attracted comparatively little interest from educationists. This article discusses some of the key concepts in Weil’s philosophy — gravity, grace, decreation, and attention — and assesses their significance for the arts and humanities in higher education.
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  23. Color Relationalism, Ordinary Illusion, and Color Incompatibility.Pendaran Roberts - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (4):1085-1097.
    Relationalism is a view popularized by Cohen according to which the colors are relational properties. Cohen’s view has the unintuitive consequence that the following propositions are false: (i) no object can be more than one determinate or determinable color all over at the same time; (ii) ordinary illusion cases occur whenever the color perceptually represented conflicts, according to (i) above, with the object’s real color; and (iii) the colors we perceive obey (i). I investigate Cohen’s attempt to address these intuitive (...)
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  24. In defense of Incompatibility, Objectivism, and Veridicality about color.Pendaran Roberts & Kelly Schmidtke - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (4):547-558.
    Are the following propositions true of the colors: No object can be more than one determinable or determinate color all over at the same time (Incompatibility); the colors of objects are mind-independent (Objectivism); and most human observers usually perceive the colors of objects veridically in typical conditions (Veridicality)? One reason to think not is that the empirical literature appears to support the proposition that there is mass perceptual disagreement about the colors of objects amongst human observers in typical conditions (P-Disagreement). (...)
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  25.  31
    Introduction: Camus and education.Peter Roberts, Andrew Gibbons & Richard Heraud - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (11):1085-1091.
  26. Marx's Theory of Exchange, Alienation and Crisis.Paul Craig Roberts & Matthew A. Stephenson - 1975 - Studies in Soviet Thought 15 (1):63-66.
     
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  27.  53
    The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky’s underground.Peter Roberts - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (4):396-408.
    In Fyodor Dostoevsky?s influential novel Notes from underground, we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent, honest and reflective, and he has suffered significantly at the hands of others. Reading Notes from underground can be a harrowing experience but also an educative one, for in an encounter with (...)
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  28. Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse’s The Glass Bead Game.Peter Roberts - 2007 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 26 (6):509-523.
    This paper considers Hermann Hesse’s novel, The Glass Bead Game, in the light of Paulo Freire’s educational philosophy. The Glass Bead Game is set in Castalia, a “pedagogical province” of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a complex process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an increasingly critical understanding of Castalian society, questioning some of its most cherished assumptions while nonetheless deepening his appreciation of the beauty of the Glass Bead Game. He (...)
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  29.  3
    Education, Attention and Transformation:: Death and Decreation in Tolstoy and Weil.Peter Roberts - 2021 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 40 (6):595-608.
    What might it mean to engage in an educative struggle with death? Leo Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilyich helps us to answer that question. Tolstoy’s story depicts the life of a man who, when suddenly faced with the prospect of his own death, is at first unable to comprehend the reality of his situation. He is angry, fearful, and disgusted. As he gradually comes to terms with his mortality, he undergoes a harrowing process of transformation, at the heart of (...)
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  30.  4
    Political Constructivism.Peri Roberts - 2011 - Routledge.
    Political Constructivism is concerned with the justification of principles of political justice in the face of pluralism. Contemporary accounts of multiculturalism, pluralism and diversity have challenged the capacity of political theory to impartially justify principles of justice beyond the boundaries of particular communities. In this original account, Peri Roberts argues that political constructivism defends a conception of objective and universal principles that set normative limits to justifiable political practice. _Political Constructivism_ explores this understanding in two ways. Firstly, by engaging with (...)
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  31. An ecumenical response to color contrast cases.Pendaran Roberts - 2017 - Synthese 194 (5).
    Intrapersonal variation due to color contrast effects has been used to argue against the following intuitive propositions about the colors: No object can be more than one determinable or determinate color of the same grade all over at the same time ; external objects are actually colored ; and the colors of objects are mind-independent. In this article, I provide a defense of Incompatibility, Realism, and Objectivism from intrapersonal variation arguments that rely on color contrast effects. I provide a novel, (...)
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  32.  14
    Mentoring and the impact of the research climate.Professor Glyn C. Roberts, Maria Kavussanu & Robert L. Sprague - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (4):525-537.
    In this article, we focus on the mentoring process, and we argue that the internal and external pressures extant at research universities may create a research culture that may be antithetical to appropriate mentoring. We developed a scale based on motivation theory to determine the perceived research culture in departments and research laboratories, and a mentoring scale to determine approaches to mentoring graduate students. Participants were 610 faculty members across 49 departments at a research oriented university. The findings were that (...)
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  33.  62
    The supreme emergency exemption: Rawls and the use of force.Peri Roberts - 2012 - European Journal of Political Theory 11 (2):155-171.
    Both Rawls and Walzer argue for a supreme emergency exemption and are commonly thought to do so for the same reasons. However, far from ‘aping’ Walzer, Rawls engages in a reconstruction of the exemption that changes its focus altogether, making clear its dependence on an account of universal human rights and the idea of a well-ordered society. This paper is therefore, in the first instance, textual, demonstrating that Rawls has been misinterpreted in the case of supreme emergency. In the second (...)
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  34.  27
    Renegotiating forensic cultures: Between law, science and criminal justice.Paul Roberts - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (1):47-59.
    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science’s basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable—and may be neutralised—by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication’s normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. (...)
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  35.  39
    War and Peace in The Law of Peoples: Rawls, Kant and the Use of Force.Peri Roberts - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (4):661-680.
  36.  38
    Hope in Troubled Times? PESA and the future of philosophy of education.Peter Roberts - 2009 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (7):811-813.
  37.  36
    ‘It was the Best of Times, it was the Worst of Times …’: Philosophy of Education in the Contemporary World.Peter Roberts - 2014 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 34 (6):623-634.
    This article considers the state of philosophy of education in our current age and assesses prospects for the future of the field. I argue that as philosophers of education, we live in both the best of times and the worst of times. Developments in one key organisation, the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia, are examined in relation to broader international trends. Informed by the work of Pierre Hadot, I also reflect on what it might mean to talk of philosophy (...)
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  38.  34
    Rethinking conscientisation.Peter Roberts - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 30 (2):179–196.
    Paulo Freire's concept of conscientisation has been the subject of considerable debate since the early 1970s. The interpretation of conscientisation as a process of ‘consciousness raising’, whereby individuals move through a sequence of distinct stages, is widespread. This article critiques the ‘stages’ model and advances an alternative perspective on conscientisation. Rejecting an individualist view of critical consciousness, the author concentrates on the link between conscientisation and praxis, and reassesses Freire's ideal in light of the postmodernist notion of multiple subjectivities.
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  39.  56
    Ten Years on: Engaging the Work of Paulo Freire in the 21st Century.Peter Roberts - 2007 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 26 (6):505-508.
  40. Groundwork for a jurisprudence of criminal procedure.Paul Roberts - 2011 - In Antony Duff & Stuart P. Green (eds.), Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 379--408.
     
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  41.  3
    Innovations in Evidence and Proof: Integrating Theory, Research and Teaching.Paul Roberts & Mike Redmayne (eds.) - 2007 - Hart.
    Innovations in Evidence and Proof' brings together leading scholars and law teachers from the US, Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the UK to explore the latest developments in evidence scholarship.--Résumé de l'éditeur.
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  42.  11
    Introduction: Educative strangeness.Peter Roberts - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (4):355-359.
  43.  22
    Intellectuals, tertiary education and questions of difference.Peter Roberts - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (5):480–493.
    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of ?difference? is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question ?For whom does the intellectual speak?? in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: ?To what extent, and in what ways, might our activities as intellectuals make a difference?? Thinkers such as Foucault, Kristeva, Lyotard, and Bauman (among many others) are helpful in addressing these (...)
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  44.  9
    Intellectuals, Tertiary Education and Questions of Difference.Peter Roberts - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (5):480-493.
    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of ‘difference’ is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question ‘For whom does the intellectual speak?’ in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: ‘To what extent, and in what ways, might our activities as intellectuals make a difference?’ Thinkers such as Foucault, Kristeva, Lyotard, and Bauman are helpful in addressing these questions. This paper (...)
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  45.  41
    Epistemology, Ethics and Education: Addressing Dilemmas of Difference in the Work of Paulo Freire.Peter Roberts - 2003 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 22 (2):157-173.
  46.  28
    Pedagogy, neoliberalism and postmodernity: Reflections on Freire's later work.Peter Roberts - 2003 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 35 (4):451–465.
  47.  34
    Doubt, Despair and Hope in Western Thought: Unamuno and the promise of education.Peter Roberts - 2015 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (11):1198-1210.
    This article examines the importance of doubt in Western philosophy, with particular attention to the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Miguel de Unamuno. Kierkegaard’s pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus ventures down the pathway of doubt, finds it perplexing and difficult and discovers that he is unable to return to his pre-doubting self. In despair, the meaningfulness of his life is called into question. Unamuno, a great admirer of Kierkegaard, acknowledges the suffering that accompanies doubt while affirming the pivotal role of uncertainty, (...)
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  48.  14
    Piloting PTWI—A Socio-Legal Window on Prosecutors' Assessments of Evidence and Witness Credibility.Paul Roberts & Candida Saunders - 2010 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 30 (1):101-141.
    This article presents original empirical data generated from the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) Pilot Evaluation of pre-trial witness interviewing (PTWI) in England and Wales. Section 1 introduces the PTWI Pilot and describes the methodological strengths and limitations of our qualitative socio-legal study. Forming the richly documented empirical core of the article, Sections 2–5 identify the principal considerations which seemed to influence case selection for Pilot interviews. An overlapping collection of evidentiary, strategic and circumstantial factors encouraged prosecutors to resort to PTWI, (...)
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  49.  67
    Loss of Innocence in Common Law Presumptions.Paul Roberts - 2014 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (2):317-336.
    This review article of Stumer (The presumption of innocence: evidential and human rights perspectives. Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2010) explores the concept, normative foundations and institutional implications of the presumption of innocence in English law. Through critical engagement with Stumer’s methodological assumptions and normative arguments, it highlights the narrowness of common lawyers’ traditional conceptions of the presumption of innocence. Picking up the threads of previous work, it also contributes to on-going debates about the legitimacy of reverse onus clauses and their compatibility (...)
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  50. Color Matching and Color Naming: A Reply to Kuehni and Hardin.Pendaran Roberts & Kelly Schmidtke - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (2):207-212.
    We recently conducted an experiment to show that a lot of the empirically measured disagreement cited to support the premise that there is mass perceptual disagreement about the colors, a premise often cited by philosophers, is due to conceptual factors. Kuehni and Hardin object to how we measured disagreement and to various aspects of our experimental design. In this reply, we defend our study.
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