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Paisley Livingston
Lingnan University
  1. Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study.Paisley Livingston - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    In Art and intention Paisley Livingston develops a broad and balanced perspective on perennial disputes between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists in philosophical aesthetics and critical theory. He surveys and assesses a wide range of rival assumptions about the nature of intentions and the status of intentionalist psychology. With detailed reference to examples from diverse media, art forms, and traditions, he demonstrates that insights into the multiple functions of intentions have important implications for our understanding of artistic creation and authorship, the ontology (...)
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  2. The Complete Work.Kelly Trogdon & Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2014 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 72 (3):225-233.
    Defense of a psychological account of what it is for an artwork to be complete.
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  3.  31
    Art and Intention.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2005 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (2):414-415.
    In aesthetics, the topic of intentions comes up most often in the perennial debate between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists over standards of interpretation. The underlying assumptions about the nature and functions of intentions are, however, rarely explicitly developed, even though divergent and at times tendentious premises are often relied upon in this controversy. Livingston provides a survey of contentions about the nature and status of intentions and intentionalist psychology more generally, arguing for an account that recognizes the multiple functions fulfilled by (...)
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  4.  95
    On an Apparent Truism in Aesthetics.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2003 - British Journal of Aesthetics 43 (3):260-278.
    It has often been claimed that adequate aesthetic judgements must be grounded in the appreciator's first-hand experience of the item judged. Yet this apparent truism is misleading if adequate aesthetic judgements can instead be based on descriptions of the item or on acquaintance with some surrogate for it. In a survey of responses to such challenges to the apparent truism, I identify several contentions presented in its favour, including stipulative definitions of ‘aesthetic judgement’, assertions about conceptual gaps between determinate aesthetic (...)
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  5.  39
    Hermes: Literature, Science, Philosophy.Paisley Livingston, Michel Serres, Josue V. Harari & David F. Bell - 1983 - Substance 12 (2):123.
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  6.  18
    Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (3):299-305.
    In aesthetics, the topic of intentions comes up most often in the perennial debate between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists over standards of interpretation. The underlying assumptions about the nature and functions of intentions are, however, rarely explicitly developed, even though divergent and at times tendentious premises are often relied upon in this controversy. Livingston provides a survey of contentions about the nature and status of intentions and intentionalist psychology more generally, arguing for an account that recognizes the multiple functions fulfilled by (...)
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  7.  80
    Cinema, Philosophy, Bergman: On Film as Philosophy.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The increasingly popular idea that cinematic fictions can "do" philosophy raises some difficult questions. Who is actually doing the philosophizing? Is it the philosophical commentator who reads general arguments or theories into the stories conveyed by a film? Could it be the film-maker, or a group of collaborating film-makers, who raise and try to answer philosophical questions with a film? Is there something about the experience of films that is especially suited to the stimulation of worthwhile philosophical reflections? In the (...)
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  8. Artwork Completion: A Response to Gover.Kelly Trogdon & Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2015 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 73 (4):460-462.
    Response to Gover (2015) on Trogdon and Livingston (2015) on artwork completion.
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  9. Theses on Cinema as Philosophy.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1991 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (1):11–18.
    The article explores the link between motion pictures and philosophy, citing film's contribution to philosophy, and the illustrative and heuristic roles of films. The philosophical contributions of films may be examined in the films "Vredens Dag," or "Day of Wrath," where filmmaker, Carl Theodor Dreyer used various specifically cinematic means to express ideas pertaining to ethical and epistemic issues, while "The Seventh Seal," provides some ideas about religion.
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  10. 'Explicating "Creativity".Paisley Livingston - 2018 - In Berys Gaut & Matthew Kieran (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Creativity and Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 108-123.
    Beginning with the prevalent idea that creativity is the ability to make or do things having valuable novelty, the paper explores a variety of axiological and novelty conditions and defends an instrumental success condition. I discuss Robert K. Merton's distinction between 'originality' and 'priority', and Margaret Boden's similar distinction between historical and psychological creativity, as well as Thomas Reid's and Bruce Vermazen's remarks on relations between novelty and value.
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  11.  75
    Artistic Collaboration and the Completion of Works of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Carol Archer - 2010 - British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (4):439-455.
    We present an analysis of work completion couched in terms of an effective completion decision identified by its characteristic contents and functions. In our proposal, the artist's completion decision can take a number of distinct forms, including a procedural variety referred to as an ‘extended completion decision’. In the second part of this essay, we address ourselves to the question of whether collaborative art-making projects stand as counterexamples to the proposed analysis of work completion.
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  12. Interpretation and Construction: Art, Speech and the Law.Robert Stecker, Matthew Kieran, Berys Gaut & Paisley Livingston - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (218):150-155.
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  13. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy and Film.Paisley Livingston & Carl Plantinga (eds.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    _The Routledge Companion to Philosophy and Film_ is the first comprehensive volume to explore the main themes, topics, thinkers and issues in philosophy and film. The _Companion_ features sixty specially commissioned chapters from international scholars and is divided into four clear parts: • issues and concepts • authors and trends • genres • film as philosophy. Part one is a comprehensive section examining key concepts, including chapters on acting, censorship, character, depiction, ethics, genre, interpretation, narrative, reception and spectatorship and style. (...)
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  14.  68
    Counting Fragments, and Frenhofer’s Paradox.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1999 - British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (1):14-23.
    It is quite common to draw a distinction between complete and unfinished works of art. For example, it is uncontroversial to think that Vermeer had actually completed View of Delft before inept restorers added layers of coloured varnish to give the picture an antique quality, and there is very good evidence to support the related claim that the artist had not finished the work before he effected several pentimenti, including the painting over of a figure in the foreground on the (...)
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  15.  17
    Evaluating Emotional Responses to Fiction.Paisley Livingston & Alfred Mele - 1997 - In Mette Hjort & Sue Laver (eds.), Emotion and the Arts.
    Philosophical discussion of emotional responses to fiction has been dominated by work on the paradox of fiction, which is often construed as asking whether and how we can experience genuine emotions in reaction to fiction. One may also ask more generally how we ought to respond to fictional works, a question that has to do both with what we should do when reacting to fiction and with what we should and should not let happen to us. It is possible to (...)
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  16.  26
    Literary Knowledge: Humanistic Inquiry and the Philosophy of Science.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1988 - Cornell University Press.
    Paisley Livingston here addresses contemporary controversies over the role of "theory" within the humanistic disciplines. In the process, he suggests ways in which significant modern texts in the philosophy of science relate to the study of literature. Livingston first surveys prevalent views of theory, and then proposes an alternative: theory, an indispensable element in the study of literature, should be understood as a Cogently argued and informed in its judgments, this book points the way to a fuller understanding of the (...)
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  17. The Creation of Art: New Essays in Philosophical Aesthetics.Berys Gaut & Paisley Livingston (eds.) - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Although creativity, from Plato onwards, has been recognized as a topic in philosophy, it has been overshadowed by investigations of the meanings and values of works of art. In this collection of essays a distinguished roster of philosophers of art redress this trend. The subjects discussed include the nature of creativity and the process of artistic creation; the role that creative making should play in our understanding and evaluation of art; relations between concepts of creation and creativity; and ideas of (...)
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  18.  48
    Narrativity and Knowledge.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2009 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67 (1):25-36.
    The ever-expanding literature on narrative reveals a striking divergence of claims about the epistemic valence of narrative. One such claim is the oftstated idea that narratives or stories generate both “hot” and “cold” epistemic irrationality. A familiar, rival claim is that narrative has an exclusive capacity to embody or convey important types of knowledge. Such contrasting contentions are not typically presented as statements about the accidents or effects of particular narratives; the ambition, rather, has been to identify a strong link (...)
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  19. On Authorship and Collaboration.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2011 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69 (2):221-225.
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  20.  44
    The Bold Thesis Retried: On Cinema as Philosophy.Paisley Livingston - 2019 - In Christina Rawls, Diana Neiva & Steven Gouveia (eds.), Philosophy and Film: Bridging Divides. New York: Routledge. pp. 81-91.
    This paper begins by presenting a simple model that maps some salient positions on the topic of cinema as philosophy, including the very strong claims that are constitutive of what has been stipulated to be “the bold thesis.” It is contended that examples that have been adduced in the literature as substantiating that bold thesis in fact only support weaker claims. It is argued in favor of accepting some such theses on the topic. It is then introduced a number of (...)
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  21. History of the Ontology of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    First critical survey devoted to the history of philosophical contributions to this topic. Brings to light neglected contributions prior to the second half of the 20th century including works in Danish, German, and French. Provides a division of issues and clarifies key ambiguities related to modality.
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  22. Cinematic Authorship.Paisley Livingston - 1997 - In Richard Allen & Murray Smith (eds.), Film Theory and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  23.  20
    History of the Ontology of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Questions central to the ontology of art include the following: what sort of things are works of art? Do all works of art belong to any one basic ontological category? Do all or only some works have multiple instances? Do works have parts or constituents, and if so, what is their relation to the work as a whole? How are particular works of art individuated? Are they created or discovered? Can they be destroyed? Explicit and extensive treatments of these topics (...)
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  24. Intention in Art.Paisley Livingston - 2003 - In Jerrold Levinson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Oxford University Press.
  25.  22
    Counting Fragments, and Frenhofer’s Paradox.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    It is quite common to draw a distinction between complete and unfinished works of art. For example, it is uncontroversial to think that Vermeer had actually completed View of Delft before inept restorers added layers of coloured varnish to give the picture an antique quality, and there is very good evidence to support the related claim that the artist had not finished the work before he effected several pentimenti, including the painting over of a figure in the foreground on the (...)
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  26.  35
    Intentionalism in Aesthetics.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Intentionalism in aesthetics is, quite generally, the thesis that the artist's or artists' intentions have a decisive role in the creation of a work of art, and that knowledge of such intentions is a necessary component of at least some adequate interpretive and evaluative claims. In this paper I develop and defend this thesis. I begin with a discussion of some anti-intentionalist arguments. Surveying a range of intentionalist responses to them, I briefly introduce and criticize a fictionalist version of intentionalism (...)
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  27. Nested Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2003 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (3):233–246.
    Explores the artistic metarepresentation of nested art. Nested artistic structure; Contrast between artistic nesting and metafiction; Definition of nested art.
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  28.  4
    Literary Knowledge: Humanistic Inquiry and the Philosophy of Science.Paisley Livingston - 1988 - Cornell University Press.
    Paisley Livingston here addresses contemporary controversies over the role of "theory" within the humanistic disciplines. In the process, he suggests ways in which significant modern texts in the philosophy of science relate to the study of literature. Livingston first surveys prevalent views of theory, and then proposes an alternative: theory, an indispensable element in the study of literature, should be understood as a Cogently argued and informed in its judgments, this book points the way to a fuller understanding of the (...)
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  29. Philosophical Perspectives on Fictional Characters.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Andrea Sauchelli - 2011 - New Literary History 42 (2):337-360.
    This paper takes up a series of basic philosophical questions about the nature and existence of fictional characters. We begin with realist approaches that hinge on the thesis that at least some claims about fictional characters can be right or wrong because they refer to something that exists, such as abstract objects. Irrealist approaches deny such realist postulations and hold instead that fictional characters are a figment of the human imagination. A third family of approaches, based on work by Alexius (...)
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  30.  14
    When a Work Is Finished: A Response to Darren Hudson Hick.Paisley Livingston - 2008 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (4):393-395.
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  31.  19
    Discussion Paper : When a Work is Finished : A Response to Darren Hudson Hick.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    [Discussion article, no abstract is available].
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  32.  11
    Literary Knowledge: Humanistic Inquiry and the Philosophy of Science.Lawrence R. Schehr & Paisley Livingston - 1988 - Substance 18 (3):120.
    Paisley Livingston here addresses contemporary controversies over the role of "theory" within the humanistic disciplines. In the process, he suggests ways in which significant modern texts in the philosophy of science relate to the study of literature. Livingston first surveys prevalent views of theory, and then proposes an alternative: theory, an indispensable element in the study of literature, should be understood as a Cogently argued and informed in its judgments, this book points the way to a fuller understanding of the (...)
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  33.  28
    Bolzano on Beauty.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2014 - British Journal of Aesthetics 54 (3):269-284.
    This paper sets forth Bolzano’s little-known 1843 account of beauty. Bolzano accepted the thesis that beauty is what rewards contemplation with pleasure. The originality of his proposal lies in his claim that the source of this pleasure is a special kind of cognitive process, namely, the formation of an adequate concept of the object’s attributes through the successful exercise of the observer’s proficiency at obscure and confused cognition. To appreciate this proposal we must understand how Bolzano explicated a number of (...)
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  34.  3
    Lange Vs James on Emotion, Passion, and the Arts.Paisley Livingston - 2019 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 85:39-56.
    According to what is now the standard account in the history of psychology, in the 1880s William James and the Danish physician Carl Georg Lange independently developed a strikingly new theory, commonly referred to as the ‘James–Lange’ theory of emotion. In this paper it is argued that this standard account is highly misleading. Lange's views on affect in his Om Sindsbevægelser were more cautious than James allowed, and not open to criticisms that have often been levelled against the theory of (...)
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  35.  58
    C. I. Lewis and the Outlines of Aesthetic Experience.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2004 - British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (4):378-392.
    The current essay describes aspects of C. I. Lewis’s rarely cited contributions to aesthetics, focusing primarily on the conception of aesthetic experience developed in An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation. Lewis characterized aesthetic value as a proper subset of inherent value, which he understood as the power to occasion intrinsically valued experiences. He distinguished aesthetic experiences from experiences more generally in terms of eight conditions. Roughly, he proposed that aesthetic experiences have a highly positive, preponderantly intrinsic value realized through contemplation, (...)
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  36. Narrative.Paisley Livingston - 2001 - In Berys Nigel Gaut & Dominic Lopes (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. Routledge.
     
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  37.  14
    C.I. Lewis and the Outlines of Aesthetic Experience.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    The current essay describes aspects of C. I. Lewis’s rarely cited contributions to aesthetics, focusing primarily on the conception of aesthetic experience developed in An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation. Lewis characterized aesthetic value as a proper subset of inherent value, which he understood as the power to occasion intrinsically valued experiences. He distinguished aesthetic experiences from experiences more generally in terms of eight conditions. Roughly, he proposed that aesthetic experiences have a highly positive, preponderantly intrinsic value realized through contemplation, (...)
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  38. The Creation of Art.Berys Gaut & Paisley Livingston - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):538-540.
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  39.  28
    Bolzano on Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2016 - British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (4):333-345.
    In his little-known essay published posthumously in 1849, Über die Eintheilung der schönen Künste, Bernard Bolzano proposes an explication of the concept of beautiful art as well as a classification of these arts. Bolzano’s divisions allowed him not only to provide a principled and comprehensive classification of actual, well-established arts, but also to anticipate kinds of beautiful art that would not exist or be widely recognized until decades after his death, such as moving pictures, abstract paintings, and what he called (...)
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  40.  32
    On the Appreciation of Cinematic Adaptations.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    This article explores basic constraints on the nature and appreciation of cinematic adaptations. An adaptation, it is argued, is a work that has been intentionally based on a source work and that faithfully and overtly imitates many of this source's characteristic features, while diverging from it in other respects. Comparisons between an adaptation and its source are essential to the appreciation of adaptations as such. In spite of many adaptation theorists' claims to the contrary, some of the comparisons essential to (...)
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  41. Thought Experiments in Aesthetics.Paisley Livingston & Mikael Pettersson - 2016 - In K. Brownlee, D. Coady & K. Lippert-Rasmussen (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Applied Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 501–513.
    In the burgeoning literature on thought experiments (e.g., Cohen 2005; Freese 1995; Gendler 2000; Häggqvist 1996, 2009; Ierodiakonou and Roux 2011; Sorensen 1992), examples are drawn from almost all areas of philosophy. One exception, however, is aesthetics. There are good reasons why this is so: there are very few interesting theory‐ oriented thought experiments in aesthetics, which is unsurprising since there are few well‐developed theories to test in this field (see Chapter 34, Applied Aesthetics). We argue in this chapter, however, (...)
     
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  42.  36
    What's the Story?Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1993 - Substance 22 (2/3):98.
    People often ask each other “what happens” in a novel or film, and they are inclined to think that some answers are better than others. Some claims about what happens in a story are deemed inaccurate or false, while others are the object of a fairly widespread consensus. The fact that a statement about a narrative discourse is deemed accurate does not mean that it will or should be accepted as an adequate statement about the story told in the discourse. (...)
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  43.  12
    Poincaré's "Delicate Sieve" : On Creativity and Constraints in the Arts.Paisley Livingston - unknown
    Testimony about episodes of artistic creativity often describes a puzzling combination of deliberate and involuntary elements. For example, Vincent Van Gogh wrote that it was possible for him to make an especially expressive picture, or as he put it, something with “feeling” in it, because the picture had already spontaneously taken form in his mind before he started drawing. He added, however, that if there was something worthwhile in the picture, this was “not by accident but because of real intention (...)
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  44.  56
    Du Bos' Paradox.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2013 - British Journal of Aesthetics 53 (4):393-406.
    What is now generally known as the paradox of art and negative affect was identified as a paradox by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in 1719. In his attempt to explain how people can admire and enjoy representational works that ‘afflict’ them, Du Bos claims that such representations give rise to ‘artificial’ emotions, provide a pleasurable relief from boredom, and offer us epistemic, artistic, and moral rewards. The paper delineates Du Bos’ proposal, considers the question of Du Bos’ originality, and (...)
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  45.  12
    Intentions and Interpretations.Alfred R. Mele & Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1992 - MLN 107 (5):931-949.
    Even if everything is up for grabs in philosophy, some things are very difficult to doubt. It is hard to believe, for example, that no one ever acts intentionally. Even the most powerful arguments for the unreality of intentional action could do no more, we believe, than place one in roughly the position in which pre-Aristotelian Greeks found themselves when presented with one of Zeno's arguments that nothing can move from any given point A to any other point B. One (...)
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  46. Literature.Paisley Livingston - 2003 - In Jerrold Levinson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Oxford University Press.
     
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  47. Why Realism Matters: Literary Knowledge and the Philosophy of Science.Paisley Livingston - 1993 - In George Levine (ed.), Realism and Representation. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 134--54.
     
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  48. Models of Desire : René Girard and the Psychology of Mimesis.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    To some, Rene Girard is best known for his views on sacred myth and ritual. To others, he is the eminent structuralist critic who offers challenging readings of major literary works. Still others know him for his analyses of the Bible. Central to all aspects of Girard's work is his theory of mimesis, a basic hypothesis about the structures of human motivation, Yet nowhere in his writings does Girard offer a systematic presentation of the mimetic theory. In fact, key terminology (...)
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  49. Teaching & Learning Guide For: Cinema as Philosophy.Paisley Livingston - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (4):359-362.
    The idea that films can be philosophical, or in some sense ‘do’ philosophy, has recently found a number of prominent proponents. What is at stake here is generally more than the tepid claim that some documentaries about philosophy and related topics convey philosophically relevant content. Instead, the contention is that cinematic fictions, including popular movies such as The Matrix, make significant contributions to philosophy. Various more specific claims are linked to this basic idea. One, relatively weak, but pedagogically important observation (...)
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  50.  61
    On Cinematic Genius: Ontology and Appreciation: Paisley Livingston.Paisley Livingston - 2012 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 71:85-104.
    The word ‘genius’ is often associated with the idea that artistic creativity is entirely a matter of an involuntary sort of inspiration visited upon the individual artist. My aim in referring to cinematic genius is not, however, to defend that dubious thesis, but to direct attention to the remarkable artistic achievements that some film-makers, working individually or in collaborative teams, have managed to bring about in their intentional and often painstaking creation of cinematic works. Genius, as I understand it, is (...)
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