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Patrick Grim [93]Patrick Neal Grim [1]
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Patrick Grim
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  1.  46
    Understanding Polarization: Meanings, Measures, and Model Evaluation.Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, William J. Berger, Graham Sack, Steven Fisher, Carissa Flocken & Bennett Holman - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (1):115-159.
    Polarization is a topic of intense interest among social scientists, but there is significant disagreement regarding the character of the phenomenon and little understanding of underlying mechanics. A first problem, we argue, is that polarization appears in the literature as not one concept but many. In the first part of the article, we distinguish nine phenomena that may be considered polarization, with suggestions of appropriate measures for each. In the second part of the article, we apply this analysis to evaluate (...)
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  2.  22
    Diversity, Ability, and Expertise in Epistemic Communities.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Aaron Bramson, Bennett Holman, Sean McGeehan & William J. Berger - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (1):98-123.
    The Hong and Page ‘diversity trumps ability’ result has been used to argue for the more general claim that a diverse set of agents is epistemically superior to a comparable group of experts. Here we extend Hong and Page’s model to landscapes of different degrees of randomness and demonstrate the sensitivity of the ‘diversity trumps ability’ result. This analysis offers a more nuanced picture of how diversity, ability, and expertise may relate. Although models of this sort can indeed be suggestive (...)
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  3.  91
    Rational Social and Political Polarization.Daniel J. Singer, Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Bennett Holman, Jiin Jung, Karen Kovaka, Anika Ranginani & William J. Berger - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2243-2267.
    Public discussions of political and social issues are often characterized by deep and persistent polarization. In social psychology, it’s standard to treat belief polarization as the product of epistemic irrationality. In contrast, we argue that the persistent disagreement that grounds political and social polarization can be produced by epistemically rational agents, when those agents have limited cognitive resources. Using an agent-based model of group deliberation, we show that groups of deliberating agents using coherence-based strategies for managing their limited resources tend (...)
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  4. There is no set of all truths.Patrick Grim - 1984 - Analysis 44 (4):206.
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  5.  38
    The Incomplete Universe.Patrick Grim - 1991 - Cambridge: Mass.: Mit Press.
    The Incomplete Universe includes detailed work on the liar paradox and recent attempts at solution, Kaplan and Montague's paradox of the knower, the Godel ...
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  6.  66
    Scientific Networks on Data Landscapes: Question Difficulty, Epistemic Success, and Convergence.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Steven Fisher, Aaron Bramson, William J. Berger, Christopher Reade, Carissa Flocken & Adam Sales - 2013 - Episteme 10 (4):441-464.
    A scientific community can be modeled as a collection of epistemic agents attempting to answer questions, in part by communicating about their hypotheses and results. We can treat the pathways of scientific communication as a network. When we do, it becomes clear that the interaction between the structure of the network and the nature of the question under investigation affects epistemic desiderata, including accuracy and speed to community consensus. Here we build on previous work, both our own and others’, in (...)
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  7.  10
    Beyond the Limits of Thought.Patrick Grim - 1995 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):719-723.
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  8. How Simulations Fail.Patrick Grim, Robert Rosenberger, Adam Rosenfeld, Brian Anderson & Robb E. Eason - 2013 - Synthese 190 (12):2367-2390.
    ‘The problem with simulations is that they are doomed to succeed.’ So runs a common criticism of simulations—that they can be used to ‘prove’ anything and are thus of little or no scientific value. While this particular objection represents a minority view, especially among those who work with simulations in a scientific context, it raises a difficult question: what standards should we use to differentiate a simulation that fails from one that succeeds? In this paper we build on a structural (...)
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  9. Truth, Omniscience, and Cantorian Arguments: An Exchange.Alvin Plantinga & Patrick Grim - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 71 (3):267-306.
    Suppose there were a set T of all truths, and consider all subsets of T --all members of the power set T. To each element of this power set will correspond a truth. To each set of the power set, for example, a particular truth T1 either will or will not belong as a member. In either case we will have a..
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  10.  15
    Universality and the Liar: An Essay on Truth and the Diagonal Argument.Patrick Grim & Keith Simmons - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (3):467.
  11.  7
    Language, Proof and Logic.Patrick Grim - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (3):377-379.
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  12. What is a Contradiction?Patrick Grim - 2004 - In Graham Priest, Jc Beall & Bradley P. Armour-Garb (eds.), The Law of Non-Contradiction : New Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press. pp. 49--72.
     
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  13. Logic and Limits of Knowledge and Truth.Patrick Grim - 1988 - Noûs 22 (3):341-367.
  14.  76
    On Sets and Worlds: A Reply to Menzel.Patrick Grim - 1986 - Analysis 46 (4):186 - 191.
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  15. The Being That Knew Too Much.Patrick Grim - 2000 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 47 (3):141-154.
  16.  13
    The Philosophical Computer Exploratory Essays in Philosophical Computer Modeling.Patrick Grim, Gary Mar & Paul St Denis - 1998 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    This book is an introduction, entirely by example, to the possibilities of using computer models as tools in phosophical research in general and in philosophical logic in particular. Topics include chaos, fractals, and the semantics of paradox; epistemic dynamics; fractal images of formal systems; the evolution of generosity; real-valued game theory; and computation and undecidability in the spatialized Prisoner's Dilemma.
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  17.  34
    Don’T Forget Forgetting: The Social Epistemic Importance of How We Forget.Daniel J. Singer, Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Bennett Holman, Karen Kovaka, Jiin Jung & William J. Berger - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    We motivate a picture of social epistemology that sees forgetting as subject to epistemic evaluation. Using computer simulations of a simple agent-based model, we show that how agents forget can have as large an impact on group epistemic outcomes as how they share information. But, how we forget, unlike how we form beliefs, isn’t typically taken to be the sort of thing that can be epistemically rational or justified. We consider what we take to be the most promising argument for (...)
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  18. Against Omniscience: The Case From Essential Indexicals.Patrick Grim - 1985 - Noûs 19 (2):151-180.
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  19.  22
    Correction To: Rational Social and Political Polarization.Daniel J. Singer, Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Bennett Holman, Jiin Jung, Karen Kovaka, Anika Ranginani & William J. Berger - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2269-2269.
    In the original publication of the article, the Acknowledgement section was inadvertently not included. The Acknowledgement is given in this Correction.
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  20.  29
    Modeling Prejudice Reduction: Spatialized Game Theory and the Contact Hypothesis.Patrick Grim, Evan Selinger, William Braynen, Robert Rosenberger, Randy Au, Nancy Louie & John Connolly - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (2):95-125.
  21.  86
    ``Truth, Omniscience and Cantorian Arguments: An Exchange&Quot. [REVIEW]Patrick Grim & Alvin Plantinga - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 71 (3):267-306.
  22.  29
    Germs, Genes, and Memes: Function and Fitness Dynamics on Information Networks.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Steven Fisher - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (2):219-243.
    Understanding the dynamics of information is crucial to many areas of research, both inside and outside of philosophy. Using computer simulations of three kinds of information, germs, genes, and memes, we show that the mechanism of information transfer often swamps network structure in terms of its effects on both the dynamics and the fitness of the information. This insight has both obvious and subtle implications for a number of questions in philosophy, including questions about the nature of information, whether there (...)
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  23.  34
    ``Some Neglected Problems of Omniscience&Quot.Patrick Grim - 1983 - American Philosophical Quarterly 20 (3):265-277.
  24.  88
    Is this a swizzle stick which I see before me?Patrick Grim - 1983 - Analysis 43 (4):164.
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  25.  71
    Operators in the Paradox of the Knower.Patrick Grim - 1993 - Synthese 94 (3):409 - 428.
    Predicates are term-to-sentence devices, and operators are sentence-to-sentence devices. What Kaplan and Montague's Paradox of the Knower demonstrates is that necessity and other modalities cannot be treated as predicates, consistent with arithmetic; they must be treated as operators instead. Such is the current wisdom.A number of previous pieces have challenged such a view by showing that a predicative treatment of modalities neednot raise the Paradox of the Knower. This paper attempts to challenge the current wisdom in another way as well: (...)
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  26. Worlds by Supervenience: Some Further Problems.Patrick Grim - 1997 - Analysis 57 (2):146-51.
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  27. Pattern and Chaos: New Images in the Semantics of Paradox.Gary Mar & Patrick Grim - 1991 - Noûs 25 (5):659-693.
  28. Philosophy of Science and the Occult.Patrick Grim - 1982
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  29. Evolution of Communication with a Spatialized Genetic Algorithm.Patrick Grim - manuscript
    We extend previous work by modeling evolution of communication using a spatialized genetic algorithm which recombines strategies purely locally. Here cellular automata are used as a spatialized environment in which individuals gain points by capturing drifting food items and are 'harmed' if they fail to hide from migrating predators. Our individuals are capable of making one of two arbitrary sounds, heard only locally by their immediate neighbors. They can respond to sounds from their neighbors by opening their mouths or by (...)
     
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  30.  97
    On Omniscience and a 'Set of All Truths': A Reply to Bringsjord.Patrick Grim - 1990 - Analysis 50 (4):271 - 276.
  31.  3
    The Incomplete Universe: Totality, Knowledge, and Truth.Aladdin M. Yaqub & Patrick Grim - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (2):339.
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  32.  29
    Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. Language, Proof and Logic. In Collaboration with Gerard Allwein, Dave Barker-Plummer, and Albert Liu. CSLI Publications, Stanford, and Seven Bridges Press, New York and London, 1999, Xii + 587 Pp. - Gerard Allwein, Dave Barker-Plummer, Jon Barwise, John Etchemendy, and Albert Liu. LPL Software Manual. CSLI Publications, Stanford, and Seven Bridges Press, New York and London, 1999, Vii + 52 Pp. + CD-ROM. [REVIEW]Patrick Grim - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (3):377-379.
  33.  12
    The Incomplete Universe: Totality, Knowledge, and Truth.Elliott Mendelson & Patrick Grim - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (176):409.
  34.  88
    On Situations and the World: A Problem for Barwise and Etchemendy.Patrick Grim & Gary Mar - 1989 - Analysis 49 (3):143 - 148.
  35.  17
    Computational Modeling as a Philosophical Methodology.Patrick Grim - 2003 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell. pp. 337--349.
  36. Information and Meaning: Use-Based Models in Arrays of Neural Nets. [REVIEW]Patrick Grim, P. St Denis & T. Kokalis - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):43-66.
    The goal of philosophy of information is to understand what information is, how it operates, and how to put it to work. But unlike ‘information’ in the technical sense of information theory, what we are interested in is meaningful information. To understand the nature and dynamics of information in this sense we have to understand meaning. What we offer here are simple computational models that show emergence of meaning and information transfer in randomized arrays of neural nets. These we take (...)
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  37.  23
    Plantinga's God and Other Monstrosities.Patrick Grim - 1979 - Religious Studies 15 (1):91.
    In God, Freedom, and Evil , Alvin Plantinga presents a new form of the ontological argument for the existence of God. Though he has reservations concerning its evangelical efficacy, Plantinga considers the proof both valid and sound, and presents it as a defence of the rational acceptability of theism.
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  38.  8
    Editorial Introduction to the Topical Issue “Computer Modeling in Philosophy”.Patrick Grim - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):653-656.
  39.  72
    The Undecidability of the Spatialized Prisoner's Dilemma.Patrick Grim - 1997 - Theory and Decision 42 (1):53-80.
    In the spatialized Prisoner's Dilemma, players compete against their immediate neighbors and adopt a neighbor's strategy should it prove locally superior. Fields of strategies evolve in the manner of cellular automata (Nowak and May, 1993; Mar and St. Denis, 1993a,b; Grim 1995, 1996). Often a question arises as to what the eventual outcome of an initial spatial configuration of strategies will be: Will a single strategy prove triumphant in the sense of progressively conquering more and more territory without opposition, or (...)
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  40.  48
    Information and Meaning: Use-Based Models in Arrays of Neural Nets.Patrick Grim, Paul St Denis & Trina Kokalis - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):43-66.
    The goal of philosophy of information is to understand what information is, how it operates, and how to put it to work. But unlike ‘information’ in the technical sense of information theory, what we are interested in is meaningful information. To understand the nature and dynamics of information in this sense we have to understand meaning. What we offer here are simple computational models that show emergence of meaning and information transfer in randomized arrays of neural nets. These we take (...)
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  41. Impossibility Arguments.Patrick Grim - 2007 - In Michael Martin (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 199--214.
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  42.  95
    What Won't Escape Sorites Arguments.Patrick Grim - 1982 - Analysis 42 (1):38 - 43.
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  43.  54
    Truth, Omniscience, and the Knower.Patrick Grim - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (1):9 - 41.
    Let us sum up.The paradox of the Knower poses a direct and formal challenge to the coherence of common notions of knowledge and truth. We've considered a number of ways one might try to meet that challenge: propositional views of truth and knowledge, redundancy or operator views, and appeal to hierarchy of various sorts. Mere appeal to propositions or operators, however, seems to be inadequate to the task of the Knower, at least if unsupplemented by an auxiliary recourse to hierarchy. (...)
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  44.  53
    Plenum Theory.Nicholas Rescher & Patrick Grim - 2008 - Noûs 42 (3):422-439.
  45.  45
    Fractal Images of Formal Systems.Paul St Denis & Patrick Grim - 1997 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 26 (2):181-222.
    Formal systems are standardly envisaged in terms of a grammar specifying well-formed formulae together with a set of axioms and rules. Derivations are ordered lists of formulae each of which is either an axiom or is generated from earlier items on the list by means of the rules of the system; the theorems of a formal system are simply those formulae for which there are derivations. Here we outline a set of alternative and explicitly visual ways of envisaging and analyzing (...)
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  46. The Buried Quantifier: An Account of Vagueness and the Sorites.Patrick Grim - 2005 - Analysis 65 (2):95–104.
  47.  73
    Letters to the Editor.John D. Sommer, Ed Casey, Mary C. Rawlinson, Eva Kittay, Michael A. Simon, Patrick Grim, Clyde Lee Miller, Rita Nolan, Marshall Spector, Don Ihde, Peter Williams, Anthony Weston, Donn Welton, Dick Howard, David A. Dilworth & Tom Foster Digby 3d - 1993 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66 (5):97 - 112.
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  48.  18
    Representation in Models of Epistemic Democracy.Patrick Grim, Aaron Bramson, Daniel J. Singer, William J. Berger, Jiin Jung & Scott E. Page - forthcoming - Episteme:1-21.
    Epistemic justifications for democracy have been offered in terms of two different aspects of decision-making: voting and deliberation, or ‘votes’ and ‘talk.’ The Condorcet Jury Theorem is appealed to as a justification in terms votes, and the Hong-Page “Diversity Trumps Ability” result is appealed to as a justification in terms of deliberation. Both of these, however, are most plausibly construed as models of direct democracy, with full and direct participation across the population. In this paper, we explore how these results (...)
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  49.  5
    The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy Of Science.Patrick Grim & Stephen E. Braude - 1989 - Noûs 23 (1):126.
    A mixed review of Stephen E. Braude, The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science.
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  50.  62
    Evolution of Communication in Perfect and Imperfect Worlds.Patrick Grim - 2000 - World Futures 56 (2):179-197.
    We extend previous work on cooperation to some related questions regarding the evolution of simple forms of communication. The evolution of cooperation within the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has been shown to follow different patterns, with significantly different outcomes, depending on whether the features of the model are classically perfect or stochastically imperfect (Axelrod 1980a, 1980b, 1984, 1985; Axelrod and Hamilton, 1981; Nowak and Sigmund, 1990, 1992; Sigmund 1993). Our results here show that the same holds for communication. Within a simple (...)
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