Results for 'P2'

62 found
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  1.  10
    How Does SHIP1/2 Balance PtdIns(3,4)P2 and Does It Signal Independently of its Phosphatase Activity?Jingwei Xie, Christophe Erneux & Isabelle Pirson - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (8):733-743.
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  2.  86
    The Sure-Thing Principle and P2.Yang Liu - 2017 - Economics Letters 159:221-223.
    This paper offers a fine analysis of different versions of the well known sure-thing principle. We show that Savage's formal formulation of the principle, i.e., (...)
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  3. The Ground-Negative Fragment of First-Order Logic is Πp2-Complete.Andrei Voronkov - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):984 - 990.
    We prove that for a natural class of first-order formulas the validity problem is Π p 2 -complete.
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  4.  4
    Ideophones in Japanese Modulate the P2 and Late Positive Complex Responses.Gwilym Lockwood & Jyrki Tuomainen - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  5.  13
    Anticipation of Negative Pictures Enhances the P2 and P3 in Their Later Recognition.Huiyan Lin, Jing Xiang, Saili Li, Jiafeng Liang & Hua Jin - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  6.  8
    The Effect of a Standardised Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula on N1, PN, P2, MMN, P3a, and P3b Amplitudes: a Pilot Study.Steiner Genevieve, Yueng Alan, Camfield David, De Blasio Frances, Pipingas Andrew, Scholey Andrew, Stough Con & Chang Dennis - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  7.  41
    Flexibility in Embodied Language Processing: Context Effects in Lexical Access.Wessel O. Dam, Inti A. Brazil, Harold Bekkering & Shirley‐Ann Rueschemeyer - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):407-424.
    According to embodied theories of language (ETLs), word meaning relies on sensorimotor brain areas, generally dedicated to acting and perceiving in the real world. More specifically, words (...)
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  8.  4
    Pairing Phosphoinositides with Calcium Ions in Endolysosomal Dynamics.Dongbiao Shen, Xiang Wang & Haoxing Xu - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (6):448-457.
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  9. The Many Ways of the Basing Relation.Luca Moretti & Tommaso Piazza - forthcoming - In Joseph Adam Carter & Patrick Bondy (eds.), Well Founded Belief: New Essays on the Epistemic Basing Relation. London: Routledge.
    A subject S's belief that Q is well-grounded if and only if it is based on a reason of S that gives S propositional justification for (...) Q. Depending on the nature of S's reason, the process whereby S bases her belief that Q on it can vary. If S's reason is non-doxastic––like an experience that Q or a testimony that Q––S will need to form the belief that Q as a spontaneous and immediate response to that reason. If S's reason is doxastic––like a belief that P––S will need to infer her belief that Q from it. The distinction between these two ways in which S's beliefs can be based on S's reasons is widely presupposed in current epistemology but––we argue in this paper––is not exhaustive. We give examples of quite ordinary situations in which a well-grounded belief of S appears to be based on S's reasons in neither of the ways described above. To accommodate these recalcitrant cases, we introduce the notion of enthymematic inference and defend the thesis that S can base a belief that Q on doxastic reasons P1, P2, …, Pn via inferring enthymematically Q from P1, P2, …, Pn. (shrink)
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  10.  57
    (Mis)Interpreting Mathematical Models: Drift as a Physical Process.Michael R. Dietrich, Robert A. Skipper Jr & Roberta L. Millstein - 2009 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 1 (20130604):e002.
    Recently, a number of philosophers of biology have endorsed views about random drift that, we will argue, rest on an implicit assumption that the meaning of concepts (...)
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  11. Mental Causation Without Downward Causation.John Gibbons - 2006 - Philosophical Review 115 (1):79-103.
    The problem of downward causation is that an intuitive response to an intuitive picture leads to counterintuitive results. Suppose a mental event, m1, causes another mental event, (...)
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  12. The Nature and Rationality of Faith.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - In Joshua Rasmussen & Kevin Vallier (eds.), The New Theists. New York: Routledge.
    A popular objection to theistic commitment involves the idea that faith is irrational. Specifically, some seem to put forth something like the following argument: (P1) Everyone (or (...)
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  13.  31
    Decision Theory WithoutIndependenceor WithoutOrdering”.Teddy Seidenfeld - 1988 - Economics and Philosophy 4 (2):267.
    It is a familiar argument that advocates accommodating the so-called paradoxes of decision theory by abandoning theindependencepostulate. After all, if we grant that choice (...)reveals preference, the anomalous choice patterns of the Allais and Ellsberg problems violate postulate P2 of Savage's system. The strategy of making room for new preference patterns by relaxing independence is adopted in each of the following works: Samuelson, Kahneman and Tversky'sProspect Theory”, Allais and Hagen, Fishburn, Chew and MacCrimmon, McClennen, and in closely argued essays by Machina. (shrink)
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  14.  77
    Conjunctions, Disjunctions and Lewisian Semantics for Counterfactuals.Alexander R. Pruss - 2007 - Synthese 156 (1):33-52.
    Consider the reasonable axioms of subjunctive conditionals if pq1 and pq2 at some world, then pat that world, and if p1q and (...) p2q at some world, thenq at that world, where pq is the subjunctive conditional. I show that a Lewis-style semantics for subjunctive conditionals satisfies these axioms if and only if one makes a certain technical assumption about the closeness relation, an assumption that is probably false. I will then show how Lewisian semantics can be modified so as to assure and even when the technical assumption fails, and in fact in one sense the semantics actually becomes simpler then. (shrink)
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  15.  79
    Against Sider on Fundamentality.David Mathers - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-16.
    Siders Writing the Book of the World gives an account of fundamentality in terms of his central ideological notionstructure’. Here I first argue against Siders (...) claim that to be fundamental to a degree is to be structural to a degree. I argue theres a pair of properties, P1 and P2, such that P1 is the more fundamental, but Sider is committed to counting P2 as the more structural. I then argue that if relative structure and relative fundamentality can come apart in this way, then Sider is likely also wrong to identify being absolutely structural with being absolutely fundamental. (shrink)
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  16.  43
    Experimental Philosophy of Actual and Counterfactual Free Will Intuitions.Adam Feltz - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:113-130.
    Five experiments suggested that everyday free will and moral responsibility judgments about some hypothetical thought examples differed from free will and moral responsibility judgments about the actual (...)
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  17. Accountability and Intervening Agency: An Asymmetry Between Upstream and Downstream Actors.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2017 - Utilitas 29 (1):110-114.
    Suppose someone (P1) does something that is wrongful only in virtue of the risk that it will enable another person (P2) to commit a wrongdoing. Suppose further (...)
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  18. Defending Particularism From Supervenience/Resultance Attack.Peter Shiu-Hwa Tsu - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (4):387-402.
    I take the debate between the particularists and the principlists to be centered on the issue of whether there are true moral principles. One argument the principlists (...)
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  19.  99
    Axiomatic Quantum Mechanics and Completeness.Carsten Held - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (8):707-732.
    The standard axiomatization of quantum mechanics (QM) is not fully explicit about the role of the time-parameter. Especially, the time reference within the probability algorithm (the (...)Born Rule, BR) is unclear. From a probability principle P1 and a second principle P2 affording a most natural way to make BR precise, a logical conflict with the standard expression for the completeness of QM can be derived. Rejecting P1 is implausible. Rejecting P2 leads to unphysical results and to a conflict with a generalization of P2, a principle P3. All three principles are shown to be without alternative. It is thus shown that the standard expression of QM completeness must be revised. An absolutely explicit form of the axioms is provided, including a precise form of the projection postulate. An appropriate expression for QM completeness, reflecting the restrictions of the Gleason and Kochen-Specker theorems is proposed. (shrink)
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  20. Essential Stuff.Kristie Miller - 2008 - Ratio 21 (1):55–63.
    Here is a common view. There exist things, and there exists stuff, where roughly, ‘thingis a count noun, andstuffis a mass noun. Syntactically, ‘thing (...)
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  21.  69
    Epistemic Expressivism and the Argument From Motivation.Klemens Kappel & Emil F. L. Moeller - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1-19.
    This paper explores in detail an argument for epistemic expressivism, what we call the Argument from Motivation. While the Argument from Motivation has sometimes been anticipated, it (...)
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  22. Mental Causation.David Robb - forthcoming - In Brian McLaughlin (ed.), Macmillan's Interdisciplinary Handbooks: Philosophy of Mind. Macmillan.
    This is an introduction to mental causation. It is written primarily for students new to the topic. The chapter is organized around the following argument: P1. Everything (...)
     
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  23.  46
    Order Dependence and Jeffrey Conditionalization.Daniel Osherson - manuscript
    A glance at the sky raises my probability of rain to .7. As it happens, the conditional probabilities of each state given rain remain the same, and (...)
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  24.  53
    Physicalism and the Sortalist Conception of Objects.Jonah Goldwater - 2018 - Synthese 195 (12):5497-5519.
    Many hold an Aristotelian metaphysic of objects: fundamentally, objects fall under sortals and have persistence conditions befitting their sort. Though sometimes offered as a theory of material (...)
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  25.  5
    Relativized Ordinal Analysis: The Case of Power KripkePlatek Set Theory.Michael Rathjen - 2014 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 165 (1):316-339.
    The paper relativizes the method of ordinal analysis developed for KripkePlatek set theory to theories which have the power set axiom. We show that it is (...)possible to use this technique to extract information about Power KripkePlatek set theory, KP.As an application it is shown that whenever KP+AC proves a ΠP2 statement then it holds true in the segment of the von Neumann hierarchy, where τ stands for the BachmannHoward ordinal. (shrink)
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  26.  13
    Brain Indices of Nonconscious Associative Learning.Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, S. Bunce & H. Shevrin - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):519-544.
    Using a classical conditioning technique, this study investigated whether nonconscious associative learning could be indexed by event-related brain activity . There were three phases. In a preconditioning (...)
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  27.  14
    Compatible Operations on Commutative Residuated Lattices.José Luis Castiglioni, Matías Menni & Marta Sagastume - 2008 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 18 (4):413-425.
    Let L be a commutative residuated lattice and let f : LkL a function. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for f to be compatible (...)with respect to every congruence on L. We use this characterization of compatible functions in order to prove that the variety of commutative residuated lattices is locally affine complete. Then, we find conditions on a not necessarily polynomial function P in L that imply that the function xmin{y є L | Py} is compatible when defined. In particular, Pn = ynx, for natural number n, defines a family, Sn, of compatible functions on some commutative residuated lattices. We show through examples that S1> and S2, defined respectively from P1 and P2, are independent as operations over this variety; i.e. neither S1 is definable as a polynomial in the language of L enriched with S2 nor S2 in that enriched with S1. (shrink)
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  28.  52
    A Dilemma for the Soul Theory of Personal Identity.Jacob Berger - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (1):41-55.
    The problem of diachronic personal identity is this: what explains why a person P1 at time T1 is numerically identical with a person P2 at a later (...)
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  29.  57
    Possible Worlds: A Critical Analysis.Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    Frege has proposed to consider names as denoting objects, predicates as standing for concepts and sentences as denoting truth values. He was, however, aware that such denotation (...)
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  30. Transcending Zombies.Pete Mandik - manuscript
    I develop advice to the reductionist about consciousness in the form of a transcendental argument that depends crucially on the sorts of knowledge claims concerning consciousness that, (...)
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  31. From the Good Will to the Formula of Universal Law.Samuel C. Rickless - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (3):554-577.
    In the First Section of the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant argues that a good-willed personunder subjective limitations and hindrances” (G 397) is (...)requirednever to act except in such a way that [she] could also will that [her] maxim should become a universal law” (G 402).2 This requirement has come to be known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL) version of the Categorical Imperative, anoughtstatement expressing a command of reason thatrepresent[s] an action as objectively necessary of itself, without reference to another end” (G 414). The question of how to understand and apply the FUL has received a great deal of attention in recent years. But Kants reasoning for the claim that a good-willed person (of a certain kind) acts in accordance with the FUL has not been investigated with the same degree of thoroughness. My purpose in this paper is to render the structure of Kants argument perspicuous, and thereby contribute to its proper evaluation by identifying its true strengths and weaknesses.3 Let us call Kants argumentKand its conclusionC”. The task at hand requires identification of Ks premises and of the reasoning by means of which C is derived. One of the advantages of clarifying Ks structure in this way is that doing so permits us to answer questions that continue to puzzle even the most sympathetic readers of the First Section. Some of these questions concern threePropositionsto which Kant 1 draws our attention in the course of his presentation. The First Proposition (call itP1”) is left unstated, but most commentators agree that it (or at least part of it) should be rendered as follows: (P1) A human action has moral worth only if it is done from duty.4 Kant states the other two propositions (call the SecondP2and ThirdP3”) explicitly: (P2) An action from duty has its moral worth not in the purpose to be attained by it but in the maxim in accordance with which it is decided upon. (G 399). (shrink)
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  32.  12
    Geometry of Time and Space.Alfred A. Robb - 1936 - Cambridge University Press.
    Alfred A. Robb. THEOREM 54 If P1 and P2 be a pair of parallel inertia planes while an inertia plane Q1 has parallel general lines a and (...)
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  33.  9
    Purinergic Signalling: Its Unpopular Beginning, its Acceptance and its Exciting Future.Geoffrey Burnstock - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (3):218-225.
    Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was identified in 1970 as the transmitter responsible for non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmission in the gut and bladder and the termpurinergicwas (...)
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  34.  19
    Anticipatory Attention During the Sleep Onset Period.Kiwamu Yasuda, Laura B. Ray & Kimberly A. Cote - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):912-919.
    To examine whether anticipatory attention or expectancy is a cognitive process that is automatic or requires conscious control, we employed a paired-stimulus event-related potential paradigm during (...) the transition to sleep. The slow negative ERP wave observed between two successive stimuli, the Contingent Negative Variation , reflects attention and expectancy to the second stimulus. Thirteen good sleepers were instructed to respond to the second stimulus in a pair during waking sessions. In a non-response paradigm modified for sleep, participants then fell asleep while tones played. As expected, N1 decreased and P2 increased in amplitude systematically with the loss of consciousness at sleep onset; the CNV was increasingly more positive. Sleep onset latency was correlated with the amplitude of the CNV. The systematic attenuation of the CNV waveform at sleep onset and its absence in sleep indicates that anticipatory attention requires endogenous conscious control. (shrink)
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  35.  38
    Consequentialist Reactions to Cains Objection From the Individual.Jean-Paul Vessel - 2005 - Southwest Philosophy Review 21 (2):139-144.
    James Cain issues forth a two-pronged attack against classical forms of act utilitarianism, elucidating objections from infinite utility streams and distributive justice through his novel examples.1 (...) In his first example, we are to imagine an infinite number of immortals, living on an infinitely long street (Elm Street), bracing to suffer an infinite amount of migraine pain with the onset of this horrific disease. Left untreated, the disease would wreak havoc among our immortals in the following way. Year 1: P1 Year 2: P1, P2, P3 Year 3: P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7 Year 4: P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9, P10, P11, P12, P13, P14, P15.. (shrink)
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  36.  66
    Human Brain Evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-Depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of Fear-Circuitry-Related Traits in Dsm-V and for Studying Resilience to Warzone-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.Dr H. Stefan Bracha - 2006 - Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:827-853.
    The DSM-III, DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 have judiciously minimized discussion of etiologies to distance clinical psychiatry from Freudian psychoanalysis. With this goal mostly achieved (...), discussion of etiological factors should be reintroduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A research agenda for the DSM-V advocated the "development of a pathophysiologically based classification system". The author critically reviews the neuroevolutionary literature on stress-induced and fear circuitry disorders and related amygdala-driven, species-atypical fear behaviors of clinical severity in adult humans. Over 30 empirically testable/falsifiable predictions are presented. It is noted that in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10, the classification of stress and fear circuitry disorders is neither mode-of-acquisition-based nor brain-evolution-based. For example, snake phobia and dog phobia are clustered together. Similarly, research on blood-injection-injury-type-specific phobia clusters two fears different in their innateness: 1) an arguably ontogenetic memory-trace-overconsolidation-based fear and 2) a hardwired fear of the sight of one's blood or a sharp object penetrating one's skin. Genetic architecture-charting of fear-circuitry-related traits has been challenging. Various, non-phenotype-based architectures can serve as targets for research. In this article, the author will propose one such alternative genetic architecture. This article was inspired by the following: A) Nesse's "Smoke-Detector Principle", B) the increasing suspicion that the "smooth" rather than "lumpy" distribution of complex psychiatric phenotypes may in some cases be accounted for by oligogenic transmission, and C) insights from the initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome by the Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium published in late 2005. Neuroevolutionary insights relevant to fear circuitry symptoms that primarily emerge overconsolidationally are presented. Also introduced is a human-evolution-based principle for clustering innate fear traits. The "Neuroevolutionary Time-depth Principle" of innate fears proposed in this article may be useful in the development of a neuroevolution-based taxonomic re-clustering of stress-triggered and fear-circuitry disorders in DSM-V. Four broad clusters of evolved fear circuits are proposed based on their time-depths: 1) Mesozoic circuits hardwired by wild-type alleles driven to fixation by Mesozoic selective sweeps; 2) Cenozoic circuits relevant to many specific phobias; 3) mid Paleolithic and upper Paleolithic circuits ; 4) Neolithic circuits. More importantly, the author presents evolutionary perspectives on warzone-related PTSD, Combat-Stress Reaction, Combat-related Stress, Operational-Stress, and other deployment-stress-induced symptoms. The Neuroevolutionary Time-depth Principle presented in this article may help explain the dissimilar stress-resilience levels following different types of acute threat to survival of oneself or one's progency. PTSD rates following exposure to lethal inter-group violence are usually 5-10 times higher than rates following large-scale natural disasters such as forest fires, floods, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. The author predicts that both intentionally-caused large-scale bioevent-disasters, as well as natural bioevents such as SARS and avian flu pandemics will be an exception and are likely to be followed by PTSD rates approaching those that follow warzone exposure. During bioevents, Amygdala-driven and locus-coeruleus-driven epidemic pseudosomatic symptoms may be an order of magnitude more common than infection-caused cytokine-driven symptoms. Implications for the red cross and FEMA are discussed. It is also argued that hospital phobia as well as dog phobia, bird phobia and bat phobia require re-taxonomization in DSM-V in a new "overconsolidational disorders" category anchored around PTSD. The overconsolidational spectrum category may be conceptualized as straddling the fear circuitry spectrum disorders and the affective spectrum disorders categories, and may be a category for which Pitman's secondary prevention propranolol regimen may be specifically indicated as a "morning after pill" intervention. Predictions are presented regarding obsessive-compulsive disorder and "culture-bound" acute anxiety symptoms. Also discussed are insights relevant to pseudoneurological symptoms and to the forthcoming Dissociative-Conversive disorders category in DSM-V, including what the author terms fright-triggered acute pseudo-localized symptoms. Speculations based on studies of the human abnormal-spindle-like, microcephaly-associated gene, the microcephaly primary autosomal recessive gene, and the forkhead box p2 gene are made and incorporated into what is termed "The pre-FOXP2 Hypothesis of Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia." Finally, the author argues for a non-reductionistic fusion of "distal neurobiology" with clinical "proximal neurobiology," utilizing neurological heuristics. It is noted that the value of re-clustering fear traits based on behavioral ethology, human-phylogenomics-derived endophenotypes and on ontogenomics can be confirmed or disconfirmed using epidemiological or twin studies and psychiatric genomics. (shrink)
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  37.  24
    What is International Labor Law For?Brian A. Langille - 2009 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 3 (1):48-82.
    This Paper suggests that the answer to the questionwhat is domestic labor law for?”—commonly regarded as securingjustice against marketsor a justified tax on (...)market activityhas informed the search for the answer for the questionwhat is international labor law for.” This is reflected in what this Paper refers to as P2, which provides thatthe failure of any country to adopt humane conditions of labor is an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to improve the conditions in their own countries.” P2 envisions arace to the bottomby rational states trapped in a Prisoners Dilemma game. The author maintains that this cannot be the objective of ILO which cannot stopthe racegiven its deficient enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance. This Paper suggests an alternative raison detre for the ILO, which is called P1, namely social justice: “universal peace can only be established if it is based upon social justice.” P1 reflects what states actually seek to achieve. Following Sen, this Paper suggests that there is no tradeoff between social justice and economic efficiency. Therefore the promotion of labor rights by the ILO will contribute both to social justice and to economic success. Thus the ILO should promote international labor law so as to lead member states to pursue their self-interest which is consistent with the collective goal of humanity. (shrink)
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  38.  38
    Plato, Hare and Davidson on Akrasia.C. C. W. Taylor - 1980 - Mind 89 (356):499-518.
    Davidson poses the problem via three propositions p1-P3, Each persuasive but apparently inconsistent. His solution, That the three are consistent, Merely re-Phrases the problem. We should (...) rather reject p2; if an agent judges that it would be better to do "x" than to do "y", Then he wants to do "x" more than he wants to do "y". Plato accepts p2 because he thinks all agents predominantly self-Interested, And hare because he thinks that evaluative judgments imply desires; both are criticized. An alternative to p2, Consistent with p1 and p3, Makes a subtler connection between judgment, Desire and behaviour. (shrink)
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  39.  76
    Colours and Appearances as Powers and Manifestations.Max Kistler - unknown
    Humans have only finite discriminatory capacities. This simple fact seems to be incompatible with the existence of appearances. As many authors have noted, the hypothesis that appearances (...)
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  40.  49
    On the Prospects for a Theory of Personal Identity.Alan Sidelle - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 26 (1/2):351-72.
    Much specific support for theories of personal identity comes from data which is really about 'what matters' in identity. I argue that if we accept Parfit's (...)arguments that identity is not sufficient for what matters, then we should think our subject matter is actually underdetermined and indefinite, and there can be no correct answer to the question 'Under what conditions is P2 identical to P!?'. (shrink)
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  41.  16
    Brain Indices of Nonconscious Associative Learning.Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, S. . Bunce & Shevrin . - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):519-544.
    Using a classical conditioning technique, this study investigated whether nonconscious associative learning could be indexed by event-related brain activity . There were three phases. In a preconditioning (...)
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  42. The Fine Tuning Argument (1998).Theodore M. Drange - unknown
    Let us consider that version of the Argument from Design which appeals to the so called "fine tuning" of the physical constants of the universe. Call it (...)
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  43.  37
    Mental Causation is Not Just Downward Causation.Jeff Engelhardt - 2017 - Ratio 30 (1):31-46.
    According to a popular model of mental causation, an irreducible mental cause M1 brings about an irreducible mental effect M2 by bringing about M2's supervenience base, (...)P2. Call thisthe Downward Causation View’. This paper raises doubts about the Downward Causation View on grounds that M1 does not cause M2 immediately and there is no causal chain from M1 to M2. Prima facie, then, M1 does not cause M2 on this view. But a theory of mental causation ought to account for how some mental phenomena cause other mental phenomena; so rival theories are to be preferred. After setting out the problem, I consider replies; all fail. (shrink)
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  44. The Einstein Podolsky Rosen Argument- From an Embarrassment to an Asset.Itamar Pitowsky - unknown
    More specifically, one notices thatX1X2, P1P2  0 where X1, X2 are the position operators for the first and second particles respectively, and P1, (...)
     
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  45.  4
    Split BN-Pairs of Finite Morley Rank.Katrin Tent - 2003 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 119 (1-3):239-264.
    Let G be a simple group of finite Morley rank with a definable BN-pair of rank 2 where B=UT for T=BN and U a (...) normal subgroup of B with Z1. By [9] 853) the Weyl group W=N/T has cardinality 2n with n=3,4,6,8 or 12. We prove here:Theorem 1. If n=3, then G is interpretably isomorphic to PSL3 for some algebraically closed field K.Theorem 2. Suppose Z contains some B-minimal subgroup AZ with RMRM for both parabolic subgroups P1 and P2. Then n=3,4 or 6 and G is interpretably isomorphic to PSL3, PSp4 or G2 for some algebraically closed field K.Theorem 3. If U is nilpotent and n8, then G is interpretably isomorphic to either PSL3, PSp4 or G2 for some algebraically closed field K. (shrink)
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  46.  28
    Rethinking Nagel.Shaffarullah Abdul Rahman - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 42:189-197.
    It may be tempting to think that given Nagels much-discussed bat argument inWhat Is It Like to be a Bat?” (henceforth the Bat article), Nagel (...) qua Nagel has conceived an argument against the very idea of physicalism. For example, Tye (1986 p. 7) argues that Nagels argument from the Bat-Phenomenology Analogy shows that the physicalist account of the mental phenomenon is incomplete. Churchland (1995 p. 196) conceives Nagel in a similar manner: “[from the Bat Argument] Nagel concludes that conscious phenomena cannot be given a purely physical explanation”. McCullough (1988 pp. 2-3), without regret, is more direct on the issue: Nagel is against physicalism because the state of what-it-is-likenessescapes the scientific net”. The same goes with Pereboom who argues that Thomas Nagel advances an argument that shows physicalist account of the phenomenal states areinadequate” (1994 p. 314). The most recent article dealing with the Bat argument also makes it clear that physicalism does not feature in friendly terms in Nagels thinking (Nagasawa 2004). While Nagasawa claims to offer a new approach to Nagels Bat argument in that Aquinasseemingly disconnected argument about the divine omnipotence can answer Nagels resistance to physicalism, it is quite clear that Nagel is still being treated as an anti-physicalist. Now, of course, its fallacious to say that all these philosophers are alike in their takes on Nagels alleged anti-physicalist outlook but I hope it is uncontroversial to say here that they seem to share a common view of Nagel: On Nagels account of conscious mental states, physicalism is false because it fails to explain exactly what it is like to be in those states. In this essay, I wish to argue that Nagels treatment of physicalism as demonstrated in the Bat article is much more philosophically subtle than his detractors thought him to be. From the outset, let me begin by stating that Nagel is not characteristically a foe of physicalism as most of philosophers make him to be but Nagel in the Bat article could seem beproposing three challenges to physicalism as follows: (P1) physicalism is false, (P2) physicalism is unintelligible and (P3) physicalism remains to be made intelligible. (shrink)
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  47.  48
    Contextual Priming in Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia.V. S. Ramachandran - unknown
    ��Grapheme-color synaesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which particular graphemes, such as the numeral 9, automatically induce the simultaneous perception of a particular color, such as (...)the color red. To test whether the concurrent color sensations in graphemecolor synaesthesia are treated as meaningful stimuli, we recorded event-related brain potentials as 8 synaesthetes and 8 matched control subjects read sentences such as ‘‘Looking very clear, the lake was the most beautiful hue of 7.’’ In synaesthetes, but not control subjects, congruous graphemes, compared with incongruous graphemes, elicited a more negative N1 component, a less positive P2 component, and a less negative N400 component. Thus, contextual congruity of synaesthetically induced colors altered the brain response to achromatic graphemes beginning 100 ms postonset, affecting pattern-recognition, perceptual, and meaning-integration processes. The results suggest that grapheme-color synaesthesia is automatic and perceptual in nature and also suggest that the connections between colors and numbers are bidirectional. (shrink)
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  48.  11
    Arf6 and the 5'Phosphatase of Synaptojanin 1 Regulate Autophagy in Cone Photoreceptors.Ashley A. George, Sara Hayden, Gail R. Stanton & Susan E. Brockerhoff - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (S1):S119-S135.
    Abnormalities in the ability of cells to properly degrade proteins have been identified in many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent work has implicated synaptojanin 1 (SynJ1) in Alzheimer's (...)disease and Parkinson's disease, although the role of this polyphosphoinositide phosphatase in protein degradation has not been thoroughly described. Here, we dissected in vivo the role of SynJ1 in endolysosomal trafficking in zebrafish cone photoreceptors using a SynJ1deficient zebrafish mutant, nrca14. We found that loss of SynJ1 leads to specific accumulation of late endosomes and autophagosomes early in photoreceptor development. An analysis of autophagic flux revealed that autophagosomes accumulate because of a defect in maturation. In addition we found an increase in vesicles that are highly enriched for PI(3)P, but negative for an early endosome marker in nrca14 cones. A mutational analysis of SynJ1 enzymatic domains found that activity of the 5'phosphatase, but not the Sac1 domain, is required to rescue both aberrant late endosomes and autophagosomes. Finally, modulating activity of the PI(4,5)P2 regulator, Arf6, rescued the disrupted trafficking pathways in nrca14 cones. Our study describes a specific role for SynJ1 in autophagosomal and endosomal trafficking and provides evidence that PI(4,5)P2 participates in autophagy in a neuronal cell type. -/- . (shrink)
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  49.  3
    Effects of Social and Affective Content on Exogenous Attention as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials.Vladimir Kosonogov, Jose M. Martinez-Selva, Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo, Ginesa Torrente, Luis Carretié & Juan P. Sanchez-Navarro - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (4):683-695.
    ABSTRACTThe social content of affective stimuli has been proposed as having an influence on cognitive processing and behaviour. This research was aimed, therefore, at studying whether automatic (...)
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  50.  5
    Obstacles in the Assessment of Intuitive Decision-Making Capacity.Wayne Martin - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (4):329-331.
    Suppose that three patients each independently confront the same high-stakes treatment decision. Perhaps it is an option to terminate a high-risk pregnancy, or to accept a (...) blood transfusion after a catastrophic hemorrhage. Suppose further that the three patients approach their choice in radically different ways. The divergence lies not in the choice made, but in the pathway followed in arriving at it. P1 is a classic analytical reasoner. She enumerates the potential costs and benefits of each option, reviews the probabilities, and makes a decision on the basis of her analysis. P2 does none of that analytical work. She has a settled and robust prior... (shrink)
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