A novel and versatile polarization-entanglement scheme is adopted to investigate the violation of the EPR local realism for a non-maximally entangled two-photon system according to the recent nonlocality proof by Lucien Hardy. In this context the adoption of a sophisticated detection method allows direct determination of any element of physical reality (viz., determined with probability equal to unity in the words of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) for the pair system within complete measurements that are largely insensitive to the detector quantum-efficiencies (...) and noise. (shrink)
Traditional Informed Consent is becoming increasingly inadequate, especially in the context of research biobanks. How much information is needed by patients for their consent to be truly informed? How does the quality of the information they receive match up to the quality of the information they ought to receive? How can information be conveyed fairly about future, non-predictable lines of research? To circumvent these difficulties, some scholars have proposed that current consent guidelines should be reassessed, with trust being used as (...) a guiding principle instead of information. Here, we analyse one of these proposals, based on a Participation Pact, which is already being offered to patients at the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, a comprehensive cancer hospital in Milan, Italy. (shrink)
Terms of service of on-line platforms too often contain clauses that are potentially unfair to the consumer. We present an experimental study where machine learning is employed to automatically detect such potentially unfair clauses. Results show that the proposed system could provide a valuable tool for lawyers and consumers alike.
The article draws attention to two particularly significant examples of the problematic relationship between religious authority and secular power, which has characterized the history of the West: Marsilius of Padua and Paolo Sarpi. Both are supporters of the secular state and it is not excluded that the Sarpi was aware of the doctrines contained in the Defensor pacis. In any case, Marsilius’ position is much more radical than that sustained by the Republic of Venice in the dispute of the (...) Interdict, also due to the strictly ‘scientific’ approach that characterizes the first part of the Defensor pacis. The conflict between State and Church has traditionally been seen as an obstacle to the affirmation of the modern State, but today, in the post-modern, it can also be interpreted as a double guarantee: against the pretensions of theocracy, of course, but also against the temptations of totalitarianism. (shrink)
The public is becoming increasingly concerned about how nonhuman animals are treated, and many studies show that European citizens are concerned about farm animal welfare. Religious slaughter has always been a controversial and emotive subject, caught between animal welfare considerations, cultural and human rights issues. There is considerable variation in current practices, and the rules regarding religious requirements are still confusing. Similarly, consumer demands and concerns also need to be addressed. Therefore, there is a need for information relating to slaughter (...) techniques as well as product range, consumer expectations, market share, and socioeconomic issues. This research aims at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter in Italy. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most of the animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is accepted for 5.9% of small ruminants. Questionnaires were sent to regional health authorities, and spot-check visits were conducted on cattle, sheep, and poultry abattoirs in Italy from October 2008 to March 2009. The observed parameters are discussed in regards to the risk to animal welfare. Observations not only on restraining methods, but also on post-cut, clinical indicators of consciousness are considered. This research is the first, systematic attempt to analyze the methods of religious slaughter and to discuss the implications for animal welfare. (shrink)
Este trabajo pretende mostrar que la suspensión es la temporalidad inmanente a la noción de éxodo en Paolo Virno, a través de la potencia negativa tal como es entendida en el pensamiento de G. Agamben. La argumentación se articulará en tres momentos: en primer lugar, atenderemos a la lectura de “El Fragmento de las máquinas” de los Grundrisse de Marx que realiza Paolo Virno, en la que sostiene que la propia naturaleza del General Intellect implica que una parte (...) importante de los conocimientos no sea susceptible de ser depositada en las máquinas, sino que contiene como condición necesaria su manifestación directa del trabajo vivo y, por tanto, en fuerza de trabajo; en segundo lugar, analizaremos cómo el cuerpo biológico del individuo, en tanto que potencia puesta a producir, es el fundamento de la biopolítica; y, finalmente, nos adentraremos en el pensamiento de G. Agamben para sostener la tesis planteada. (shrink)
Cet article examine les conditions d’élaboration et la fortune éditoriale de la traduction latine d’un texte italien, le Commentario de le cose de' Turchi de Paolo Giovio publié à Rome en 1532. Ce texte politique voulant donner des éléments à Charles Quint pour engager la croisade contre les Turcs est traduit en latin en 1537 à Strasbourg par un italien en exil pour motifs religieux, Francesco Negri. Publiée cinq fois à Strasbourg, Wittenberg et Paris entre 1537 et 1539, cette (...) traduction détourne le texte de ses premiers objectifs pour servir à la propagande réformée du parti de la paix : cette lecture politique est construite par l’association des autres textes avec lesquels il est publié, qui en orientent le sens. Une fois sortie de l’actualité, cette traduction est publiée parmi les œuvres latines de Giovio, sans mention du traducteur, et se fige en un texte historiographique à simple valeur documentaire. (shrink)
Decoherence is one of the most serious drawback in quantum mechanical applications. We discuss the effects of noise in superconducting devices (Josephson junctions) and suggest a decoherence-control strategy based on the quantum Zeno effect.
“Dalla filosofia dell’azione alla filosofia della mente” è stato il percorso di alcuni filosofi di nazionalità varia degli anni 1980 – come Paul Churchland negli Stati Uniti o Ansgar Beckermann in Germania – che prima si sono interessati agli aspetti più teorici nella filosofia dell’azione, come il modo di funzionamento delle azioni e la loro spiegazione scientifica, e che poi, con l’arrivo e la diffusione dei personal computers e delle scienze cognitive, hanno ampliato e approfondito questo interesse di ricerca e (...) si sono dedicati alla filosofia della mente più in generale e in particolare alla spiegazione scientifica e filosofica del mentale. Sandro Nannini faceva parte di questo movimento ed è stato uno tra gli inizialmente pochi filosofi italiani che si sono occupati di questi argomenti; successivamente ne è diventato uno dei maggiori specialisti in Italia, proponendo una sua particolare versione di naturalizzazione del mentale. Subordinata agli interessi teorici è stata la sua iniziativa accademica di fondare e promuovere il primo dottorato italiano di ricerca in Scienze Cognitive. Il presente volume tratta dell’opera di Sandro Nannini in contributi che sono riflessioni più o meno specifiche sulle differenti tappe del suo percorso, affrontando temi come l’analisi dell'azione, il libero arbitrio, la discussione di Nannini di vari classici della filosofia, la tendenza del naturalismo a dissolvere la filosofia in un enciclopedismo empirico e la sfida dei qualia e della fenomenologia all’approccio naturalistico alla mente. Il volume contiene inoltre un saggio dello stesso Sandro Nannini, nel quale espone l’ultimo sviluppo della sua filosofia della mente nonché le risposte agli interventi degli altri autori: Mario De Caro, Sara Dellantonio, Rosaria Egidi, Roberta Lanfredini, Christoph Lumer, Paolo Parrini, Pietro Perconti, Claudio Pizzi, Emanuela Scribano e Giuseppe Varnier. (shrink)
The paper compares the ideas developed by Bozzi and Stumpf with regard to unity, identity, and causality. Although Bozzi’s formulation is independent from the one made by Stumpf in his Erkenntnislehre, these two positions share the same innovative importance granted to perceptual experience and to the problem of the origin of categories. Thus, despite different levels of awareness and formalization, in both authors we see the features of what we can call – analogous- ly to Bozzi’s naïve physics – a (...) “naïve metaphysics”, at whose core lie the refusal of intellectualism, and the determination of the origin of categories in the concrete stream of perception. (shrink)
Final instalment of a book-review symposium on: Jeff Kochan (2017), Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (Cambridge UK: Open Book Publishers). -- Author's response to: Paolo Palladino (2018), 'Heidegger Today: On Jeff Kochan’s Science and Social Existence,' Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7(8): 41-46; and Adam Riggio (2018), 'The Very Being of a Conceptual Scheme: Disciplinary and Conceptual Critiques,' Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7(11): 53-59.
Why is it so important to study Nietzsche? Many works about Nietzsche’s thought have been published over the years, from every conceivable position, including analytical philosophy.1 One more essay on Nietzsche may seem a bit repetitive. Yet, as Giuseppe Fornari wrote in the preface of Il Caso Nietzsche (The Nietzsche Case), it is fundamental to analyze Nietzsche deeply, because the most important themes of his works are still hidden among the pages of his books.2 René Girard has made an (...) original contribution to understanding Nietzsche by underlining the close connections between Nietzsche’s philosophy and the personal relationships he established during his life. In particular, Girard’s .. (shrink)
In his review of my book, Le voyage de Nietzsche à Sorrente, Emmanuel Salanskis writes that it is an agreeable read and philologically precise, but that it presents some philosophical difficulties.The first alleged difficulty lies in the conception of “epiphany.” Salanskis asks, “Can we really include Nietzsche among adherents of an aesthetics of the ‘instant’ (170) like Virginia Woolf ?” No, certainly not. On the page cited, I discuss James Joyce’s conception of epiphany (and mention Virginia Woolf only in passing) (...) in order to distinguish Joycean epiphanies and the aesthetics of the instant from Nietzsche’s epiphanies. The latter, I argue shortly thereafter, are “from an epistemological point of view not moments .. (shrink)
In his late work Nietzsche professed profound admiration for Dostoevsky, calling him “the only psychologist [...] from whom I had something to learn”. He also said, characteristically complicating matters, “I am grateful to him in a remarkable way, however much he goes against my deepest instincts”. There is, however, another well-established way of connecting the two authors, due to the Symbolist writer and critic Dmitri Merezhkovsky, which regards Dostoevsky as preemptively refuting Nietzsche’s teachings through his portrayal of the nihilistic protagonists (...) of his great novels. Paolo Stellino takes up both these ways of connecting the two authors... (shrink)
In the current context of a nihilism that tends to establish itself as insurmountable horizon of our time, it is urgent to show that it is not. To do this, there is nothing better than examining the experience of men who have managed to go to the bottom of the path of nihilism and rediscover their humanity. Giuseppe Capograssi is one of them. The life and work of this brilliant, 20th century philosopher of Law are permeated by his awareness (...) that dependency, sadness and melancholy are the same structure of the self, the soil in which, thanks to an encounter, hope may flourish. (shrink)
Paolo Bozzi developed his «experimental phenomenology» from the Gestalt psychology tradition, particularly from Gaetano Kanizsa’s method. The distinction between «phenomenal description» and «causal explanation» of the «perception» springs up from the analysis of Bozzi’s «S-D psychophysical scheme». What Frege, who was well-known by Bozzi, deals with in paragraph 71 of The Thought theoretically mirrors what is outlined in the Scheme and could also be intended as its source. The juxtaposition between a «science of observable things» or «experimental phenomenology» – (...) conceived as a science which is autonomous from what happens in the brain – and logics, which is set up autonomously from the thinking processes, is a programmatic element that is openly indicated by the author. Frege’s anti-psychologism and realism are both widely shared by Bozzi. The realism and the «naïve physics» Bozzi was a pioneer of lie at the basis of the so-called «New Realism». The following essay aims to localize and highlight some theoretical implications – up to their phenomenological origins – which can be detected particularly in paragraph 71 of The Thought. The present work tries to sketch out the boundaries and the autonomy of the «first person» perceptive experience and to define the scientific explanation that we can give of it. The distinction between science and experience, and the autonomy of experience from science and of the immediate experience of the content of consciousness from neuroscience, entail the impossibility of a naturalization of the phenomenological experience. In the examples taken from Frege can be found a theoretical bridge which connects the Gestalt perceptological tradition, Wittgenstein’s investigations of the philosophy of psychology, and the so called «New Realism». (shrink)
The widespread use of brain imaging techniques encourages conceiving of neuroscience as the forthcoming “mindscience.” Perhaps surprisingly for many, this conclusion is still largely unwarranted. The present paper surveys various shortcomings of neuroscience as a putative “mindscience.” The analysis shows that the scope of mind (both cognitive and phenomenal) falls outside that of neuroscience. Of course, such a conclusion does not endorse any metaphysical or antiscientific stance as to the nature of the mind. Rather, it challenges a series of assumptions (...) that the undeniable success of neuroscience has fostered. In fact, physicalism is here taken as the only viable ontological framework – an assumption that does not imply that the central nervous system exhausts the physical domain. (shrink)
The article is the consequence of some critical notes to the contribution of Paolo Bellan, arising from reading of essays of Francesco Emmolo and Carlo Sini and the assumption of a purely phenomenological perspective in the interpretation of the processes of acquisition of scientific knowledge.
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa offers in this writing an exposition on the incidence of the French spiritual strength of seventeenth century, with an outline of the history and events in Port- Royal des Champs and the atmosphere created by the monastery as a center of French thought of this century. The lesson is complete with a tour by the biography and thought of Blaise Pascal, in which, as indicated by Lampedusa himself, Port-Royal found its best advocate and its maximum (...) expression. (shrink)
Recently the complexity of discursive practices has been widely acknowledged by the humanities and social sciences. In fact, to know anything is to know in terms of one or more discourse. The "discursive turn" in psychology may be considered as a new paradigm oriented to a correct study of (wo)man only if it is able to grasp the semiotical ground of psychic experience both as an "effort after meaning" and as a "struggle over meaning." In this sense the notion of (...) "diatext" has been proposed as a contribution in working out a psychosemiotical approach to understand how the discursive practices assign subject-positions to the agents of each interlocution scenario. (shrink)
As its title indicates, this book is a study of the trip Nietzsche made to Sorrento in 1876, after the Bayreuth festival and before the publication of Human, All Too Human. Paolo D’Iorio’s main thesis is that at Sorrento Nietzsche became a true philosopher, abandoning his metaphysics of art together with his commitment to the Wagnerian cause in order to develop his philosophy of the free spirit. D’Iorio collects all of the available documents about the Sorrento trip, from Nietzsche’s (...) allusions to his Italian experiences in his notebooks and subsequent works to letters to and from his traveling companions and memoirs of friends and acquaintances. The chief interest of the book lies in this philological work, which .. (shrink)
The matter of truth in Nietzsche’s thought is one of the most studied and debated topics in recent scholarship. It is a topic of great interest and has generated much scholarship, but rarely does such work offer anything new. The book, Teorie e pratiche della verità in Nietzsche, edited by Pietro Gori and Paolo Stellino, is an exception to this trend, as it offers important and original contributions to this area of study.The text—which is the result of a workshop (...) by the same name held in Valencia in May 2011— develops an original approach on two different levels. On the one hand, the authors acknowledge in the preface not only the importance of the search for truth in Nietzsche’s philosophy, but also the... (shrink)