Results for 'PGD'

82 found
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  1.  18
    Queerin' the PGD Clinic.Robert Sparrow - 2013 - Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (2):177-196.
    Disability activists influenced by queer theory and advocates ofhuman enhancementhave each disputed the idea that what isnormalis normatively significant, which currently plays a (...)
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  2.  26
    Gender Eugenics? The Ethics of PGD for Intersex Conditions.Robert Sparrow - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):29 - 38.
    This article discusses the ethics of the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to prevent the birth of children with intersex conditions/disorders of sex development , such as (...)
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  3. 'Saviour Siblings'? The Distinction Between PGD with HLA Tissue Typing and Preimplantation HLA Tissue Typing.Crystal K. Liu - 2007 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):65-70.
    One of the more controversial uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) involves selecting embryos with a specific tissue type so that the child to be born can (...)
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  4.  17
    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): European Perspectives and the German Situation.Tanja Krones & Gerd Richter - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (5):623 – 640.
    This article gives an overview about the ethical dispute on preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), its legal status and its practical usage in Europe. We provide a detailed (...)
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  5.  14
    On the Relation Between Moral, Legal and Evaluative Justifications of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD).Georg Lohmann - 2003 - Ethical Perspectives 10 (3):196-203.
    In Germany the question whether to uphold or repeal the judicial prohibition on Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis is being debated from quite different standpoints. This paper differentiates (...)the major arguments according to their reasons as a) moral, b) evaluative , and c) legal. The arguments for and against PGD can be divided by content into three groups: arguments relating to the status of the embryo, focusing on individual actions in the implementation of PGD, and relating to the foreseeable or probable consequences of PGD.In Germany, from a legal perspective, the status of the embryo does not permit the intervention of PGD; from a purely moral perspective, a prohibition on PGD does not appear defensible. It remains an open question, however, whether the moral argument permitting PGD should be restricted for evaluative reasons. The paper discusses the species-ethical reasons, for which Jürgen Habermas sees worrisome consequences in the wake of PGD to the extent that we comprehend it as the forerunner of apositive eugenics’. It would so disrupt the natural preconditions of our universal morality. The question of whether to prohibit or allow PGD is not merely a question of simple moral and/or legal arguments, but demands a choice between evaluative, moral and species-ethical arguments, and the question remains open. (shrink)
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  6. To PGD or Not to PGD?Bobbie Farsides - 2007 - Clinical Ethics 2 (3):109-109.
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  7.  4
    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (pgd) isapro.Frances R. Batzer & Vardit Ravitsky - 2009 - In Vardit Ravitsky, Autumn Fiester & Arthur L. Caplan (eds.), The Penn Center Guide to Bioethics. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 339.
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  8.  8
    Genetische Präimplantationsdiagnostik (PGD) in Europäischer Perspektive.Sophie E. Bastijn - 1999 - Ethik in der Medizin 11 (1):70-76.
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  9.  9
    PGD and Parental Obligations: What Parents Owe to Communities That Do Not Yet Exist.Chelsea Haramia - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):41 - 42.
  10.  23
    The Regulation of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in the Netherlands and the UK: a Comparative Study of the Regulatory Frameworks and Outcomes for PGD.E. C. A. Asscher - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (4):176-179.
    Developments in biotechnology present difficult social and ethical challenges that need to be resolved by regulators among others. One crucial problem for regulators of new technologies is (...)
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  11.  18
    A Parental Duty to Use PGD: More Than We Bargained For?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):14-15.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 14-15, April 2012.
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  12.  6
    The Ethics of PGD for Intersex Conditions: Problems With the Diversity Argument.David Trafimow - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):53 - 55.
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  13.  9
    The Ethics of PGD: What About the Physician?Michelle Goldsammler & Alan Jotkowitz - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):28-29.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 28-29, April 2012.
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  14.  8
    In Favor of PGD: The Moral Duty to Avoid Harm Argument.Angela K. Martin & Bernard Baertschi - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):12-13.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 12-13, April 2012.
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  15.  4
    Informed Choice and PGD to PreventIntersex Conditions”.Jeff Nisker - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):47 - 49.
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  16.  3
    Sex Selection: Final Word From the ASRM Ethics Committee on the Use of PGD.John Robertson - 2002 - Hastings Center Report 32 (2):6.
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  17.  4
    More Mud, Less Crystal? Ambivalence, Disability, and PGD.Mary Anderlik Majumder - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):26-28.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 26-28, April 2012.
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  18.  3
    Introduction: Introducing Innovation Into Practice: Technical and Ethical Analyses of PGD and ICSI Technologies.Gladys B. White & Michael E. McClure - 1998 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 26 (1):5-6.
  19. Introduction: Introducing Innovation Into Practice: Technical and Ethical Analyses of PGD and ICSI Technologies.Gladys B. White & Michael E. McClure - 1998 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 26 (1):5-6.
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  20.  85
    Why We Are Not Morally Required to Select the Best Children: A Response to Savulescu.Sarah E. Stoller - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (7):364-369.
    The purpose of this paper is to review critically Julian Savulescu's principle of 'Procreative Beneficence,' which holds that prospective parents are morally obligated to select, of (...)the possible children they could have, those with the greatest chance of leading the best life. According to this principle, prospective parents are obliged to use the technique of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select for the 'best' embryos, a decision that ought to be made based on the presence or absence of both disease traits and non-disease traits such as intelligence. While several articles have been written in response to Savulescu's principle, none has systematically explored its philosophical underpinnings to demonstrate where it breaks down. In this paper I argue that the examples that Savulescu employs to support his theory in fact fail to justify it. He presents these examples as analogous to PGD, when in fact they differ from it in subtle but morally relevant ways. Specifically, Savulescu fails to acknowledge the fact that his examples evoke deontological and virtue ethics concerns that are absent in the context of PGD. These differences turn out to be crucial, so that, in the end, the analogies bear little support for his theory. Finally, I lay out the implications of this analysis for reproductive ethics. (shrink)
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  21.  21
    Much More Than a Gene: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Reproductive Choices and Family Life[REVIEW]Catherine Dekeuwer & Simone Bateman - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):231-244.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigates the way in which carriers of a mutation on the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene, associated with (...)
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  22.  6
    Law, Bioethics and Practice in France: Forging a New Legislative Pact[REVIEW]Denis Berthiau - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):105-113.
    In France, bioethics norms have emerged in close interaction with medical practices. The first bioethics laws were adopted in 1994, with provisions for updates in 2004 and (...)
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  23.  48
    The Principle of Procreative Beneficence: Old Arguments and A New Challenge.Andrew Hotke - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (5):255-262.
    In the last ten years, there have been a number of attempts to refute Julian Savulescu's Principle of Procreative Beneficence; a principle which claims that parents (...)have a moral obligation to have the best child that they can possibly have. So far, no arguments against this principle have succeeded at refuting it. This paper tries to explain the shortcomings of some of the more notable arguments against this principle. I attempt to break down the argument for the principle and in doing so, I explain what is needed to properly refute it. This helps me show how and why the arguments of Rebecca Bennett, Sarah Stoller and others fail to refute the principle. Afterwards, I offer a new challenge to the principle. I attack what I understand to be a fundamental premise of the argument, a premise which has been overlooked in the literature written about this principle. I argue that there is no reason to suppose, as Savulescu does, that morality requires us to do what we have most reason to do. If we reject this premise, as I believe we have reason to do, the argument for Procreative Beneficence fails. (shrink)
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  24. Better Off Deaf.Robert Sparrow - 2002 - Res Publica 11 (1): 11-16.
  25.  28
    Human Enhancement and Sexual Dimorphism.Robert Sparrow - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (9):464-475.
    I argue that the existence of sexual dimorphism poses a profound challenge to those philosophers who wish to deny the moral significance of the idea ofnormal (...)
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  26.  23
    The Ethics of Nonmedical Sex Selection.H. Strange & R. Chadwick - 2010 - Health Care Analysis 18 (3):252-266.
    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that there are significant ethical problems with nonmedical sex selection, and that prohibitive legislation is justified. The central argument (...)
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  27.  39
    "Before You Formed in the Womb I Knew You": Sex Selection and Spaces of Ambiguity.Anna Mudde - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (3):553 - 576.
    The spaces provided by biotechnologies of sex selection are rich with epistemological, ontological, and ethical considerations that speak to broadly held social values and epistemic frameworks. In (...)
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  28.  11
    A Child's Right to a Decent Future?: Regulating Human Genetic Enhancement in Multicultural Societies.Robert Sparrow - 2012 - Asian Bioethics Review 4 (4):355-373.
    Should significant enhancement of human capacities using genetic technologies become possible, each generation will have an unprecedented power over the next. I argue that it is implausible (...)
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  29.  58
    The Case for a Parental Duty to Use Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Medical Benefit.Janet Malek & Judith Daar - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):3-11.
    This article explores the possibility that there is a parental duty to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for the medical benefit of future children. Using one genetic (...)
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  30.  92
    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Rational Choice Under Risk or Uncertainty.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):774-778.
    In this paper I present an argument in favour of a parental duty to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). I argue that if embryos created in vitro (...)
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  31.  65
    Futures of Reproduction: Bioethics and Biopolitics.Catherine Mills - 2011 - Springer.
    Issues in reproductive ethics, such as the capacity of parents tochoose children’, present challenges to philosophical ideas of freedom, responsibility and harm. This book responds to (...)
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  32.  21
    Eugenic Selection Benefits Embryos.Mark Walker - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (5):214-224.
    The primary question to be addressed here is whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), used for both negative and positive trait selection, benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The (...)phrasepotential supernumerary embryosis used to indicate that PGD is typically performed on a set of embryos, only some of which will be implanted. Prior to any testing, each embryo in the set is potentially supernumerary in the sense that it may not be selected for implantation. Those embryos that are not selected, and hence destroyed or frozen, areactually supernumerary’. The argument to be advanced is hypothetical: If embryos may be said to benefit or be harmed by our actions, then PGD used to select for an embryo or embryos with the highest expected Wellbeing benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The argument shows that thenon-identityproblem is not sufficient to show that eugenic selection does not benefit supernumerary embryos. (shrink)
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  33. Sex Selection and the Procreative Liberty Framework.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2013 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (1):1-18.
    Although surprising to some proponents of sex selection for non-medical reasons (Dahl 2005), a considerable amount of critical debate has been raised by this practice (Blyth, (...)Frith, and Crawshaw 2008; Dawson and Trounson 1996; Dickens 2002; Harris 2005; Heyd 2003; Holm 2004; Macklin 2010; Malpani 2002; McDougall 2005; Purdy 2007; Seavilleklein and Sherwin 2007; Steinbock 2002; Strange and Chadwick 2010; Wilkinson 2008). While abortion or infanticide has long been used as means of sex selection, a new technologypreimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)—has become a highly efficient, and arguably less controversial, way of ensuring the birth of a child of a particular sex. PGD, used in combination with in vitro .. (shrink)
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  34.  62
    A Situation of Ethical Limbo and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):780-781.
    In my previous paper I argued that if in vitro fertilization (IVF) is legal and practiced there is no moral ground to object to legalization of preimplantation (...)
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  35.  11
    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, Reproductive Freedom, and Deliberative Democracy.C. Farrelly - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (2):135-154.
    In this paper I argue that the account of deliberative democracy advanced by Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson (1996, 2004) is a useful normative theory that can (...)
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  36. The Ethics of Using Genetic Engineering for Sex Selection.S. Matthew Liao - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2):116-118.
    It is quite likely that parents will soon be able to use genetic engineering to select the sex of their child by directly manipulating the sex of (...)
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  37.  27
    The Right Not to Know and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Huntington's Disease.E. Asscher & B.-J. Koops - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (1):30-33.
    The right not to know is underappreciated in policy-making. Despite its articulation in medical law and ethics, policy-makers too easily let other concerns override the right (...) not to know. This observation is triggered by a recent decision of the Dutch government on embryo selection for Huntingtons disease. This is a monogenetic debilitating disease without cure, leading to death in early middle age, and thus is a likely candidate for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. People possibly affected with the Huntington gene do not always want to know their genetic status themselves, which is very burdensome knowledge. For prospective parents, this creates a difficulty in having unaffected children through embryo selection without knowing their own genetic status. A solution is provided by the exclusion test: it allows embryo selection while honouring the parentsright not to know. The Dutch government however disallowed the exclusion test and chose to allow PGD on Huntington only for parents who test themselves first. To avoidunnecessaryin-vitro fertilisation procedures for unaffected parents, prospective parents areforced to knowbefore they can conceive through embryo selection. This article analyses the scope of the right not to know in the context of embryo selection against Huntingtons disease. It concludes that the right not to know implies that PGD against Huntington should be allowed by means of the exclusion test. (shrink)
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  38.  10
    Chosen Children? : An Empirical Study and a Philosophical Analysis of Moral Aspects of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis and Germ-Line Gene Therapy.Kristin Zeiler - unknown
    With pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), genetic testing and selective transfer of embryos is possible. In the future, germ-line gene therapy (GLGT) applied to embryos before implantation (...), in order to introduce missing genes or replace mutant ones, may be possible. The objective of this dissertation is to analyse moral aspects of these technologies, as described by eighteen British, Italian and Swedish gynaecologists and geneticists. The objective is systematised into three parts: research interviews and qualitative analysis, philosophical analysis, and elaboration of a framework that supports the combination of analytic methods. PGD was described as positive since it enabled some couples at risk for a genetic disease to have a child without the disease. PGD was described as in different sensesbetterthan methods for prenatal diagnosis and selective termination of pregnancy. It was also described as positive since it provided couples at risk with one more option, even if it did not result in the birth of a healthy child. However, interviewees were concerned about the difficulty of defining and evaluating genetic disease. They were also concerned about patientschoices, and about exaggerated use or misuse. Whereas PGD gave rise to ambivalence in terms of how to understand, describe and evaluate it, GLGT was often described as unrealistic or undesirable. The results of the qualitative analysis are used in a philosophical analysis of the concepts of choice, autonomous choice, ambivalence, trust and ambivalence in trust relations. A set of distinct characteristics of each concept are elaborated. The results of the philosophical analysis are used in the discussion of the results of the qualitative analysis. The study shows that the technologies imply bothnewways to performoldmedical practices andnewpractices. Old moral questions are reformulated. New moral questions are added. Against the background of this, the concept of genetic identity is discussed. Key words: empirical ethics, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, germ-line gene therapy, qualitative research, philosophical analysis, medical progress, genetic disease, choice, autonomous choice, ambivalence, trust, genetic identity. (shrink)
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  39.  12
    Sex Selection for Social Purposes in Israel: Quest for the "Perfect Child" of a Particular Gender or Centuries Old Prejudice Against Women?R. Landau - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e10-e10.
    On 9 May 2005, the Israeli Ministry of Health issued guidelines spelling out the conditions under which sex selection by preimplantation genetic diagnosis for social purposes is (...)
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  40.  57
    Choosing Deafness with Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: An Ethical Way to Carry on a Cultural Bloodline?Silvia Camporesi - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (1):86.
    These words were written by ethicist Jonathan Glover in his paperFuture People, Disability and Screeningin 1992. Whereas screening and choosing for a disability remained a (...)
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  41.  91
    Preimplantation HLA Typing: Having Children to Save Our Loved Ones.K. Devolder - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (10):582-586.
    Next SectionPreimplantation tissue typing has been proposed as a method for creating a tissue matched child that can serve as a haematopoietic stem cell donor to save (...)
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  42.  7
    Prenatal Diagnosis as a Tool and Support for Eugenics: Myth or Reality in Contemporary French Society[REVIEW]Marie Gaille & Géraldine Viot - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):83-91.
    Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), (...)prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticists various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim fornormalityhardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way. (shrink)
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  43.  2
    Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction.Silvia Camporesi - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-5.
    This Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction symposium draws together a series of articles that were each submitted independently by their authors to the JBI (...)
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  44.  12
    Choosing Between Possible Lives: Legal and Ethical Issues in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.Rosamund Scott - 2006 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 26 (1):153-178.
    This article critically appraises the current legal scope of the principal applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This relatively new technique, which is available to some parents (...)
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  45.  37
    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Choosing theGood EnoughChild[REVIEW]Helen Watt - 2004 - Health Care Analysis 12 (1):51-60.
    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) raises serious moral questions concerning the parent-child relationship. Good parents accept their children unconditionally: they do not reject/attack them because they do (...) not have the features they want. There is nothing wrong with treating a child as someone who can help promote some other worthwhile end, providing the child is also respected as an end in him or herself. However, if the child's presence is not valued in itself, regardless of any further benefits it brings, the child is not being treated as an end in the full sense of the term. In this paper, I argue that these principles apply to human embryos, as well as to born human offspring: the human moral subject is a bodily being, whose interests and rights begin with the onset of his or her bodily life. The rights of the living, bodily human individual include a right not to be attacked/abandoned because of his or her genetic profile. PGD is harmful to the parent-child relationship, and we give mixed messages to parents by expecting them to show unconditional commitment to offspring after birth, while inviting them to take a very different approach at the prenatal stage. (shrink)
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  46.  6
    An Analysis of US Fertility Centre Educational Materials Suggests That Informed Consent for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis May Be Inadequate.M. L. LaBonte - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (8):479-484.
    The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has expanded both in number and scope over the past 2 decades. Initially carried out to avoid the birth of (...)
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  47.  33
    From Brute Luck to Option Luck? On Genetics, Justice, and Moral Responsibility in Reproduction.Y. Denier - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):101-129.
    The structure of our ethical experience depends, crucially, on a fundamental distinction between what we are responsible for doing or deciding and what is given to us. (...)
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  48.  12
    Extending Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Medical and Non-Medical Uses.J. A. Robertson - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (4):213-216.
    New uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to screen embryos prior to transfer raise ethical, legal, and policy issues that deserve close attention. Extensions for medical purposes, such (...)
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  49.  31
    Right Problem, Wrong Solution: A Pro-Choice Response toExpressivistConcerns About Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.Colin Gavaghan - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (1):20-34.
    In August 2005, the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority launched a public consultation, seeking views on the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for the detection (...)
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  50.  43
    Creating a Stem Cell Donor: A Case Study in Reproductive Genetics.Jeffrey P. Kahn & Anna C. Mastroianni - 2004 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (1):81-96.
    : During the nearly 10 years since its introduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been used predominantly to avoid giving birth to a child with identified genetic disease (...). Recently, PGD was used by a couple not only to test IVF-created embryos for genetic disease, but also to test for a nondisease trait related to immune compatibility with a child in the family in need of an hematopoetic stem cell transplant. This article describes the case, raises some ethical and policy issues, highlights gaps in U.S. policy, and finally makes some recommendations for addressing advancing genetic and reproductive technologies. (shrink)
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