92 found
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  1.  92
    The Complete Work.Kelly Trogdon & Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2014 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 72 (3):225-233.
    What is it for a work of art to be complete? In this article, we argue that an artwork is complete just in case the artist has acquired a completion disposition with respect to her work—a disposition grounded in certain cognitive mechanisms to refrain from making significant changes to the work. We begin by explaining why the complete/incomplete distinction with respect to artworks is both practically and philosophically significant. Then we consider and reject two approaches to artwork completion. Finally, we (...)
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  2.  20
    Art and Intention.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2005 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (2):414-415.
    In aesthetics, the topic of intentions comes up most often in the perennial debate between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists over standards of interpretation. The underlying assumptions about the nature and functions of intentions are, however, rarely explicitly developed, even though divergent and at times tendentious premises are often relied upon in this controversy. Livingston provides a survey of contentions about the nature and status of intentions and intentionalist psychology more generally, arguing for an account that recognizes the multiple functions fulfilled by (...)
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  3.  5
    Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (3):299-305.
    In aesthetics, the topic of intentions comes up most often in the perennial debate between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists over standards of interpretation. The underlying assumptions about the nature and functions of intentions are, however, rarely explicitly developed, even though divergent and at times tendentious premises are often relied upon in this controversy. Livingston provides a survey of contentions about the nature and status of intentions and intentionalist psychology more generally, arguing for an account that recognizes the multiple functions fulfilled by (...)
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  4. Artwork Completion: A Response to Gover.Kelly Trogdon & Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2015 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 73 (4):460-462.
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  5.  75
    On an Apparent Truism in Aesthetics.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2003 - British Journal of Aesthetics 43 (3):260-278.
    It has often been claimed that adequate aesthetic judgements must be grounded in the appreciator's first-hand experience of the item judged. Yet this apparent truism is misleading if adequate aesthetic judgements can instead be based on descriptions of the item or on acquaintance with some surrogate for it. In a survey of responses to such challenges to the apparent truism, I identify several contentions presented in its favour, including stipulative definitions of ‘aesthetic judgement’, assertions about conceptual gaps between determinate aesthetic (...)
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  6.  59
    Counting Fragments, and Frenhofer’s Paradox.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1999 - British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (1):14-23.
    It is quite common to draw a distinction between complete and unfinished works of art. For example, it is uncontroversial to think that Vermeer had actually completed View of Delft before inept restorers added layers of coloured varnish to give the picture an antique quality, and there is very good evidence to support the related claim that the artist had not finished the work before he effected several pentimenti, including the painting over of a figure in the foreground on the (...)
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  7.  40
    Artistic Collaboration and the Completion of Works of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Carol Archer - 2010 - British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (4):439-455.
    We present an analysis of work completion couched in terms of an effective completion decision identified by its characteristic contents and functions. In our proposal, the artist's completion decision can take a number of distinct forms, including a procedural variety referred to as an ‘extended completion decision’. In the second part of this essay, we address ourselves to the question of whether collaborative art-making projects stand as counterexamples to the proposed analysis of work completion.
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  8.  89
    On Authorship and Collaboration.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2011 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69 (2):221-225.
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  9.  25
    Bolzano on Beauty.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2014 - British Journal of Aesthetics 54 (3):269-284.
    This paper sets forth Bolzano’s little-known 1843 account of beauty. Bolzano accepted the thesis that beauty is what rewards contemplation with pleasure. The originality of his proposal lies in his claim that the source of this pleasure is a special kind of cognitive process, namely, the formation of an adequate concept of the object’s attributes through the successful exercise of the observer’s proficiency at obscure and confused cognition. To appreciate this proposal we must understand how Bolzano explicated a number of (...)
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  10.  8
    History of the Ontology of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Questions central to the ontology of art include the following: what sort of things are works of art? Do all works of art belong to any one basic ontological category? Do all or only some works have multiple instances? Do works have parts or constituents, and if so, what is their relation to the work as a whole? How are particular works of art individuated? Are they created or discovered? Can they be destroyed? Explicit and extensive treatments of these topics (...)
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  11.  38
    Narrativity and Knowledge.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2009 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67 (1):25-36.
    The ever-expanding literature on narrative reveals a striking divergence of claims about the epistemic valence of narrative. One such claim is the oftstated idea that narratives or stories generate both “hot” and “cold” epistemic irrationality. A familiar, rival claim is that narrative has an exclusive capacity to embody or convey important types of knowledge. Such contrasting contentions are not typically presented as statements about the accidents or effects of particular narratives; the ambition, rather, has been to identify a strong link (...)
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  12. Philosophical Perspectives on Fictional Characters.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Andrea Sauchelli - 2011 - New Literary History 42 (2):337-360.
    This paper takes up a series of basic philosophical questions about the nature and existence of fictional characters. We begin with realist approaches that hinge on the thesis that at least some claims about fictional characters can be right or wrong because they refer to something that exists, such as abstract objects. Irrealist approaches deny such realist postulations and hold instead that fictional characters are a figment of the human imagination. A third family of approaches, based on work by Alexius (...)
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  13.  18
    Literary Knowledge: Humanistic Inquiry and the Philosophy of Science.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1988 - Cornell University Press.
    Paisley Livingston here addresses contemporary controversies over the role of "theory" within the humanistic disciplines. In the process, he suggests ways in which significant modern texts in the philosophy of science relate to the study of literature. Livingston first surveys prevalent views of theory, and then proposes an alternative: theory, an indispensable element in the study of literature, should be understood as a Cogently argued and informed in its judgments, this book points the way to a fuller understanding of the (...)
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  14.  13
    Counting Fragments, and Frenhofer’s Paradox.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    It is quite common to draw a distinction between complete and unfinished works of art. For example, it is uncontroversial to think that Vermeer had actually completed View of Delft before inept restorers added layers of coloured varnish to give the picture an antique quality, and there is very good evidence to support the related claim that the artist had not finished the work before he effected several pentimenti, including the painting over of a figure in the foreground on the (...)
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  15.  14
    On the Appreciation of Cinematic Adaptations.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    This article explores basic constraints on the nature and appreciation of cinematic adaptations. An adaptation, it is argued, is a work that has been intentionally based on a source work and that faithfully and overtly imitates many of this source's characteristic features, while diverging from it in other respects. Comparisons between an adaptation and its source are essential to the appreciation of adaptations as such. In spite of many adaptation theorists' claims to the contrary, some of the comparisons essential to (...)
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  16.  22
    Intentionalism in Aesthetics.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Intentionalism in aesthetics is, quite generally, the thesis that the artist's or artists' intentions have a decisive role in the creation of a work of art, and that knowledge of such intentions is a necessary component of at least some adequate interpretive and evaluative claims. In this paper I develop and defend this thesis. I begin with a discussion of some anti-intentionalist arguments. Surveying a range of intentionalist responses to them, I briefly introduce and criticize a fictionalist version of intentionalism (...)
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  17.  71
    History of the Ontology of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    First critical survey devoted to the history of philosophical contributions to this topic. Brings to light neglected contributions prior to the second half of the 20th century including works in Danish, German, and French. Provides a division of issues and clarifies key ambiguities related to modality.
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  18.  10
    Discussion Paper : When a Work is Finished : A Response to Darren Hudson Hick.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    [Discussion article, no abstract is available].
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  19.  30
    What's the Story?Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1993 - Substance 22 (2/3):98.
    People often ask each other “what happens” in a novel or film, and they are inclined to think that some answers are better than others. Some claims about what happens in a story are deemed inaccurate or false, while others are the object of a fairly widespread consensus. The fact that a statement about a narrative discourse is deemed accurate does not mean that it will or should be accepted as an adequate statement about the story told in the discourse. (...)
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  20.  54
    Models of Desire : René Girard and the Psychology of Mimesis.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    To some, Rene Girard is best known for his views on sacred myth and ritual. To others, he is the eminent structuralist critic who offers challenging readings of major literary works. Still others know him for his analyses of the Bible. Central to all aspects of Girard's work is his theory of mimesis, a basic hypothesis about the structures of human motivation, Yet nowhere in his writings does Girard offer a systematic presentation of the mimetic theory. In fact, key terminology (...)
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  21.  16
    Thought Experiments in Aesthetics.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Carl Mikael Pettersson - 2016 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, K. Browniee & D. Coady (eds.), A Companion to Applied Philosophy. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons.
    In the burgeoning literature on thought experiments, examples are drawn from almost all areas of philosophy, one exception, however, being aesthetics. There are good reasons why this is so: there are very few interesting theory-oriented thought experiments in aesthetics, which is unsurprising since there are few well-developed theories to test in this field. After evaluating some aesthetic thought experiments in light of some general epistemic questions regarding thought experiments, we argue that theory-centred thought experiments are not the only kinds of (...)
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  22.  26
    Bolzano on Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2016 - British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (4):333-345.
    In his little-known essay published posthumously in 1849, Über die Eintheilung der schönen Künste, Bernard Bolzano proposes an explication of the concept of beautiful art as well as a classification of these arts. Bolzano’s divisions allowed him not only to provide a principled and comprehensive classification of actual, well-established arts, but also to anticipate kinds of beautiful art that would not exist or be widely recognized until decades after his death, such as moving pictures, abstract paintings, and what he called (...)
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  23.  35
    Ingmar Bergman and the Rituals of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
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  24.  72
    Creativity and Art: Three Roads to Surprise by Boden, Margaret A.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2011 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69 (4):423-425.
    [Book review article for Creativity and Art: Three Roads to Surprise by Boden, Margaret A, no abstract is available.].
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  25.  52
    Du Bos' Paradox.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2013 - British Journal of Aesthetics 53 (4):393-406.
    What is now generally known as the paradox of art and negative affect was identified as a paradox by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in 1719. In his attempt to explain how people can admire and enjoy representational works that ‘afflict’ them, Du Bos claims that such representations give rise to ‘artificial’ emotions, provide a pleasurable relief from boredom, and offer us epistemic, artistic, and moral rewards. The paper delineates Du Bos’ proposal, considers the question of Du Bos’ originality, and (...)
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  26.  19
    Realism/Anti-Realism : A Debate.Adam Muller & Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
  27.  40
    The Philosophy of Art.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2006 - British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (4):431-433.
    Book review of The Philosophy of Art. By STEPHEN DAVIES.. Blackwell. 2006.
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  28.  34
    “Solid Objects,” Solid Objections : On Virginia Woolf and Philosophy.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2008 - In Garry Hagberg (ed.), Art and Ethical Criticism. Blackwell. pp. 123--143.
    This chapter contains sections titled: “Solid Objects” and Its Interpretations Towards an Alternative Interpretation “Solid Objects” as a reductio ad absurdum of One Kind of Aesthetic Theory Rapture does not Suffice.
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  29.  15
    From Work to Work.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1996 - Philosophy and Literature 20 (2):436-454.
    Is it legitimate to interpret and evaluate works in terms of their place within the writer's Oeuvres complètes? Is the notion of the life-work, and of relations between works and the life-work to which they belong, theoretically uninteresting, or worse, unjustifiable? The publication of a beautiful, five-volume edition of Roland Barthes's Oeuvres complètes is a good thing, but if we were to rely on this theorist's meta-hermeneutical dicta alone, it would be hard to say why. Barthes and other advocates of (...)
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  30.  21
    Bernard Bolzano: On the Concept of the Beautiful - A Philosophical Essay.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2015 - Estetika 52 (2):203-266.
    An intorduction to an English translation of Bernad Bolzano´s On the Concept of the Beautiful. A neglected gem in the history of aesthetics, Bolzano’s essay on beauty is best understood when read alongside his other writings and philosophical sources. This introduction is designed to contribute to such a reading. In Part I, I identify and discuss three salient ways in which Bolzano’s account can be misunderstood. As a lack of familiarity with Bolzano’s background assumptions is one source of these misunderstandings, (...)
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  31.  7
    Literary Studies and the Sciences.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    We may begin to grasp the importance of exploring the relations between literary studies and the sciences by reflecting on some of the implications of a recent scholarly publication in literary theory. The example that I have in mind is an article by Ruth Salvaggio, entitled "Shakespeare in the Wilderness; or Deconstruction ithe Classroom," which was included in an anthology called Demarcating the Disciplines. In her article Salvaggio reproduces and comments on a paper written by Andrew Scott Jennings, a second-year (...)
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  32.  7
    Intentions and Interpretations.Alfred R. Mele & Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1992 - MLN 107 (5):931-949.
    Even if everything is up for grabs in philosophy, some things are very difficult to doubt. It is hard to believe, for example, that no one ever acts intentionally. Even the most powerful arguments for the unreality of intentional action could do no more, we believe, than place one in roughly the position in which pre-Aristotelian Greeks found themselves when presented with one of Zeno's arguments that nothing can move from any given point A to any other point B. One (...)
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  33.  16
    Creativity and Art : Three Roads to Surprise by Boden, Margaret A.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    [Book review article for Creativity and Art: Three Roads to Surprise by Boden, Margaret A, no abstract is available.].
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  34.  49
    Authorship Redux: On Some Recent and Not-so-Recent Work in Literary Theory.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2008 - Philosophy and Literature 32 (1):pp. 191-197.
    Did Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, or other "poststructuralist" theorists writing in the wake of May '68 come up with any good ideas about authorship and related topics in the philosophy of literature? The three volumes under review have a common point of departure in that broad question, but offer a number of contrasting responses to it. In what follows I describe and assess some of the various perspectives on offer in these 700 or so pages. The short answer (...)
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  35.  49
    C. I. Lewis and the Outlines of Aesthetic Experience.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2004 - British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (4):378-392.
    The current essay describes aspects of C. I. Lewis’s rarely cited contributions to aesthetics, focusing primarily on the conception of aesthetic experience developed in An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation. Lewis characterized aesthetic value as a proper subset of inherent value, which he understood as the power to occasion intrinsically valued experiences. He distinguished aesthetic experiences from experiences more generally in terms of eight conditions. Roughly, he proposed that aesthetic experiences have a highly positive, preponderantly intrinsic value realized through contemplation, (...)
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  36.  17
    Arguing Over Intentions.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1996 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 50 (198):615-633.
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  37.  16
    Cinema and the Artificial Passions: A Conversation with the Abbé Du Bos.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2013 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 69 (3-4):419-430.
    Resumo Na entrevista ficcional que se segue, as ideias de Abbé Jean-Baptiste Du Bos sobre as artes de representação serão aplicadas a aspectos relevantes do cinema. Du Bos argumenta que, normalmente, as obras de ficção cinematográfica são projectadas para dar origem a “paixões artificiais”, que têm a função de fornecer alívio ao tédio, sem as consequências negativas que muitas actividades alternativas têm. Também será considerada a questão, se os filmes têm um significado filosófico. O resultado é uma perspectiva desconhecida, do (...)
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  38.  15
    Cooperative Principle.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Introduced by the British philosopher Herbert Paul Grice, the cooperative principle and related maxims are part of his theory of CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE.
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  39.  36
    What is Mimetic Desire?Paisley Nathan Livingston - 1994 - Philosophical Psychology 7 (3):291 – 305.
    This essay provides a conceptual analysis and reconstruction of the notion of mimetic desire, first proposed in Girard (1961). The basic idea behind the idea of mimetic desire is that imitation can play a key role in human motivational processes. Yet mimetic desire is distinguished from related notions such as social modelling and imitation. In episodes of mimetic desire, the process in which the imitative agent's desires are formed is oriented by a particular species of belief about the model or (...)
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  40.  16
    The Imagined Seeing Thesis.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Paisley Livingston asks questions about the arguments Philosopher George M. Wilson offers in order to establish that the Mediated Version of his Imagined Seeing Thesis is superior to other options.
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  41.  9
    Philosophy with a Twist : La Rivière du Hibou.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Trevor Ponech - unknown
    This paper explores the category of films known as “twist films” in relation to distinctions between different modes of epistemic access to works. With reference to the case of Robert Enrico’s short film, La rivière du hibou, the philosophical significance of different sorts of twist films is explored. Twists are also discussed in relation to emotive responses, with special attention to the paradox of suspense.
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  42.  14
    Conversational Implicature.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    The British philosopher Herbert Paul Grice observed that the total significance of an utterance embraces not only “what is said” but what is implied. His term of art for the latter was “implicature,” and he identified conversational implicature as an important type of implicit meaning or signification.
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  43.  12
    “Solid Objects,” Solid Objections : On Virginia Woolf and Philosophy.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    This chapter contains sections titled: “Solid Objects” and Its Interpretations Towards an Alternative Interpretation “Solid Objects” as a reductio ad absurdum of One Kind of Aesthetic Theory Rapture does not Suffice.
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  44.  36
    Utile Et Dulce: A Response to Noël Carroll.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2006 - British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (3):274-281.
    l Carroll's criticisms of my essay on C. I. Lewis's conception of aesthetic experience, I discuss reasons given in support of axiological accounts of aesthetic experience, including Lewis's contentions about the intrinsic valence of all experiences and his emphasis on the interests motivating philosophical classifications of experience. I also respond to Carroll's remarks about a possible explanatory requirement on a conception of aesthetic experience and the idea that artists have aesthetic experiences as they make a work of art.
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  45.  18
    Rationality and Emotion.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2002 - SATS 3 (2):7-24.
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  46.  17
    Discussion: On Authorship and Collaboration.Paisley Nathan Livingston - 2011 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69 (2):217-220.
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  47.  13
    Book Symposium on : Seeing Fictions in Film : The Epistemology of Movies, by George M. Wilson.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
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  48.  10
    Teaching and Learning Guide for : Cinema as Philosophy.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    The idea that films can be philosophical, or in some sense ‘do’ philosophy, has recently found a number of prominent proponents. What is at stake here is generally more than the tepid claim that some documentaries about philosophy and related topics convey philosophically relevant content. Instead, the contention is that cinematic fictions, including popular movies such as The Matrix, make significant contributions to philosophy. Various more specific claims are linked to this basic idea. One, relatively weak, but pedagogically important observation (...)
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  49.  11
    From Virtual Reality to Phantomatics and Back.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Paisley Livingston on Stanislaw Lem and the history and philosophy of Virtual Reality. The technologies and speculations associated with “virtual reality” and cognate terms have recently made it possible for scores of journalists and academics to develop variations on a favorite theme - the newness of the new, and more specifically, the newness of that new and wildly different world-historical epoch, era, or Zeitgeist into which we are supposedly entering with the creation of powerful new machines of simulation. The innovative (...)
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  50.  10
    Philosophical Perspectives on Literary Value.Paisley Nathan Livingston - unknown
    Meta-axiological distinctions introduced here introduced here include cognitivism and non-cognitivism on the status of evaluative discourse, as well as revisionary and non-revisionary positions. I argue that anti-realist and error-theoretical views of evaluative claims tend to be revisionary in ways that conflict with the realist orientation of much evaluative discourse, yet I contend that this does not provide a decisive reason in favor of cognitivism. While categorical aesthetic imperatives are hard to justify, some of these hypothetical imperatives have important implications in (...)
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