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Patrick Lee [74]Patrick W. K. Lee [1]
  1. Body-Self Dualism in Contemporary Ethics and Politics.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2007 - New York ;: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Robert P. George.
    Profoundly important ethical and political controversies turn on the question of whether biological life is an essential aspect of a human person, or only an extrinsic instrument. Lee and George argue that human beings are physical, animal organisms - albeit essentially rational and free - and examine the implications of this understanding of human beings for some of the most controversial issues in contemporary ethics and politics. The authors argue that human beings are animal organisms and that their personal identity (...)
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  2. The nature and basis of human dignity.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2008 - In Adam Schulman (ed.), Human Dignity and Bioethics: Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics. [President's Council on Bioethics. pp. 173-193.
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  3. The pro-life argument from substantial identity: A defence.Patrick Lee - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (3):249–263.
    ABSTRACT This article defends the following argument: what makes you and I valuable so that it is wrong to kill us now is what we are (essentially). But we are essentially physical organisms, who, embryology reveals, came to be at conception/fertilisation. I reply to the objection to this argument (as found in Dean Stretton, Judith Thomson, and Jeffrey Reiman), which holds that we came to be at one time, but became valuable as a subject of rights only some time later, (...)
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  4.  42
    The Nature and Basis of Human Dignity.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (2):173-193.
    We argue that all human beings have a special type of dignity which is the basis for (1) the obligation all of us have not to kill them, (2) the obligation to take their well-being into account when we act, and (3) even the obligation to treat them as we would have them treat us, and indeed, that all human beings are equal in fundamental dignity. We give reasons to oppose the position that only some human beings, because of their (...)
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  5. Total Brain Death: A Reply to Alan Shewmon.Patrick Lee & Germain Grisez - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):275-284.
    D. Alan Shewmon has advanced a well-documented challenge to the widely accepted total brain death criterion for death of the human being. We show that Shewmon's argument against this criterion is unsound, though he does refute the standard argument for that criterion. We advance a distinct argument for the total brain death criterion and answer likely objections. Since human beings are rational animals – sentient organisms of a specific type – the loss of the radical capacity for sentience involves a (...)
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  6.  46
    Total Brain Death and the Integration of the Body Required of a Human Being.Patrick Lee - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):300-314.
    I develop and refine an argument for the total brain death criterion of death previously advanced by Germain Grisez and me: A human being is essentially a rational animal, and so must have a radical capacity for rational operations. For rational animals, conscious sensation is a pre-requisite for rational operation. But total brain death results in the loss of the radical capacity for conscious sensation, and so also for rational operations. Hence, total brain death constitutes a substantial change—the ceasing to (...)
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  7. The Ontological Status of Embryos: A Reply to Jason Morris.Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen & Robert P. George - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):483-504.
    In various places we have defended the position that a new human organism, that is, an individual member of the human species, comes to be at fertilization, the union of the spermatozoon and the oocyte. This individual organism, during the ordinary course of embryological development, remains the same individual and does not undergo any further substantial change, unless monozygotic twinning, or some form of chimerism occurs. Recently, in this Journal Jason Morris has challenged our position, claiming that recent findings in (...)
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  8. Aquinas on human ensoulment, abortion and the value of life.John Haldane & Patrick Lee - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (2):255-278.
    Although there is a significant number of books and essays in which Aquinas's thought is examined in some detail, there are still many aspects of his writings that remain unknown to those outside the field of Thomistic studies; or which are generally misunderstood. An example is Aquinas's account of the origins of individual human life. This is the subject of a chapter in a recent book by Robert Pasnau on Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature (Cambridge: CUP, 2001). Since there will (...)
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  9.  78
    A Christian Philosopher's View of Recent Directions in the Abortion Debate.Patrick Lee - 2004 - Christian Bioethics 10 (1):7-32.
    From the standpoint of a Christian philosopher, heeding the teaching and exhortations of Pope John Paul II and previous popes, I examine three directions in which the recent philosophical debate has developed. In the last seven or eight years there has been 1) a renewed focus on the biological issue of when a human individual comes to be, 2) new arguments for the proposition that personhood is a characteristic acquired after birth, and 3) refinements of the early argument of Judith (...)
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  10.  73
    Ontological and ethical implications of direct nuclear reprogramming: Response to Magill and neaves.Maureen L. Condic, Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (1):pp. 33-40.
    The paper by Magill and Neaves in this issue of the Journal attempts to rebut the "natural potency" position, based on recent advances in direct reprogramming of somatic cells to yield "induced pluripotent stem" (iPS) cells. As stated by the authors, the natural potency position holds that because "a human embryo directs its own integral organismic function from its beginning . . . there is a whole, albeit immature, and distinct human organism that is intrinsically valuable with the status of (...)
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  11.  44
    Brain Death, the Soul, and Material Dispositions.Patrick Lee - 2022 - Christian Bioethics 28 (1):41-57.
    I defend the position argued previously by Germain Grisez and me that total brain death is a valid criterion of death on the grounds that a human being is essentially a rational animal, and a brain-dead body lacks the radical capacity for rational actions. I reply to Josef Seifert’s objection that our positions rest on a reductionist view of the human person, and to other objections concerning the inter-relation between the human soul, its powers, and functions of the brain. I (...)
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  12. Substantial identity and the right to life: A rejoinder to Dean Stretton.Patrick Lee - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (2):93-97.
    ABSTRACT In this article, I reply to criticisms of Dean Stretton of the pro‐life argument from substantial identity. When the criterion for the right to life proposed by most proponents of the pro‐life position is rightly understood – being a person, a distinct substance of a rational nature – this position does not lead to the difficulties Stretton claims it does.
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  13.  29
    Conjugal Union, What Marriage Is and Why It Matters.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book defends the conjugal view of marriage. Patrick Lee and Robert P. George argue that marriage is a distinctive type of community: the union of a man and a woman who have committed to sharing their lives on every level of their beings (bodily, emotionally, and spiritually) in the kind of union that would be fulfilled by conceiving and rearing children together. The comprehensive nature of this union, and its intrinsic orientation to procreation as its natural fulfillment, distinguishes marriage (...)
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  14. Evil as Such Is a Privation.Patrick Lee - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):469-488.
    I reply to an article in the ACPA Proceedings of 2001 by John Crosby in which he challenged the position that evil as such is a privation. Each of his arguments attempts to present a counterexample to the privation position. His first argument, claiming that annihilation is evil but not a privation, fails to consider that a privation need not be contemporaneous with the subject suffering the privation. Contrary to his second argument, I explain that the repugnance of pain is (...)
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  15.  49
    Human Beings Are Animals.Patrick Lee - 1997 - International Philosophical Quarterly 37 (3):291-303.
  16.  71
    Personhood, Dignity, Suicide, and Euthanasia.Patrick Lee - 2001 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (3):329-343.
  17. St. Thomas and Avicenna on the Agent Intellect.Patrick Lee - 1981 - The Thomist 45 (1):41.
     
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  18.  54
    The Basis for Being a Subject of Rights: the Natural Law Position.Patrick Lee - 2013 - In John Keown & Robert P. George (eds.), Reason, morality, and law: the philosophy of John Finnis. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. pp. 236.
  19.  67
    Rational Souls and the Beginning of Life (A Reply to Robert Pasnau).John Haldane & Patrick Lee - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (306):532 - 540.
    The present essay takes up matters discussed by Robert Pasnau in his response to our previous criticism of his account of Aquinas's view of when a foetus acquires a human soul. We are mainly concerned with metaphysical and biological issues and argue that the kind of organization required for ensoulment is that sufficient for the full development of a human being, and that this is present from conception. We contend that in his criticisms of our account Pasnau fails clearly to (...)
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  20. The Relationship Between Intellect and Will in Free Choice According to Aquinas and Scotus.Patrick Lee - 1985 - The Thomist 49 (3):321.
     
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  21. The goodness of creation, evil, and Christian teaching.Patrick Lee - 2000 - The Thomist 64 (2):239-269.
     
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  22. Marriage, Procreation, and Same-Sex Unions.Patrick Lee - 2008 - The Monist 91 (3-4):422-438.
  23. Aquinas, the embryo and the ethics of abortion.J. Haldane & Patrick Lee - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (2):255-278.
     
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  24.  47
    Aquinas on Knowledge of Truth and Existence.Patrick Lee - 1986 - New Scholasticism 60 (1):46-71.
  25.  59
    God and New Natural Law Theory.Patrick Lee - 2019 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 19 (2):279-291.
    New natural law theory holds that the basic moral principles are prescriptions to pursue the goods to which our nature orients us. Since God is the author of our nature and intelligence, these moral principles are part of his plan for creation. These principles can be known prior to knowing that God exists and prior to knowing that they are in fact directives from him. Nevertheless, since God’s plan includes our active cooperation, morally good acts cooperate with God’s providence, and (...)
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  26.  15
    Human Dignity and Reproductive Technology.Patrick Guinan, Francis Cardinal George, Jean Bethke Elshtain, John M. Haas, Steven Bozza, Daniel P. Toma, Patrick Lee, William E. May, Richard M. Doerflinger & Gerard V. Bradley (eds.) - 2003 - Upa.
    The March 2002 symposium Human Dignity and Reproductive Technology brought together philosophers, theologians, scientists, lawyers, and scholars from across the United States. The essays of this book are the contributions of the symposium's participants.
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  27.  6
    Direct and Indirect Abortion.Patrick Lee - 1998 - Ethics and Medics 23 (2):1-2.
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  28. Human dignity and natural law.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2022 - In Tom P. S. Angier, Iain T. Benson & Mark Retter (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of natural law and human rights. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
     
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  29. Human dignity and natural law.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2022 - In Tom P. S. Angier, Iain T. Benson & Mark Retter (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of natural law and human rights. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
     
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  30.  28
    Language About God and the Theory of Analogy.Patrick Lee - 1984 - New Scholasticism 58 (1):40-66.
  31. Marriage and Acts Reproductive in Kind.Patrick Lee - 2005 - Vera Lex 6 (1/2):163-182.
  32.  14
    Mark F. Johnson.Patrick Lee - 1989 - Philosophy 64 (248).
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  33.  40
    Physician-Assisted Suicide Is.Patrick Lee - 2014 - In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary debates in bioethics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 25--213.
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  34.  63
    Reasons and Religious Belief.Patrick Lee - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (1):19-34.
    The problem addressed is: whether religious belief, defined here as accepting that God has revealed and that what he has revealed is true, could ever be rational. That is, does the idea of religious belief imply that it is irrational? The author attempts to resolve this problem in favor of religious belief, and suggests how reasons can legitimately function in religious belief. The evidentialist objection to religion is answered, and it is proposed that reasons might function, not to prove that (...)
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  35.  20
    Reply to Mark Wauck.Patrick Lee - 1990 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 64 (3):411-413.
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  36.  15
    The not-so-tell-tale heart.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (3):8-9.
  37.  11
    The Role and Responsibility of the Moral Philosopher.Patrick Lee - 1982 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 56:70-78.
  38.  19
    To the Editor.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):8-9.
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  39.  81
    Is Thomas’s Natural Law Theory Naturalist?Patrick Lee - 1997 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 71 (4):567-587.
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  40.  11
    Bioethics: A Culture War.: Nicholas C. Lund-Molfese, Michael Kelly, Francis Cardinal George, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Patrick Lee, Peter Kreeft, Charles E. Rice & Gerard V. Bradley (eds.) - 2004 - Upa.
    The purpose of this valuable book is to consider recent cultural trends in bioethics from a Catholic perspective. Bioethics is intended for a lay audience interested in understanding bioethical issues from a Catholic perspective.
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  41.  49
    Aquinas and Scotus on Liberty and Natural Law.Patrick Lee - 1982 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 56:70.
  42.  18
    Catholic Bioethics and the Gift of Human Life, second edition by William E. May.Patrick Lee - 2009 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 9 (2):392-394.
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  43.  3
    Digging Droughts: Maasai and Palaeoanthropological Knowledge, Subsistence, and Collaboration in Oldupai Gorge, Tanzania.Patrick Lee - unknown
    Tanzania’s Oldupai Gorge is a flagship human origins research destination, yet less recognised is that the Maasai inhabit the region. This thesis uses actor-network-theory to ethnographically compare palaeoanthropological and Maasai epistemology and ontology in Oldupai, and to understand why collaboration between the groups has been sporadic. Researchers and locals constructed knowledge in equally logical forms, combining established facts and artefacts with novel data to produce new facts and artefacts. Instead of fundamental epistemic disparities, the content of each group’s knowledge differed, (...)
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  44.  28
    Dependent Rational Animals: Why Human Beings Need the Virtues by Alasdair C. MacIntyre.Patrick Lee - 2000 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 45 (1):133-160.
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  45.  20
    Introduction to Catholic Bioethics.Patrick Lee - 2015 - Quaestiones Disputatae 5 (2):4-9.
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  46. Lee's Rejoinder to Mercier's Reply.Patrick Lee - 2008 - The Monist 91 (3-4):442-445.
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  47.  16
    Presentation of the Aquinas Medal.Patrick Lee - 2004 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 78:11-12.
  48.  7
    Presentation of the Aquinas Medal.Patrick Lee - 2004 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 78:11-12.
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  49.  18
    Performing Politics and the Limits of Language.Patrick Lee - 1998 - Theory and Event 2 (1).
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  50.  21
    Reovirus protein σ1: From cell attachment to protein oligomerization and folding mechanisms.Patrick W. K. Lee & Gustavo Leone - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (3):199-206.
    The reovirus cell attachment protein σ1 is a lollipopshaped structure with the fibrous tail anchored to the virion. Since it interacts with the cell receptor, σ1 is a major determinant of reovirus infectivity and tissue tropism. Studies on its structure‐function relationships have been facilitated by the fact that protein σ1 produced in any expression system is capable of binding to cell receptors. The use of site‐specific and deletion mutants has led to the identification and characterization of its virion anchorage and (...)
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