Results for 'Parasites Epistemicism'

185 found
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  1.  48
    Epistemicism, Parasites, and Vague Names.Brian Weatherson - 2003 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):276 – 279.
    John Burgess has recently argued that Timothy Williamson’s attempts to avoid the objection that his theory of vagueness is based on an untenable metaphysics of content are unsuccessful. Burgess’s arguments are important, and largely correct, but there is a mistake in the discussion of one of the key examples. In this note I provide some alternative examples and use them to repair the mistaken section of the argument.
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  2.  60
    Epistemicism and Modality.Juhani Yli-Vakkuri - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):803-835.
    What kind of semantics should someone who accepts the epistemicist theory of vagueness defended in Timothy Williamson’s Vagueness (1994) give a definiteness operator? To impose some interesting constraints on acceptable answers to this question, I will assume that the object language also contains a metaphysical necessity operator and a metaphysical actuality operator. I will suggest that the answer is to be found by working within a three-dimensional model theory. I will provide sketches of two ways of extracting an epistemicist semantics (...)
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  3. The Problem with Truthmaker-Gap Epistemicism.Mark Jago - 2012 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (4):320-329.
    Epistemicism about vagueness is the view that vagueness, or indeterminacy, is an epistemic matter. Truthmaker-gap epistemicism is the view that indeterminate truths are indeterminate because their truth is not grounded by any worldly fact. Both epistemicism in general and truthmaker-gap epistemicism originated in Roy Sorensen's work on vagueness. My aim in this paper is to give a characterization of truthmaker-gap epistemicism and argue that the view is incompatible with higher-order vagueness: vagueness in whether some case (...)
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  4. Epistemicism and the Liar.Jamin Asay - 2015 - Synthese 192 (3):679-699.
    One well known approach to the soritical paradoxes is epistemicism, the view that propositions involving vague notions have definite truth values, though it is impossible in principle to know what they are. Recently, Paul Horwich has extended this approach to the liar paradox, arguing that the liar proposition has a truth value, though it is impossible to know which one it is. The main virtue of the epistemicist approach is that it need not reject classical logic, and in particular (...)
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  5. Vagueness : A Statistical Epistemicist Approach.Jiri Benovsky - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (3):97-112.
    There are three main traditional accounts of vagueness : one takes it as a genuinely metaphysical phenomenon, one takes it as a phenomenon of ignorance, and one takes it as a linguistic or conceptual phenomenon. In this paper I first very briefly present these views, especially the epistemicist and supervaluationist strategies, and shortly point to some well-known problems that the views carry. I then examine a 'statistical epistemicist' account of vagueness that is designed to avoid precisely these problems – it (...)
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  6.  31
    Epistemicism, Paradox, and Conditional Obligation.Ivan Hu - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (8):2123-2139.
    Stewart Shapiro has objected to the epistemicist theory of vagueness on grounds that it gives counterintuitive predictions about cases involving conditional obligation. This paper details a response on the epistemicist’s behalf. I first argue that Shapiro’s own presentation of the objection is unsuccessful as an argument against epistemicism. I then reconstruct and offer two alternative arguments inspired by Shapiro’s considerations, and argue that these fail too, given the information-sensitive nature of conditional obligations.
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  7.  82
    Epistemicism and the Combined Spectrum.Alter Torin & Rachels Stuart - 2004 - Ratio 17 (3):241-255.
    Derek Parfit's combined-spectrum argument seems to conflict with epistemicism, a viable theory of vagueness. While Parfit argues for the indeterminacy of personhood, epistemicism denies indeterminacy. But, we argue, the linguistically based determinacy that epistemicism supports lacks the sort of normative or ontological significance that concerns Parfit. Thus, we reformulate his argument to make it consistent with epistemicism. We also dispute Roy Sorensen's suggestion that Parfit's argument relies on an assumption that fuels resistance to epistemicism, namely, (...)
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  8.  10
    Either Epistemicism or Logic.Piotr Łukowski - 2008 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 17 (4):329-351.
    Epistemicism seems to be the most dominating approach to vagueness in the recent twenty years. In the logical and philosophical tradition, e.g. Peirce, vagueness does not depend on human knowledge. Epistemicists deny this fact and contend that vagueness is merely the result of our imperfect mind, our dearth of knowledge, sort of phantom, finally, that it simply does not exist. In my opinion, such a stance not only excludes vagueness comprehended in terms of human knowledge, but which is worse, (...)
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  9.  93
    An Anti-Epistemicist Consequence of Margin for Error Semantics for Knowledge.Delia Graff Fara - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (1):127-142.
    Let us say that the proposition that p is transparent just in case it is known that p, and it is known that it is known that p, and it is known that it is known that it is known that p, and so on, for any number of iterations of the knowledge operator ‘it is known that’. If there are transparent propositions at all, then the claim that any man with zero hairs is bald seems like a good candidate. (...)
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  10. Semantic Plasticity and Epistemicism.Adam Sennet - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (2):273-285.
    This paper considers the connections between semantic shiftiness (plasticity), epistemic safety and an epistemic theory of vagueness as presented and defended by Williamson (1996a, b, 1997a, b). Williamson explains ignorance of the precise intension of vague words as rooted in insensitivity to semantic shifts: one’s inability to detect small shifts in intension for a vague word results in a lack of knowledge of the word’s intension. Williamson’s explanation, however, falls short of accounting for ignorance of intension.
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  11.  68
    Fuzzy Epistemicism.John MacFarlane - 2010 - In Richard Dietz & Sebastiano Moruzzi (eds.), Cuts and Clouds. Vaguenesss, its Nature and its Logic. Oxford University Press.
    It is taken for granted in much of the literature on vagueness that semantic and epistemic approaches to vagueness are fundamentally at odds. If we can analyze borderline cases and the sorites paradox in terms of degrees of truth, then we don’t need an epistemic explanation. Conversely, if an epistemic explanation suffices, then there is no reason to depart from the familiar simplicity of classical bivalent semantics. I question this assumption, showing that there is an intelligible motivation for adopting a (...)
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  12.  28
    Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.Gordon D. A. Brown, Corey L. Fincher & Lukasz Walasek - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):98-117.
    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use (...)
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  13.  48
    Appendix to Juhani Yli-Vakkuri’s ‘Epistemicism and Modality’.Peter Fritz - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):836-838.
    A formal result is proved which is used in Juhani Yli-Vakkuri’s ‘Epistemicism and Modality’ to argue that certain two-dimensional possible world models are inadequate for a language with operators for ‘necessarily’, ‘actually’, and ‘definitely’.
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  14.  92
    Two Problems for an Epistemicist View of Vagueness.Mario Gómez-Torrente - 1997 - Philosophical Issues 8:237-245.
    This paper presents some difficulties for Timothy Williamson's epistemicist view of vagueness and for an argument he gives in its defense. First, I claim that the argument, which uses the notion of an "omniscient speaker", is question-begging. Next, I argue that some presumably true scientific hypotheses, which postulate certain relations between everyday vague predicates and scientific predicates, make the central theses of epistemicism highly implausible. Finally, I show that the "margin for error principles" used by Williamson to explain away (...)
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  15.  8
    An Epistemicist Solution to the Alethic Paradoxes.Hasen Khudairi - manuscript
    This paper targets a series of potential issues for the discussion of, and modal resolution to, the alethic paradoxes advanced by Scharp (2013). I aim, then, to provide a novel, epistemicist treatment of the alethic paradoxes. In response to Curry's paradox, the epistemicist solution that I advance enables the retention of both classical logic and the traditional rules for the alethic predicate: truth-elimination and truth-introduction. By availing of epistemic modal logic, the epistemicist approach permits, further, of a descriptively adequate explanation (...)
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  16. Epistemicism and Nihilism About Vagueness: What's the Difference?David Enoch - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 133 (2):285 - 311.
    In this paper I argue, first, that the only difference between Epistemicism and Nihilism about vagueness is semantic rather than ontological, and second, that once it is clear what the difference between these views is, Nihilism is a much more plausible view of vagueness than Epistemicism. Given the current popularity of certain epistemicist views (most notably, Williamson’s), this result is, I think, of interest.
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  17. Epistemicism and the Problem of Arbitrariness for Vagueness.Christopher D. Kyle - 2012 - Dialogue: Journal of Phi Sigma Tau 55 (1).
    This paper distinguishes between epistemic and metaphysical problems of arbitrariness for vagueness. It argues that epistemicism can resolve the epistemic problem of arbitrariness but not the metaphysical one.
     
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  18.  11
    When to Think Like an Epistemicist.Matthew Mosdell - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (4):538-559.
    Epistemicism is the view that seemingly vague predicates are not in fact vague. Consequently, there must be a sharp boundary between a man who is bald and one who is not bald. Although such a view is often met with incredulity, my aim is to provide a defense of epistemicism in this essay. My defense, however, is backhanded: I argue that the formal commitments of epistemicism are the result of good practical reasoning, not metaphysical necessity. To get (...)
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  19.  21
    Almost-Ontology: Why Epistemicism Cannot Help Us Avoid Unrestricted Composition or Diachronic Plenitude.İrem Kurtsal Steen - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):130-139.
    That any filled location of spacetime contains a persisting thing has been defended based on the ‘argument from vagueness.’ It is often assumed that since the epistemicist account of vagueness blocks the argument from vagueness it facilitates a conservative ontology without gerrymandered objects. It doesn't. The epistemic vagueness of ordinary object predicates such as ‘bicycle’ requires that objects that can be described as almost-but-not-quite-bicycle exist even though they fall outside the predicate's sharp extension. Since the predicates that begin with ‘almost’ (...)
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  20.  10
    Epistemicism and Nihilism About Vagueness: What’s the Difference?David Enoch - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 133 (2):285-311.
    In this paper I argue, first, that the only difference between Epistemicism and Nihilism about vagueness is semantic rather than ontological, and second, that once it is clear what the difference between these views is, Nihilism is a much more plausible view of vagueness than Epistemicism. Given the current popularity of certain epistemicist views, this result is, I think, of interest.
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  21.  9
    Parasites, Principles and the Problem of Attachment to Place.Stanley H. Raffel - 2006 - History of the Human Sciences 19 (3):83-108.
    This article is concerned with exploring the idea of places as providing persons with nourishment. This version of person–place relations is displayed in a paper by McHugh and, in provocative fashion, in Michel Serres’s analysis of the human condition as a parasitic one. Unlike McHugh, Serres combines his analysis of parasites with a concern that principled actors may be insufficiently attached to places. His views are revealed in his interpretations of works by Molière and Plato. By reinterpreting these works, (...)
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  22.  4
    From Social to Biological Parasites and Back: The Conceptual Career of a Metaphor.Andreas Musolff - 2014 - Contributions to the History of Concepts 9 (2):18-32.
    The categorization of individuals or groups as social parasites has often been treated as an example of semantic transfer from the biological to the social domain. Historically, however, the scientific uses of the term parasite cannot be deemed to be primary, as their emergence in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was preceded by a much older tradition of religious and social terminology. Its social use in modern times, on the other hand, builds on a secondary metaphorization from the scientific (...)
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  23. Almost‐Ontology: Why Epistemicism Cannot Help Us Avoid Unrestricted Composition or Diachronic Plenitude.Steen İrem Kurtsal - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):130-139.
    That any filled location of spacetime contains a persisting thing has been defended based on the ‘argument from vagueness.’ It is often assumed that since the epistemicist account of vagueness blocks the argument from vagueness it facilitates a conservative ontology without gerrymandered objects. It doesn't. The epistemic vagueness of ordinary object predicates such as ‘bicycle’ requires that objects that can be described as almost‐but‐not‐quite‐bicycle exist even though they fall outside the predicate's sharp extension. Since the predicates that begin with ‘almost’ (...)
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  24. Epistemicism About Vagueness and Meta-Linguistic Safety.Stephen Kearns & Ofra Magidor - 2008 - Philosophical Perspectives 22 (1):277-304.
    The paper challenges Williamson’s safety based explanation for why we cannot know the cut-off point of vague expressions. We assume throughout (most of) the paper that Williamson is correct in saying that vague expressions have sharp cut-off points, but we argue that Williamson’s explanation for why we do not and cannot know these cut-off points is unsatisfactory. -/- In sect 2 we present Williamson's position in some detail. In particular, we note that Williamson's explanation relies on taking a particular safety (...)
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  25. The Fallacy of Epistemicism.James Cargile - 2005 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 33.
     
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  26.  10
    Syllogistic System for the Propagation of Parasites. The Case of Schistosomatidae.Andrew Schumann & Ludmila Akimova - 2015 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):303-319.
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  27.  3
    Prizes and Parasites: Incentive Models for Addressing Chagas Disease.Sara E. Crager & Matt Price - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 37 (2):292-304.
    Recent advances in immunology have provided a foundation of knowledge to understand many of the intricacies involved in manipulating the human response to fight parasitic infections, and a great deal has been learned from malaria vaccine efforts regarding strategies for developing parasite vaccines. There has been some encouraging progress in the development of a Chagas vaccine in animal models. A prize fund for Chagas could be instrumental in ensuring that these efforts are translated into products that benefit patients.
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  28. Prizes and Parasites: Incentive Models for Addressing Chagas Disease.Sara E. Crager & Matt Price - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (2):292-304.
  29.  28
    Epistemicism, Distribution, and the Argument From Vagueness.Ofra Magidor - forthcoming - Noûs.
    This paper consists of two parts. The first concerns the logic of vagueness. The second concerns a prominent debate in metaphysics. One of the most widely accepted principles governing the ‘definitely’ operator is the principle of Distribution: if ‘p’ and ‘if p then q’ are both definite, then so is ‘q’. I argue however, that epistemicists about vagueness should reject this principle. The discussion also helps to shed light on the elusive question of what, on this framework, it takes for (...)
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  30.  71
    Vagueness, Epistemicism and Response-Dependence.J. Burgess - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (4):507 – 524.
  31.  37
    Epistemicist Models: Comments on Gómez-Torrente and Graff.Timothy Williamson - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (1):143-150.
  32.  23
    Undercover Education: Mice, Mimesis, and Parasites in the Teaching Machine.Helena Pedersen - 2012 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 31 (4):365-386.
    What happens to education when the potential it helps realizing in the individual works against the formal purposes of the curriculum? What happens when education becomes a vehicle for its own subversion? As a subject-forming state apparatus working on ideological speciesism, formal education is engaged in both human and animal stratification in service of the capitalist knowledge economy. This seemingly stable condition is however insecured by the animal rights activist as undercover learner and—worker, who enters education and research laboratories under (...)
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  33.  44
    10. Epistemicism and Semantic Plasticity.John Hawthorne - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 2:289.
  34. Minimalism, Epistemicism, and Paradox.Bradley Armour-Garb & J. C. Beall - 2008 - In J. C. Beall & Bradley Armour-Garb (eds.), Deflationism and Paradox. Oxford University Press.
     
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  35.  9
    Parasites and Progress: Ethical Decision-Making and the Santee-Cooper Malaria Study, 1944-1949.Leo Barney Slater & Margaret Humphreys - 2007 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (1):103-120.
  36.  15
    Parasites, Pimps, and Capitalists.Tommy Shelby - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (3):381-418.
  37.  22
    Red Algal Parasites: Models for a Life History Evolution That Leaves Photosynthesis Behind Again and Again.Nicolas A. Blouin & Christopher E. Lane - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (3):226-235.
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  38.  4
    Epistemicism, Distribution, and the Argument From Vagueness.Ofra Magidor - 2016 - Noûs.
    This paper consists of two parts. The first concerns the logic of vagueness. The second concerns a prominent debate in metaphysics. One of the most widely accepted principles governing the ‘definitely’ operator is the principle of Distribution: if ‘p’ and ‘if p then q’ are both definite, then so is ‘q’. I argue however, that epistemicists about vagueness should reject this principle. The discussion also helps to shed light on the elusive question of what, on this framework, it takes for (...)
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  39.  7
    Genomics and the Biology of Parasites.David A. Johnston, Mark L. Blaxter, Wim M. Degrave, Jeremy Foster, Alasdair C. Ivens & Sara E. Melville - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (2):131-147.
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  40.  54
    Parasites, Pimps, and Capitalists: A Naturalistic Conception of Exploitation.Tommie Shelby - 2002 - Social Theory and Practice 28 (3):381--418.
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  41.  4
    Vagueness: From Epistemicism to Transvaluationism.Terry Horgan & Matjaz Potrc - 2002 - Acta Analytica 17 (2):7-9.
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  42.  15
    On the Hymenopterous Parasites of the Mealie Stalk Borer.P. Cameron - 1905 - Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 16 (1):334-336.
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  43. Marx and Wittgenstein on Vampires and Parasites: A Critique of Capital and Metaphysics.Rupert Read - 2002 - In G. N. Kitching & Nigel Pleasants (eds.), Marx and Wittgenstein: Knowledge, Morality and Politics. Routledge. pp. 35--254.
  44.  4
    Plastids in Parasites of Humans.Geoffrey I. McFadden & Ross F. Waller - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (11):1033-1040.
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  45.  13
    Ants and Their Parasites 2013.Jean-Paul Lachaud, Alain Lenoir & David P. Hughes - 2013 - Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 2013.
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  46.  4
    Parasites Cut Loose: Anthony Palmer.Anthony Palmer - 1982 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 13:197-209.
    Whether any property is internal to a particular object may be taken to depend upon the way in which the object is described. Thus it is not an internal property of Scott to have been the author of Waverley, neither is it an internal property of the author of Ivanhoe. But what of the author of Waverley? Is the proposition that the author of Waverley composed Waverley necessarily true? On one interpretation of it it surely is. Even so, one can (...)
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  47.  15
    Ghosts and Parasites.Giorgio Bertolotti - 1995 - Bradley Studies 1 (1):45-56.
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  48.  10
    Lucian on Parasites.B. P. Reardon - 1987 - The Classical Review 37 (02):159-.
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  49.  32
    Programmers, Professors, and Parasites: Credit and Co-Authorship in Computer Science.Justin Solomon - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):467-489.
    This article presents an in-depth analysis of past and present publishing practices in academic computer science to suggest the establishment of a more consistent publishing standard. Historical precedent for academic publishing in computer science is established through the study of anecdotes as well as statistics collected from databases of published computer science papers. After examining these facts alongside information about analogous publishing situations and standards in other scientific fields, the article concludes with a list of basic principles that should be (...)
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  50.  12
    Mechanisms by Which Parasites Influence Cultures, and Why They Matter.Mark Schaller & Damian R. Murray - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (2):91 - 92.
    At least four conceptually distinct mechanisms may mediate relations between parasite-stress and cultural outcomes: genetic evolution, developmental plasticity, neurocognitive flexibility, and cultural transmission. These mechanisms may operate independently or in conjunction with one another. Rigorous research on specific mediating mechanisms is required to more completely articulate implications of parasite stress on human psychology and human culture.
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