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This paper concerns the status of Aristotle’s claim that a friend is another self in NE IX.4. Against the prevailing interpretation, I defend the view that Aristotle uses the other-self claim to explain how a virtuous person who values himself will come to value his friend, according to which 1) loving a friend is an extension of self-love, and 2) the conception of the friend as another self explains how the friend’s eudaimonia becomes constitutive of the agent’s eudaimonia. I argue (...) that this view, properly construed, is defensible from two objections: that it is narcissistic, and that it is incompatible with Aristotle’s insistence that we value our friends for their sakes. According to Aristotle, virtuous friends become other selves to one another by engaging in a process I call “reciprocal shaping,” a process by which friends develop a shared character. If virtuous friends value one another on account of character as Aristotle claims, then they value one another on account their shared character. (shrink)
This paper offers a comparison between the aristocratic radicalism of Nietzsche and that of the Colombian philosopher, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, in order to point out their points of contact and their differences. This leads to the analysis of the uneven reception of their ideas, which at the same time ..
We review and discuss A. H. Louie’s book “More than Life Itself: A Reflexion on Formal Systems and Biology” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, involving both biology and mathematics, taking into account new developments and related theories.
Alonso-Meijide and Fiestras-Janeiro (2002, Annals of Operations Research 109, 213–227) proposed a modification of the Banzhaf value for games where a coalition structure is given. In this paper we present a method to compute this value by means of the multilinear extension of the game. A real-world numerical example illustrates the application procedure.
La figura del payaso ha pasado por diferentes momentos y lecturas históricas, lo que permite considerarla como una figura arquetípica. Su papel en la sociedad históricamente fue el del ridículo, objeto de risas, pero el payaso no sólo es un ser congruente, auténtico y valiente, sino que también pued..
Ya la ironía socrática dijo que la filosofía no progresaba porque se ocupaba siempre de los mismos asuntos; el saber filosófico, asediado por la cuestión de su legitimidad, muestra su capacidad regenerativa volviendo siempre sobre sus fundamentos histórico-conceptuales. De ahí que quien intente defi..
There are important cases where properties not referred to by expressions from the languages of physics are enabled in certain times and circumstances to get causal control over some kinds of physical events. I will argue that in those cases we would have to transfer to those properties the causal sufficiency to bring about these events. This would offer a principle of causal inheritance in sharp contrast with the inheritance principle for the causal sufficiency of second order properties defended by (...) Jaegwon Kim in his recent discussion of the causal exclusion problem concerning mental properties. The two principles would be very different. Their domains of application would be distinct. Kim's principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "concrete" physical properties able to realize mental properties understood as second order properties. Our principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "general" properties able to cause the relevant physical effects in the times and circumstances in question. That way, it would be possible to give a quite simple answer to the problem of causal exclusion posed by Kim in relation to mental properties. Our approach also would have very important consequences in relation to ordinary macrophysical causation. (shrink)
As Freud convincingly shows, civilised political life is a source of constant uneasiness. Desire propels the subject towards an end that remains unfulfilled and pleasure is reduced to a transition from one moment of displeasure to another. Freud conceives pleasure as suppression of an absence, as the result of a process. Marcuse in his turn showed that excessive pleasure works as a counterbalance for displeasure, the repression of sexual impulse and the hypertrophy of the genitalia producing intense pleasure. A post-Freudian (...) theory of pleasure would complement Marcuse’s materialist critique of psychoanalysis by learning to conceive pure pleasure (with Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics) in a non-metaphysical way, segregated from the notion of superfluity. (shrink)
Se analiza en este estudio, las implicaciones que para el campo de la ética filosófica comporta el desarrollo de algunas de las investigaciones científicas en el campo de las neurociencias. El organismo humano nunca disocia de manera tajante la razón práctica de la teórica y, por tanto, las dimensio..
In contrast with the development of big theories in the context of social sciences, there is nowadays an increasing interest in the construction of simulation models for complex phenomena. Those simulation models suggest a certain image of social sciences as a kind of, let us say, "patchwork". In that image, an increase in understanding about the phenomena modeled is obtained through a certain sort of aggregation. There is not an application of sound, established theories to all the phenomena of a (...) certain kind, but an aggregation of the structures supposed, and of the results obtained, when particular systems are modeled. The recent case of the "El Farol Bar" problem, and the models built in order to face this problem, are a good example of this. We will analyze that case, trying to make clear what would be implied by the image above mentioned. Special attention will be paid to the need to take seriously the notion of a bounded rationality, linked to the special circumstances generating each decision problem, and to the existence of an irreducible pluralism of models. (shrink)
This paper pretends to give elements for the urgent dialogue between Gadamer is hermeneutic philosophy and Nietzsche is work. From the version given by Gadamer of the initial disencounter with the Zarathustra, we move on to the count made by him of the growing height of interpretation, term that..
Mo der nity´s analy ti cal and re duc tio nist thin king of fe red us a uni vo cal and uni ver sa list re pre sen ta tion of the World. Scien ti fic ob jec ti - vity clo sed the ac cess to the di ver sity and plu ra - lity of ot her pos si ble know led ges. The epis te mo - lo gi cal cri ti cis..
Estudiamos en este artículo la evolución de los valores de la polis griega, desde sus más remotos antecedentes (Homero) hasta su máximo esplendor que coincide con el enfrentamiento entre los sofistas y Platón.
Lévinas is one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century and, perhaps, the philosopher who has attempted to think of difference most seriously. In this effort, he encountered the limits of language itself, as well as the difficulties it poses for thinking the other, difference, outside the ..